Yong Province

Chinese 雍州

Yongzhou (雍州) was an ancient place name in China.


In the Book of Documents, Yongzhou is mentioned as one of the Nine Provinces, but the authenticity of this claim cannot be verified.

During the Western Zhou to Western Jin eras, the territory of Yongzhou originated either in the environs of the capital or on the Wei River plain. When Emperor Wu of Han created the thirteen inspectorates (刺史部; cishi bu), the western part of Yongzhou became part of Liangzhou inspectorate (凉州刺史部), and its eastern part became under a Colonel Director of Retainers (司隶校尉). When Emperor Wu of Han relocated the Han capital to Luoyang, he briefly created Yongzhou province, but eliminated it soon after.

Establishment as Inspectorate

In the year 194, Yongzhou first appeared as a formal administrative district, with the Eastern Han government placing the commanderies of Wuwei, Zhangye, Jiuquan, Dunhuang, and Xihai (西海) west of the Liang River as Yongzhou inspectorate, with the inspectorate seat at Guzhang (姑臧). In the year 213, the Liangzhou inspectorate was eliminated and the commanderies of the Three Guardians (三輔, sanfu) were absorbed as part of Yongzhou inspectorate.

In the year 220, the Cao Wei government reconstituted Liangzhou inspectorate from the 8 commanderies of Yongzhou west of the Liang River. Yongzhou was established as the inspectorate to the east of Liangzhou and the Yellow River and near the commanderies of the Three Guardians near the capital of Chang'an, with the inspectorate seat at Chang'an.

Different meanings

The situation remained the same throughout the Cao Wei and Western Jin eras. The Former Qin dynasty suddenly shifted Yongzhou to Anding commandery (安定郡, located in modern Zhenyuan) and Puban commandery (蒲坂郡, located in modern Yongji). During the time of rival kingdoms in the Southern and Northern Dynasties period, the Northern Wei, Western Wei, and Northern Zhou dynasties in the north referred to Yongzhou as to the environs of Chang'an, with its government seat at Chang'an, while the Eastern Jin and the Southern Dynasties in the south referred to Yongzhou as the environs of Xiangyang.

Sui and Tang dynasties and Dis-establishment

After the reunification of China by the Sui dynasty, Yongzhou province was permanently set at Chang'an. During the Sui administrative reforms in 607 to transform the provincial system (州制) into commandery system (郡制), Emperor Yang of Sui renamed Yongzhou as Jingzhao commandery (京兆郡). When the Tang dynasty was established, it was reverted for some time back to Yongzhou, until Emperor Xuanzong of Tang converted it again to Jingzhao prefecture (京兆府).

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