|Highly Urbanized City|
|City of Zamboanga|
Clockwise from top: Zamboanga City Hall, Great Santa Cruz Island, Paseo del Mar, Zamboanga City view, Metropolitan Cathedral of Immaculate Conception, Santa Barbara Mosque
|Nickname(s): Asia's Latin City, City of Flowers, Sardines Capital of the Philippines|
|Motto: "Build Back Better Zamboanga"|
Map with Zamboanga City highlighted
Location within the Philippines
|Coordinates: 6°55′N 122°05′E / 6.92°N 122.08°ECoordinates: 6°55′N 122°05′E / 6.92°N 122.08°E|
|Region||Zamboanga Peninsula (Region IX)|
|Province||Zamboanga del Sur (geographically only)|
|Established||June 23, 1635|
|Incorporated (city)||October 12, 1936|
|Established (city)||February 26, 1937|
Zamboangueño Chavacano |
|• Mayor||Beng Climaco (LP)|
|• Vice Mayor||César Iturralde (LDP)|
|• City Council|
|• Land||1,483.38 km2 (572.74 sq mi)|
|Area rank||3rd largest by land area|
|Elevation||16.0 m (52.5 ft)|
|Population (2015 census)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|Dialing code||+63 (0)62|
Zamboanga City (Chavacano: Ciudad de Zamboanga and Filipino: Lungsod ng Zamboanga) is a highly urbanized city located in Mindanao, Philippines. It has a population of 861,799 people as of the 2015 census. Zamboanga City is the 6th most populous and 3rd largest city by land area in the Philippines. It is the commercial and industrial center of the Zamboanga Peninsula Region. Zamboanga City is an independent city, chartered and Zamboanga became a highly urbanized city on November 22, 1983, and not part of or was never part in any of the three provinces in Zamboanga Peninsula.
Zamboanga City used to be known as Samboangan in historical records. It was founded by the Subanen people during the pre-Hispanic times. After independence from Spain in May 1899, Zamboanga became the Republic of Zamboanga with Chavacano as its official language and Spanish as its co-official language. After American intervention, the republic was incorporated into the Philippines and became the capital of the Moro Province, now Mindanao, from 1903 to 1913. On October 12, 1936, Zamboanga City became a chartered city under Commonwealth Act No. 39. It was inaugurated on February 26, 1937, which was declared a local holiday.
Known for its Hispanic influenced culture, the city bears the nickname "Asia's Latin City."
Zamboanga City was founded in the late 12th or early 13th century as a settlement by the Subanen people. Zamboanga peninsula was also the homelands of the ancestors of the Yakan, the Balanguingui, and other closely related Sama-Bajau peoples.
During the 13th century, the Tausūg people started migrating to Zamboanga and the Sulu archipelago from their homelands in northeastern Mindanao. They became the dominant ethnic group after they were Islamized in the 14th century and established the Sultanate of Sulu in the 15th century. A majority of the Yakan, the Balanguingui, and the Sama-Bajau were also Islamized, though most of the Subanen remained animist (with the exception of the Kolibugan subgroup in southwestern Zamboanga).
The name for the city (and later the peninsula), "Zamboanga", is the Hispanicized spelling of the Sinama term for "mooring place" - samboangan (also spelled sambuangan; and in Subanen, sembwangan), from the root word samboang ("mooring pole"). The name "Samboangan" is well-attested in Spanish, British, French, German, and American historical records from as far back as the 17th century.
This is commonly contested by folk etymologies which instead attribute the name to the Indonesian word jambangan (claimed to mean "place of flowers", but actually means "pot" or "bowl"), usually with claims that all ethnic groups in Zamboanga were "Malays". However, this name has never been attested in any historical records prior to the 1960s.
Spanish explorers arrived in the Philippine archipelago in 1521. In 1569 Zamboanga was chosen as the site of the Spanish settlement and garrison on La Caldera (now called Barrio Recodo). Zamboanga City was one of the main strongholds in Mindanao, supporting colonizing efforts in the south of the island and making way for Christian settlements. It also served as a military outpost, protecting the island against foreign invaders and Moro pirates.
In 1599, the Zamboanga fort was closed and transferred to Cebú due to great concerns about attack by the English on that island, which did not occur. After having abandoned the city, the Spaniards as well as some Latin-American mercenaries from Peru and Mexico, joined forces with troops from Pampanga and Visayan soldiers (From Bohol, Cebu and Iloilo) and reached the shore of Zamboanga to bring peace to the island against Moro pirates.
Zamboanga became the main headquarters of the Spaniards on June 23, 1635 upon approval of King Philip IV of Spain, and the Spanish officially founded the city. Thousands of Spanish troops headed by a governor general from Spain took the approval to build the first Zamboanga fortress (now called Fort Pilar) in Zamboanga to forestall enemies in Mindanao like Moro pirates and other foreign invaders. The Zamboanga fortress became the main focus of a number of battles between Moros and Spaniards while the Spanish ruled the region from 16th to 18th centuries. Spain was forced to abandon Zamboanga temporarily and withdraw its soldiers to Manila in 1662 after the Chinese under Koxinga threatened to invade the Spanish Philippines.
While the region was already dominated by Catholicism, Muslims kept up a protracted struggle against the ruling Spaniards in the country into the 18th century. In January 1798 a British naval squadron conducted a Raid on Zamboanga but was driven off by the city's defensive fortifications.In 1831, the custom house in Zamboanga was established as a port, and it became the main port for direct communication, trading some goods and other services to most of Europe, Southeast Asia and Latin America. The Americans arrived in the Philippines, headed by General Weyler with thousands of troops to defeat the Spaniards who ruled it more than three centuries. The Spanish government sent more than 80,000 Spanish troops to the Philippines. The Spanish government completely and peacefully surrendered the islands to the United States in the 1890s.
Early 20th century
Before the end of the 19th century, the Republic of Zamboanga was established during the American period in the Philippines from May 18, 1899 until March 1903. The first president of the Republic of Zamboanga was General Vicente Álvarez, who was succeeded by Isidoro Midel and Mariano Arquiza. Upon the firm establishment of American colonization and dissolution of the Republic in 1903, Zamboanga City, as a municipality, was placed under the Moro Province, a semi-military government consisting of five districts: Zamboanga, Cotabato, Davao, Lanao and Sulu. During this period, Zamboanga hosted a number of American regional governors, including General John J. Pershing, who was military commander/governor of the Moro Province from 1909 to 1914.
In 1920, Zamboanga City ceased to be Mindanao's capital city when the department was divided into provinces in which the city became under the large province of Zamboanga. It encompasses the present-day Zamboanga Peninsula with the inclusion of the whole province of Basilan.
Soon after the establishment of the commonwealth, it established itself the center of commerce, trade, and government of Mindanao Island as the capital of the Moro Province.
The 1936 City Charter and the commonwealth
When the Commonwealth government was established in 1935, calls to convert Zamboanga City into a city increased. On September 23, 1936, through Assemblyman Juan Alano, the National Assembly of the Philippines passed Commonwealth Act No. 39 making Zamboanga a chartered city consisting of "the present territorial jurisdiction of the municipality of Zamboanga, the municipality of Bolong, the municipal district of Taluksangay, the whole island of Basilan and the adjacent islands, i.e., the municipality of Isabela, the municipal district of Lamitan, and the municipal district of Maluso." It was later signed by President Manuel Quezon in October 12, 1936. The charter made Zamboanga City as the largest city in the world in terms of land area. During these times, Zamboanga was the leading commercial and industrial city of Mindanao.
Before World War II, Pettit Barracks, a part of the U.S. Army's 43d Infantry Regiment (PS), was stationed there.
World War II
When the Japanese invaded the Philippines, they were headed by Vice Admiral Rokuzo Sugiyama, accompanied by Rear Admiral Naosaburo Irifune. The Japanese landed at Zamboanga City on March 2, 1942.
The Japanese government in the city was overthrown by American and Filipino forces following a fierce battle on March 10–12, 1945. The rebuilt general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary was stationed in Zamboanga City from March 1945 to June 1946 during the military operations in Mindanao and Sulu against the Japanese.
Post-World War II
After the war, new problems arose especially for the citizens of the island of Basilan. The people there found it difficult to appear in courts, pay their taxes, seek help from the mayor and other officials. Going from Basilan to the mainland required three or more hours of travel. To fix the problem, Representative Juan Alano filed a bill in Congress to separate Basilan from Zamboanga City. So the island of Basilan was proclaimed a separate city through Republic Act No. 288 on July 16, 1948.
In April 7, 1953 by virtue of Republic Act No. 840.
In April 29, 1955, a special law changed the landscape of the city government when Republic Act No. 1210 amended the City Charter that made elective the position of city mayor and the creation of an elective vice-mayor and eight (8) elective city councilors. The vice-mayor is the presiding-officer of the City Council. In November 1955, Liberal Party candidate Cesar Climaco with his running-mate, Tomas Ferrer won the first local elections. They were inducted into office on January 1, 1956 as determined by the Revised Election Code.
Martial law years
On September 21, 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos signed Proclamation No. 1081 placing the Philippines under martial law. Zamboanga City's local government came under presidential control for the first time since 1955. Marcos extended Enriquez's term when his tenure was about to end in 1975.
In November 14, 1975, President Marcos reorganized the local government and the city council was replaced by a Sangguniang Panglungsod with the mayor as its new presiding officer and members including the vice-mayor, the chairman of the Katipunan ng mga Kabataang Barangay, the president of the Association of Barangay Captains, and sectoral representatives of agriculture, business and labor.
When Mayor Enriquez resigned and bid for the newly created Interim Batasang Pambansa in 1978, Vice-Mayor Jose Vicente Atilano II was appointed by President Marcos to replace him.
Climaco's return (1980–1984)
In 1980, Cesar Climaco staged his political comeback when he was elected again to the mayoral post under his new party, the Concerned Citizen's Aggregation. He had gone into exile to the United States in protest against Marcos' declaration of Martial Law.
In 1984, Climaco was elected a member of the Regular Batasang Pambansa. Climaco however declined to assume his seat until he had completed his six-year term as mayor in his consistent protest against Marcos.
On November 19, 2001, the Cabatangan Government Complex in Barangay Cabatangan, the seat of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, was raided by former MNLF fighters in protest of Misuari's ouster as Governor of the autonomous region in which they took residents hostage. The complex also houses the different regional government offices such as the Commission on Audit, Population Commission, Civil Service Commission, Area Vocational Rehabilitation Center, DECS Training Center and the Zamboanga Arturo Eustaquio College Department of Criminology. An air strike by the military began on November 27 in which the hostages were later released after the government agreed to escort the rebels to a safe zone in Panubigan where they were allowed to go free.
Mayor Erico Basilio Fabian decided to run for the congressional seat in the 2004 local elections in turn, incumbent Celso Lobregat ran for the mayorship in which he won pitting against businessman Lepeng Wee.
Lobregat pursued grand infrastructure projects including the rehabilitation of Plaza Pershing and Pasonanca Park in which he added Jardin Maria Clara in the memory of his mother, construction of Paseo Del Mar and the erection of uniformed Barangay halls around the city.
He was reelected twice in 2007 and 2010. In 2007, the city was divided into two legislative districts pursuant to Republic Act No. 9269. The city therefore is entitled to two representatives to the national congress.
District I Representative Maria Isabelle Climaco Salazar, niece of former Mayor Cesar Climaco, was elected as the second woman mayor of the city during the 2013 local elections.
Zamboanga City crisis
On September 9, 2013, a faction of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) under the leadership of Nur Misuari seized hostages in Zamboanga City and attempted to raise the flag of the self-proclaimed Bangsamoro Republik, a state which declared its independence earlier in August, in Talipao, Sulu. This armed incursion has been met by the Armed Forces of the Philippines, which seeks to free the hostages and expel the MNLF from Zamboanga City. The standoff degenerated into urban warfare, and brought parts of the city under standstill for days.
Mayor Climaco-Salazar and her administration are relocating the internal displaced persons (IDPs) affected by the crisis to transitory sites and later, permanent housings in various places around Zamboanga City. Her rehabilitation plan, "Zamboanga City Roadmap to Recovery and Rehabilitation (Z3R)", envisions building back a better Zamboanga City and rehabilitating the areas affected by the crisis.
The southwest and eastern sides of Zamboanga City are bounded by irregular coastlines with generally rocky terrain and occasional stretches of sandy or gravelly beaches. The coastal profile usually descends abruptly towards the sea. Where rivers enter the sea, bays have formed, and the surrounding area has filled up with alluvial soils, producing small to large coastal plains.
The overall topography of the city could be described as rolling to very steep. There are some flat lands, mostly narrow strips along the east coast. The urban center is mostly flat with a gentle slope to the interior, ranging from 0 to 3%. The highest registered elevation is 1,200 metres. In terms of slope, a large portion of Zamboanga City, about 38,000 hectares, have slopes ranging from 18 to 30%. Another 26,000 hectares have been described as having slopes pf less than 3% while about 37% of the area or a total of 52,000 hectares have slopes ranging from 30% to more than 50%.
The territorial jurisdiction of the city includes the islands of big and small Sta. Cruz, Tictabon, Sacol, Manalipa, Tumalutap, Vitali, as well as other numerous islands. The total land area of the city is recorded to be 142,099.99 hectares or 1,420.99 kilometers. This does not include the area of about 25 other islands within the territorial jurisdiction of the city — which have an aggregate area of 6,248.5 hectares as verified by the Office of the City Engineer. Putting these all together, the city’s new total land area would come to 148,338.49 hectares.
Zamboanga City features a tropical wet and dry climate under the Köppen climate classification.
|Climate data for Zamboanga, Philippines|
|Average high °C (°F)|| 31.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)|| 27.2
|Average low °C (°F)|| 22.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)|| 32.4
|Source: Hong Kong Observatory|
The city of Zamboanga is politically subdivided into 98 barangays or barrios. These are grouped into two congressional districts, with 38 barangays or barrios in the West Coast and 60 barangays or barrios in the East Coast.
|Political Boundaries and Population 2010 - 2015|
District I (West Coast)
- Sta. Maria
- Camino Nuevo
- Campo Islam
- Dulian Pasonanca
- La Paz
- Lower Calarian
- Rio Hondo
- San Jose Cawa Cawa
- San Jose Gusu
- San Ramon
- San Roque
- Sta. Barbara
- Sta. Cruz (Island Barangay)
- Sta. Maria
- Sto. Niño
- Zone I
- Zone II
- Zone III
- Zone IV
District II (East Coast)
- Arena Blanco
- Busay (Island Barangay)
- Dulian Bunguiao
- Landang Gua (Island Barangay)
- Landang Laum (Island Barangay)
- Latuan Curuan
- Pangapuyan (Island Barangay)
- Pasilmanta (Island Barangay)
- Sibulao Curuan
- Sta. Catalina
- Tictabon (Island Barangay)
- Tumalutab (Island Barangay)
|Population census of Zamboanga City|
|Source: National Statistics Office|
Zamboanga City is the 6th most populous in the Philippines after Cebu City and the 2nd most populous in Mindanao after Davao City.The population of Zamboanga City had an increase of 54,670 persons over the five years between the 2010 and 2015 census. The annual population growth rate in this period was 1.26%, down from 2.98% over the previous 10 years (2000–2010).
Among the 98 barangays in this City of Zamboanga, Talon-Talon was the most populous with a 4.1 percent share of this city’s population, followed by Mampang (4.0%), Tumaga (3.6%), Tetuán (3.5%), Calarian (3.4%), San Roque and Pasonanca (both with 3.2%).
According to statistics compiled by the Philippine government, the most dominant religion in Zamboanga City is Christianity at 62 percent followed by Islam at 35 percent; small numbers follows Buddhism, Paganism, Animism, Atheism and Agnosticism.
The titular patroneses is Nuestra Señora La Virgen del Pilar de Zaragoza, and its secondary patron is St. Pius X, Pope.
Roman Catholicism dominates amongst Christians with minorities adhering to Protestantism , Iglesia Ni Cristo, Jesus Miracle Crusade, Orthodox Christianity, Seventh-day Adventist and many more.
The city of Zamboanga contains the first Catholic diocese in Mindanao, today's Archdiocese of Zamboanga City. The two Catholic parishes named below serve downtown Zamboanga City faithful. There are several other Catholic parishes all throughout Zamboanga City. Most of the Catholics are of the Zamboangueño ethnicity with sizable numbers of other ethnicities who are either Tausug, Sama, Cebuano, Tagalog or Subanon.
The Metropolitan Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception is a church located in Zamboanga City, Philippines. It is the seat of the Archdiocese of Zamboanga. The first church was located at the front of Plaza Pershing, where the present Universidad de Zamboanga stands. The church was designated a cathedral in 1910 when the diocese of Zamboanga City was created. In 1943, the cathedral was one of the edifices bombarded by Japanese soldiers during World War II. In 1956, the cathedral was relocated beside Ateneo de Zamboanga University, formerly known as the Jardin de Chino.
Metropolitan Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception - (Founded: 1816) Archbishop Romulo Valles, DD - Parish Priest Fr. Sulficio Soliva Fr. Adriano Ruiz Fr. Francis Edwin Jacinto Msgr. Joseph Kung St. Joseph (Chinese) Parish - (Founded: 1954) Msgr. David Alonzo - Parish Priest Fr. Joel Malcampo - Parochial Vicar
With the inception of the American era, Protestant sects were introduced. Christian and Missionary Alliance, Seventh-day Adventist, Church of Latter day Saints, and United Church of Christ in the Philippines are included. Most Protestants are Migrants who are mostly Cebuano Ethnic, Tagalog Ethnic, Ilocano Ethnic, et al.
Iglesia Ni Cristo
Several members of Iglesia ni Cristo live in Zamboanga City and have created several locales.
Like the Christians, the Muslims have also been an integral part of Zamboanga City after Pagans and Animists. It is estimated that approximately 35% of the people in Zamboanga City are Sunni, traditional and folk Muslims mostly belong to the Sama and Badjao. Some barangays of Zamboanga City today are now populated by 100% Muslims due to migration from people of Sulu who are mostly Tausug. These barangays with Muslim majority population, do not celebrate Fiestas. Instead, they celebrate Hari Raya (the eid celebration). However, Christians in the area do celebrate their Barrio's Patron Saint. Most of the Muslims are Sama and Migrant Tausug of Sulu, and of other ethnicities including Tagalog, Zamboangueño, Yakan, and Badjao people.
Pagans and Animists
Prior to arrival of foreign religions both Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity and Islam; Paganism and Animism were the first to set foot in the Kingdom of Jambangan (present-day: City of Zamboanga, Zamboanga Sibugay Province, Sirawai, Sibuco and Siocon) or as per the actual the territory of the Kingdom of Jambangan's Punta Gorda to Punta Flecha.
- Metropolitan Cathedral of Immaculate Conception
- Episcopal Church in the Philippines
- Built by Hadji Abdullah Maas Nuno in 1885. It is the oldest mosque in Western Mindanao.
- Hock Chuan Avalo Chinese Temple in Tetuan
Zamboangueño is the major ethnic group or ethno-linguistic nation in the Independent City of Zamboanga and were just one of the two offsprings with the Kalibugan ethnic which evolved from the Subanon Ethnic. The Kalibugan Ethnic were once Subanon who were Islamized, while Zamboangueño Ethnic were also once Subanon who were Christianized and Hispanized. Although some of them have migrated to other areas in the southwestern mindanao particularly in Basilan and parts of Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga Sibugay and even parts of Sulu, Tawi-Tawi and Sabah. Minor ethnic groups indigenous to Zamboanga city are the Tausug, Subanon and Sama and other migrant minor ethnic groups are the Yakan and Badjao.
The major languages spoken in the city are Filipino, English, and Chinese. The imprint of the Castilian heritage is found in Chabacano, the native dialect which is 70% Spanish and the remaining 30% an amalgam of other native dialects.
Chavacano, a Spanish-based creole language, originated in Zamboanga City in the seventeenth century and is the native language of inhibitants living around Zamboanga City, Basilan and in the Filipino diaspora. English, Tagalog, Tausug, Cebuano and Hiligaynon are also spoken, mostly by migrants to the city. Subanon is mainly spoken by Subanons living in the city.
Zamboanga City is called the Sardines Capital of the Philippines, because 9 out of 12 sardines companies in the country are operating in the city. The canning factories are converged in the west coast of Zamboanga. Sardine fishing and processing account for about 70 percent of the city's economy. Situated at the western tip of the Mindanao mainland, Zamboanga City is a natural docking point for vessels traversing the rich fishing grounds of the Zamboanga peninsula and the Sulu archipelago.
Canned sardine firms in this city that have upgraded their production to conform to international food safety and quality standards are looking to enter new markets in Russia and other European countries. In 2008, Zamboanga City exported 13,000 tonnes of canned sardines, worth approximately $16 million.
Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority
The Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority and Freeport (Zamboecozone) also known as Zamboanga Freeport Authority (ZFA), was created by virtue of the Republic Acts of the Philippines 7903 of the Philippines Constitution in the year 1995. It was authored by the then congresswoman and late mayor of the city of Zamboanga, María Clara Lobregat.
The Special Economic Zone was enacted into law on February 23, 1995 and made operational a year later with the appointment of a chairman and administrator and the members of the Board by former President Fidel V. Ramos. It is located about 23 km from the city proper. It is one of the three current Economic Freeport Zones outside Luzon.
Seaweed production plants in Zamboanga City, along with Cebu and Southern Luzon, produce most of the world's supply of carrageenan. Seventy-five percent of the country's eucheuma and kappaphycus seaweed is produced mostly in the Zamboanga peninsula and the Sulu archipelago.
The Department of Tourism has selected Zamboanga City as a flagship tourism destination in Zamboanga Peninsula. Domestic and foreign tourist arrivals increased 8 percent to 439,160 in 2005, according to data from the regional tourism office. The same report notes that Filipinos accounted for 80 percent of the tourist arrivals. Moreover, 50 percent of those tourists visited Zamboanga City before.
Parks, landmarks and other sites
Numerous landmarks, tourist spots and parks in Zamboanga City include:
- Fort Pilar
- Great Santa Cruz Island
- Pasonanca Park
- Pasonanca Natural Park
- Paseo del Mar
- Pettit Barracks
- Climaco Freedom Park
- Plaza Pershing
- Plaza del Pilar.
- Merloquet Falls
- Once Islas (11 Islands)
- Mount Pulong Bato (a monolith rock)
Festivals and events
The Día de Zamboanga (Day of Zamboanga City) is celebrated every February 26, the day when Zamboanga was declared as a chartered city under the Commonwealth Government in 1937. The Hermosa Festival, a month-long festival held every October, is celebrated in honor of the miraculous image of Our Lady of the Pillar, the patroness of Zamboanga City.
Zamboanga City is the third oldest city in the Philippines, with a mayor-council form of government.
The city government of Zamboanga was in a commission form shortly between 1912 and 1914 with an appointed mayor. It then was replaced by a municipal form of government headed by a municipal mayor assisted by a municipal vice-president.
When the City Charter of Zamboanga was signed on October 12, 1936, the municipal government was converted into a city one headed by a mayor appointed by the President of the Philippine Commonwealth.
With the passage of Republic Act No. 1210 on April 29, 1955, the position of mayor became elective and the post of vice-mayor was created.
Representation in Congress
The city received its own representation for the Philippine Congress in 1984 when the Regular Batasang Pambansa was convened. Previously, Zamboanga City was part of the representation of the Zamboanga Province from 1935 to 1953, of Zamboanga del Sur from 1953 to 1972 and of Region IX from 1978 to 1984.
The former lone congressional district was further divided into two separate districts: the West Coast District from the City Proper to Barangay Limpapa represented by incumbent Congressman Celso Lobregat, while in the East Coast District from Barangay Tetuán to Barangay Licomo is headed by incumbent Congresswoman Lilia Macrohon-Nuño.
The city of Zamboanga is composed of more than 774,407 people since 2007. Under the Republic Act No. 9269, Zamboanga City is qualified to have a third district representative in the House of Representatives.
The first legislative body of Zamboanga City was established in 1914 composed of councilors who represented the different districts of barrios of then-municipality of Zamboanga.
When the City Charter of Zamboanga was signed on October 12, 1936, the municipal council was replaced by the City Council presided by the mayor and consisted of five councilors, the city treasurer and the city engineer. All members are appointed by the President of the Philippine Commonwealth.
With the passage of Republic Act No. 1210 on April 29, 1955, the position of mayor became elective and the post of vice-mayor was created. The Council also became elective and its membership was increased to eight presided by the vice-mayor.
During the Marcos regime, the city council was renamed to Sangguniang Panglungsod and its membership shuffled. The mayor became the presiding-officer while the vice-mayor became a regular member. Other representatives such as the agriculture, business and labor sectoral representatives; chairman of the Kabataan Barangay Federation and the president of the Association of Barangay Captains was added to the council. All members of the council except for the mayor and the vice-mayor are all appointed by the President
After Marcos was deposed, a new Local Government Code was enacted in 1991 and the mayor was restored to the executive branch. The city council organization existed since.
The current local Sangguniang Panglungsod is composed of 19 members:
- the Vice-Mayor as its presiding officer elected citywide;
- 8 councilors elected from the two legislative districts;
- Chairman of the Liga ng mga Barangay of the city as ex officio member; and
- President of the Federasyon ng Federasyon ng Sangguniang Kabataan of the City as ex officio member.
House Bill 1455 entitled an "An Act Amending Sections 14 (J) and 29 of Batas Pambansa Blg. 129, Otherwise Known as The Judiciary Reorganization Act of 1980", principally authored by Representative Climaco calls for the creation of four additional Regional Trial Court branches in the Province of Zamboanga del Sur, and the Cities of Pagadian and Zamboanga City with an overall total of nineteen branches.
Out of the 19 branches, ten seats shall be for Zamboanga City, and the remaining seats for Pagadian City, Molave, San Miguel, Ipil, and Aurora.
Armed forces and law enforcement
Zamboanga City hosts one of the largest number of military, police and coast guard bases in the country. The Edwin Andrews Air Base, which hosts the Air Force unit in the city is located at the Zamboanga International Airport complex. The Camp General Basilio Navarro, the main operating base of the Western Mindanao Command, hosts the main headquarters of Armed Forces of the Philippines in Western Mindanao.
The Western Mindanao Command, known officially as the WestMinCom, is one the Armed Forces of the Philippines' Wide Support Commands Combating Terrorism and Insurgency in Mindanao.
Camp General Basilio Navarro serves as the main operating base of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) for the Southwest Philippines, and is the Headquarters of the Western Mindanao Command (WESTMINCOM).
The Coast Guard District South Western Mindanao is located at Upper Calarian while Coast Guard Station Zamboanga City is located at Port Area Zamboanga City. Aside from performing law enfocement functions, the coast guard has been very active in rendering search and rescue operations to maritime incidents and floodings in low lying barangays of the city. Moreover, environmental protection activities were being spearheaded by the coast guard.
The Zamboanga International Airport has a 2,610-metre primary runway and can serve international flights and bigger planes such as the C-17 Globemaster III, Antonov An-124, Airbus A330 and Boeing 747. The government has already earmarked more than 240 million pesos to complete the rehabilitation of the existing facilities of the airport. The airport was ranked the tenth busiest airport in the Philippines in 2008.
The primary modes of transportation within the city are serviced by jeepneys, tricycles, and habal-habal. Bicycles with sidecars (locally known as sikad) are also available for short-distanced trips. There are also taxi services operating within the city. Regular and air-conditioned buses of RTMI and Ceres Liner serve the long-haul routes from Zamboanga City to other areas in Mindanao and in the Visayas. Other smaller bus companies ply the routes to neighboring municipalities in the Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga Sibugay areas.
Zamboanga City has nineteen seaports and wharves, twelve of them are privately owned and the rest are owned by the government. This includes some ports of Basilan which are registered as a part of Zamboanga City port management. The biggest and most modern seaport is the government-operated main port in Zamboanga City, which can accommodate 20 ships at any given time. There are 25 shipping companies whose vessels regularly dock at the port of Zamboanga. The city also has fastcraft services to Sandakan, Malaysia, and one shipping cargo company from Vietnam is also serving the routes from and to Zamboanga City to deliver goods from Vietnam.
In 2002, the Port of Zamboanga City, including the area ports of Basilan, registered 5.57 million passenger movement, surpassing Batangas by 1.3 million passengers, and Manila by over 1.59 million passengers.
Last May 28, 2009, the PHP700 million port expansion project, funded by the national government was inaugurated by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo.
Major telecommunications firm, Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, maintains operations in the city. Mabuhay Satellite Corporation has set up a facility in Zamboanga City in order to improve existing communications infrastructure.
The Zamboanga City Electric Cooperative is the franchise holder of electric power distribution covering the entire city.
Conrado Alcantara and Sons (Conal) Holdings constructed a coal-fired power plant with an initial capacity of 100MW on a 60-hectare land inside the Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority. The company expects to complete the power plant in about four years to meet the expected rise in the demand in electricity of the city by 2014.
The Zamboanga City Watershed is only a few kilometers north of Zamboanga City, at the tip of the Zamboanga Peninsula in southwestern Mindanao. It has the largest block of old growth lowland dipterocarp forest remaining in this part of Mindanao.
Zamboanga City relies heavily on surface water from the Tumaga River for its water supply. The ZCWD is serving only 48% of the total population of the total water production, 38% is accounted water. Given the projected population and the fact that the city is a highly urbanising one, it is likely that future water requirements will not be satisfied unless other sources such as rivers and springs be tapped to augment water supply sources.
The Zamboanga City Water District has 24 production wells. These are located in the following strategic areas within the city of Zamboanga that are producing 1,304 m³ daily.
There are several medical centres and hospitals in Zamboanga. The Zamboanga City Medical Center is the largest medical facility in Zamboanga Peninsula in terms of bed capacity. The hospital was founded in 1918 as the Zamboanga City General Hospital. The Brent Hospital and Colleges, Inc. was founded on February 2, 1914 by Charles Henry Brent, the first Protestant Episcopal missionary bishop in the Philippines. Today, it operates a school within its compound, offering nursing and allied health courses.
The Zamboanga City Red Cross chapter was established on June 17, 1946, known originally as Zamboanga City Chapter. The original Zamboanga City Chapter comprised the city of Zamboanga and the 3 provinces of Basilan, Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur.
In 2006, the Military Sealift Command (MSC) hospital ship, USNS Mercy (T-AH-19), anchored off of the coast of Zamboanga City, to provide of medical, dental and veterinary care for the people of the city.
Sports and recreation facilities
Convention centers that host several events and congregations include the Garden Orchid Convention Centre, Marcian Convention Centre, Zamboanga City Coliseum in Tetuán, Zamboanga City Convention Centre, Astoria Regency in Pasonanca, and Patio Palmeras Convention Centres.
Sport venues in Zamboanga City include the Joaquin F. Enriquez Memorial Sports Complex, the Summit Centre, and the Zamboanga City Coliseum.
Zamboanga City's team was in the 1992 Little League World Series and initially won the championship, but was stripped of their title after a number of players failed to meet age and residency requirements.
The formal education in Zamboanga City is patterned after the American system, with English as the medium of instruction. There are a number of foreign schools with study programmes. Universities and major colleges include:
- Ateneo de Zamboanga University
- Pilar College
- Universidad de Zamboanga
- Western Mindanao State University
- Zamboanga City State Polytechnic College
- Zamboanga State College of Marine Sciences and Technology
Zamboanga City has 40 radio stations. There are also 11 regular TV stations and 3 cable TV stations. Several local publications are operating in the various parts of the city and nearby provinces and regions such as, The Daily Zamboanga Times, The Mindanao Examiner Regional Newspaper, Voz de Mindanao, Zamboanga Peninsula Journal, Zamboanga Star, Zamboanga Today and Zamboanga Forum.
Zamboanga City is a member of East ASEAN Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA), a regional economic cooperation initiative between the several countries in Southeast Asia. As a result of its membership, air and sea routes have been opened between Zamboanga City and Sandakan in Malaysia. The two cities have existing trade relations and have had historical cultural interactions.
Zamboanga City is twinned with the following cities:
This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "Zamboanga City".
- ↑ "Province: ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- 1 2 3 4 "Region IX (ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA)". Census of Population (2015): Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay (Report). PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- ↑ "Largest City in the Philippines". 2010. Retrieved April 16, 2010.
- ↑ "Executive Order No. 429, October 12, 1990". Supreme Court E-Library. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- 1 2 Archived November 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- 1 2 Ronald Echalas Diaz, Chan Robles & Associates Law Firm. "Philippine Laws, Statutes And Codes - Chan Robles Virtual Law Library". Chanrobles.com. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
- ↑ "Lobregat Names Govt Execs as Zamboas Goodwill Envoys". The Daily Zamboanga Times. November 16, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- 1 2 Alfred Kemp Pallasen (1985). Culture Contact and Language Convergence (PDF). LSP Special Monogaph Issue 24. Linguistic Society of the Philippines.
- ↑ Tom Gunnar Hoogervorst (2012). "Ethnicity and aquatic lifestyles: exploring Southeast Asia's past and present seascapes" (PDF). Water History. 4: 245–265. doi:10.1007/s12685-012-0060-0.
- ↑ "early history (1400's)". 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ↑ Rodney C. Jubilado (2010). "On cultural fluidity: The Sama-Bajau of the Sulu-Sulawesi Seas". Kunapipi. 32 (1): 89–101.
- ↑ Rodney C. Jubilado; Hanafi Hussin & Maria Khristina Manueli (2011). "The Sama-Bajaus of Sulu-Sulawesi Seas: perspectives from linguistics and culture" (PDF). Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 15 (1): 83–95.
- 1 2 Francisco Combes (1667). Historia de las islas de Mindanao, Iolo y sus Adyacentes. Progresos de la Religion y Armas Catolicas. Pablo del Val.
- ↑ Challenger Expedition 1872-1876 (1895). Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 1873-76 Under the Command of Captain George S. Nares ... and the Late Captain Frank Tourle Thomson, R.N. H.M. Stationery Office. p. 823–828.
- ↑ George Newenham Wright (1837). A New and Comprehensive Gazetteer, Volume 4. T. Kelly. p. 459.
- ↑ Antoine-François Prévost (1757). Histoire générale des voyages ou Nouvelle collection de toutes les relations de voyages par mer et par terre, qui ont été publiées jusqu'à présent dans les differentes langues de toutes les nations connues. De Hondt. p. 37.
- ↑ Pierre Joseph André Roubaud (1770). Histoire générale de l'Asie, de l'Afrique et de l'Amérique. Des Ventes de la Doué. p. 499–500.
- ↑ John Meares (1791). Des Kapitians John Meares und des Kapitains William Douglas Reisen nach der Nordwest-Küste von Amerika, in den Jahren 1786 bis 1789. Voß. p. 240.
- ↑ Charles Pickering (1848). "The Races of Man and their Geographical Distribution". United States Exploring Expedition. During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842. Under the Command of Charles Wilkes, USN. Volume IX (PDF). C. Sherman. p. 125.
- ↑ Enriquez, A.R. "Jambangan: the "Garden of Flowers" never was!". Antoniofermin's Name. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- ↑ "early history (1500's)". 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ↑ "early history (1500's)". 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ↑ "SECOND BOOK OF THE SECOND PART OF THE CONQUESTS OF THE FILIPINAS ISLANDS, AND CHRONICLE OF THE RELIGIOUS OF OUR FATHER, ST. AUGUSTINE" (Zamboanga City History) "He (Governor Don Sebastían Hurtado de Corcuera) brought a great reënforcements of soldiers, many of them from Peru, as he made his voyage to Acapulco from that kingdom."
- 1 2 "early history (1500's)". 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ↑ "early history (1600's)". 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ↑ "early history (1600's)". 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ↑ "early history (1700s)". 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ↑ "early history (1800s)". 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ↑ "early history (1800s)". 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- 1 2 "early history (1900s)". 2010. Archived from the original on August 2, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ↑ "early history (1900s)". 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ↑ "early history (1900s)". 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ↑ "Republic Act No. 288, June 16, 1948". Supreme Court E-Library. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- ↑ "Republic Act No. 840, April 07, 1953". Supreme Court E-Library. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- ↑ "Republic Act No. 1210, April 29, 1955". Supreme Court E-Library. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- ↑ "Republic Act No. 180, June 21, 1947". Supreme Court E-Library. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- ↑ "Presidential Decree No. 826, November 14, 1975". Supreme Court E-Library. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- ↑ Diesto, Jovian (January 18, 2006). "City has no plans yet for Cabatangan". ZamboTimes. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- ↑ "REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9269 - AN ACT CREATING THE SECOND LEGISLATIVE DISTRICT OF THE CITY OF ZAMBOANGA.". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- ↑ "MNLF wants flag hoisted in Zamboanga city hall". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2013-09-09.
- ↑ "Zamboanga City relocates siege evacuees from cramped camp". Philippine Star. 2014-05-14. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
- ↑ "Updated Z3R plan presented". Zamboanga Times. 2014-01-27. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
- ↑ "Topography, Slope and Elevation". Retrieved March 8, 2011.
- ↑ "Climatological Information for Zamboanga City, Philippines". Hong Kong Observatory. 2003. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
- ↑ "Zamboanga City Barangays with Land Area". Zamboanga City Official Website. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- ↑ "Location and Physical Profile". City Government of Zamboanga. Archived from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- ↑ "Action Plan Report Zamboanga City". Philippine Sanitation Alliance (USAID) Website. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- ↑ "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities" (PDF). 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 28, 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- ↑ "Language". 2008. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
- ↑ "Canneries in Zampen". 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- ↑ "Canneries in Zampen". 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- ↑ Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority and Freeport
- ↑ "Canneries in Zampen". 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
- ↑ "Zamboanga picked as peninsula's tourism flagship," BusinessWorld. September 22, 2006.
- ↑ "Zamboanga Peninsula shaping up as a tourist draw," BusinessWorld. October 6, 2006.
- ↑ "es celebracion con es La Hermosa Festival". Retrieved July 31, 2009.
- ↑ "Chartered city of Zamboanga". 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
- ↑ "Population of Zamboanga City" (PDF). 2008. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
- ↑ "Proposed third District of Zamboanga City". 2008. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
- ↑ "Beng seeks creation of 4 RTCs in Region 9". 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
- ↑ "C17 landed in ZIA". GMANEWS. Retrieved 2009. Check date values in:
- ↑ "Antonov An-124-100 approaching at the Zamboanga City International Airport". MyAviation.net. Retrieved 2009. Check date values in:
- ↑ "365 completion of rehabilitition of the existing facilies of the airport". Daily Zamboanga Times. Retrieved 2008. Check date values in:
- ↑ "Airport of Zamboanga". 2010. Archived from the original on April 22, 2009. Retrieved April 20, 2009.
- ↑ "Zamboanga Seaport". 2010. Retrieved April 20, 2009.
- ↑ "Philippine Ports Authority". 2010. Retrieved April 20, 2009.
- ↑ "700Million Php port expansion project". sunstar zamboanga. Retrieved 2009. Check date values in:
- ↑ "PLDT forms satellite firm". The Manila Standard. November 4, 1994.
- ↑ "Conal to build $9,000 million coal-fired power plant in Philippines". Retrieved July 10, 2010.
- ↑ "Water Supply of Zamboanga City". Retrieved July 10, 2010.
- ↑ "Production Wells". Retrieved December 30, 2010.
- ↑ "Philippines". 2007. Archived from the original on October 23, 2007. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
- ↑ "USNS Mercy Bringing Hope to Asia-Pacific Nations". 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2010.
- ↑ "General information". Government of the Philippines. Archived from the original on October 22, 2007. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
"Official Website". Government of the Philippines. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
- ↑ "Sister Cities of Zamboanga". 2009. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012. Retrieved March 13, 2009.
- ↑ Raymond Tan Shu Kiah (19 June 2000). "The Seminar On Twin City - Sandakan and Zamboanga". Virtual Office of Datuk Raymond Tan Shu Kiah. Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zamboanga City.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Zamboanga (city).|
||Sibuco, ZaNor / Sirawai, ZaNor / Tungawan, Zamboanga Sibugay||Sibuguey Bay|
|Sulu Sea||Moro Gulf|
| Basilan Strait
Isabela / Lamitan, Basilan