List of musical instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number: 322.12

This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 322.12 under that system. These instruments may be known as angular harps.

3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
32: Instruments in which the resonator and string bearer are physically united and can not be separated without destroying the instrument
322: Instrument whose strings are at right angles to the sound table, such that a line between the lower tips of the strings would point at the neck (harps)
322.1: Instrument without a pillar (open harps)
322.12: Instrument has a neck that sharply angles away from the resonator (angular harps)

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.


Instrument Tradition Hornbostel–Sachs classification Description
Assyrian harp
Assyrian {{{Number}}} Oldest-documented angular harp[1]
Egypt 322.12 Used in widely varying forms, though originally semi-circular and with five to seven strings, number of strings increased over time, while the size decreased[2][3]
Persian 322.12 Angular harp[2]
Ancient Greek 322.12 Angular harp[2]



  1. Knight, pg. 9, Depictions of the Assyrian harp date to the second millennium BC.
  2. 1 2 3 Dani et al., pg. 588
  3. Gilman, Daniel Coit, Harry Thurston Peck and Frank Moore Colby (Eds.), eds. (1906). "Egyptian Music". The New International Encyclopedia. Dodd, Mead & Company. p. 712. Although the harp always remained a national instrument, its popularity was later eclipsed by the lyre.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 8/10/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.