List of musical instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number: 322.12
This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 322.12 under that system. These instruments may be known as angular harps.
- 3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
- 32: Instruments in which the resonator and string bearer are physically united and can not be separated without destroying the instrument
- 322: Instrument whose strings are at right angles to the sound table, such that a line between the lower tips of the strings would point at the neck (harps)
- 322.1: Instrument without a pillar (open harps)
- 322.12: Instrument has a neck that sharply angles away from the resonator (angular harps)
These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.
- 4: Hammers or beaters
- 5: Bare hands and fingers
- 6: Plectrum
- 7: Bowing
- 71: Using a bow
- 72: Using a wheel
- 73: Using a ribbon
- 8: Keyboard
- 9: Using a mechanical drive
||Oldest-documented angular harp
||Used in widely varying forms, though originally semi-circular and with five to seven strings, number of strings increased over time, while the size decreased
- Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson; János Harmatta; Boris Abramovich Litvinovskiĭ; Clifford Edmund Bosworth (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. UNESCO. Motilal Banarsidass Publishing. ISBN 81-208-1596-3.
- Knight, Roderick (Winter 1985). Society for Ethnomusicology. "The Harp in India Today". Ethnomusicology. University of Illinois Press. 29 (1): 9–28. doi:10.2307/852322. JSTOR 852322.
- von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Curt Sachs (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal. The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 14. 14: 3–29. doi:10.2307/842168. JSTOR 842168.
- ↑ Knight, pg. 9, Depictions of the Assyrian harp date to the second millennium BC.
- 1 2 3 Dani et al., pg. 588
- ↑ Gilman, Daniel Coit, Harry Thurston Peck and Frank Moore Colby (Eds.), eds. (1906). "Egyptian Music". The New International Encyclopedia. Dodd, Mead & Company. p. 712.
Although the harp always remained a national instrument, its popularity was later eclipsed by the lyre.