|Native to||Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania|
4.2 million (2006)|
L2 speakers: ?
Latin (Wolof alphabet)|
|Regulated by||CLAD (Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar)|
wol – Wolof
wof – Gambian Wolof
Wolof (//) is a language of Senegal, the Gambia, and Mauritania, and the native language of the Wolof people. Like the neighbouring languages Serer and Fula, it belongs to the Senegambian branch of the Niger–Congo language family. Unlike most other languages of Sub-Saharan Africa, Wolof is not a tonal language.
Wolof originated as the language of the Lebu people. It is the most widely spoken language in Senegal, spoken natively by the Wolof people (40% of the population) but also by most other Senegalese as a second language.
"Wolof" is the standard spelling and may refer to the Wolof people or to Wolof culture. Variants include the older French Ouolof and the principally Gambian "Wollof". "Jolof", "jollof", etc., now typically refers either to the Jolof Empire or to jollof rice, a common West African rice dish. Now-archaic forms include "Volof" and "Olof".
Wolof words in English are believed to include yum/yummy, from Wolof nyam "to taste"; nyam in Barbadian English meaning "to eat" (also compare Seychellois Creole nyanmnyanm, also meaning "to eat"); and banana, via Spanish or Portuguese.
Wolof is spoken by more than 10 million people and about 40 percent (approximately 5 million people) of Senegal's population speak Wolof as their native language. Increased mobility, and especially the growth of the capital Dakar, created the need for a common language: today, an additional 40 percent of the population speak Wolof as a second or acquired language. In the whole region from Dakar to Saint-Louis, and also west and southwest of Kaolack, Wolof is spoken by the vast majority of the people. Typically when various ethnic groups in Senegal come together in cities and towns, they speak Wolof. It is therefore spoken in almost every regional and departmental capital in Senegal. Nevertheless, the official language of Senegal is French.
In the Gambia, about 20–25 percent of the population speak Wolof as a first language, but Wolof has a disproportionate influence because of its prevalence in Banjul, the Gambian capital, where 75 percent of the population use it as a first language. In Serekunda, the Gambia's largest town, although only a tiny minority are ethnic Wolofs, approximately 70 percent of the population speaks and/or understands Wolof. The official language of the Gambia is English; Mandinka (40 percent), Wolof (10 percent) and Fula (15 percent) are as yet not used in formal education.
In Mauritania, about seven percent (approximately 185,000 people) of the population speak Wolof because of the river that is shared with Senegal. There, the language is used only around the southern coastal regions. Mauritania's official language is Arabic; France colonized the tribes and forced them all to speak French as the official language but the most common language of all other tribes is their common language of Wolof.
Wolof is one of the Senegambian languages, which are characterized by consonant mutation. It is often said to be closely related to the Fula language because of a misreading by Wilson (1989) of the data in Sapir (1971) that have long been used to classify the Atlantic languages. However, Segerer (2009, 2010) confirms Sapir's findings that Wolof is not close to the Fula language; he finds the closest relatives of Wolof are several obscure languages along the Casamance River.
Senegalese/Mauritanian Wolof and Gambian Wolof are distinct national standards: they use different orthographies and use different languages (French vs English) as their source for technical loanwords. However, both the spoken and written languages are mutually intelligible. Lebu Wolof, on the other hand, is unintelligible with standard Wolof, a distinction that has been obscured because all Lebu speakers are bilingual in standard Wolof.
Orthography and pronunciation
The Latin orthography of Wolof in Senegal was set by government decrees between 1971 and 1985. The language institute "Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar" (CLAD) is widely acknowledged as an authority when it comes to spelling rules for Wolof.
Wolof is most often written in this orthography, in which phonemes have a clear one-to-one correspondence to graphemes.
Additionally, two other scripts exist: a traditional Arabic-based transcription of Wolof called Wolofal, which dates back to the pre-colonial period and is still used by many people, and the Garay script, dating to 1961, which has been adopted by a small number of Wolof-speakers
The first syllable of words is stressed; long vowels are pronounced with more time, but are not automatically stressed, as they are in English.
The vowels are as follows:
|Close||i ⟨i⟩||iː||u ⟨u⟩||uː|
|Close-mid||e ⟨é⟩||eː||o ⟨ó⟩||oː|
|Open-mid||ɛ ⟨e⟩||ɛː||ɔ ⟨o⟩||ɔː|
There may be an additional low vowel, or this may be confusion with orthographic à.
All vowels may be long (written double) or short. /aː/ is written ⟨à⟩ before a long (prenasalized or geminate) consonant. When é and ó are written double, the accent mark is often only on the first letter.
- Lekk-oon-ngeen /lɛkːɔːnŋɡɛːn/
- 'Y'all ate.'
- Dóór-óón-ngéén /doːroːnŋɡeːn/
- 'Y'all hit.'
There are no −ATR analogues of the high vowels i u. They trigger +ATR harmony in suffixes when they occur in a root, but in a suffix they may be transparent to vowel harmony.
The vowels of some suffixes or enclitics do not harmonize with preceding vowels. In most cases following vowels harmonize with them. That is, they reset the harmony, as if they were a separate word. However, when a suffix/clitic contains a high vowel (+ATR) occurs after a −ATR root, any further suffixes harmonize with the root. That is, the +ATR suffix/clitic is "transparent" to vowel harmony. An example is the negative -u- in,
- Door-u-ma-leen-fa /dɔːrumalɛːnfa/
- 'I did not begin them there'
where harmony would predict *door-u-më-léén-fë. That is, i u behave as if they are their own −ATR analogues.
Authors differ in whether they indicate vowel harmony in writing, as well as whether they write clitics as separate words.
|Nasal||m ⟨m⟩||n ⟨n⟩||ɲ ⟨ñ⟩||ŋ ⟨ŋ⟩|
|Prenasalized stop||mb ⟨mb⟩||nd ⟨nd⟩||ɲɟ ⟨nj⟩||ŋɡ ⟨ng⟩|
|Plosive||voiced||b ⟨b⟩||d ⟨d⟩||ɟ ⟨j⟩||ɡ ⟨g⟩|
|voiceless||p ⟨p⟩||t ⟨t⟩||c ⟨c⟩||k ⟨k⟩||qː ⟨q⟩||ʔ|
|Fricative||f ⟨f⟩||s ⟨s⟩||x~χ ⟨x⟩|
|Approximant||central||w ⟨w⟩||j ⟨y⟩|
All simple nasals, oral stops apart from q and glottal, and the sonorants l r y w may be geminated (doubled), though geminate r only occurs in ideophones. (Geminate consonants are written double.) Q is inherently geminate and may occur in initial position; otherwise geminate consonants and consonant clusters, including nt, nc, nk, nq ([ɴq]), are restricted to word-medial and -final position. Of the consonants in the chart above, p d c k do not occur in medial or final position, being replaced by f r s and zero, though geminate pp dd cc kk are common. Phonetic p c k do occur finally, but only as allophones of b j g due to final devoicing.
- nëb 'pourri' [rotten], nëbb 'cacher' [to hide]; dag 'valet' [a valet], dagg 'couper' [to cut]; dëj 'funérailles' [funerals], dëjj 'vulve (injurieux)' [a cunt]; gal 'or blanc', gall 'régurgiter'; gëm 'croire' [to believe], gëmm 'fermer les yeux' [to close one's eyes] ; fen 'mentir' [to lie], fenn 'quelque, nulle part' [somewhere, nowhere]; woñ 'essorer', woññ 'compter' [to count] ; goŋ 'cynocéphale' [a dog-headed ape], goŋŋ 'sorte de lit' [a kind of bed] ; bët 'oeil' [an eye], bëtt 'trouver, percer' [to find]; Jaw (a family name), jaww 'firmament' [heaven]; boy 'prendre feu' [to catch fire], boyy 'être resplendissant'; also fecc 'danser' [to dance], sedd 'froid' [cold], bakkan 'nez' [nose], dëpp 'renverser'
Pronoun conjugation instead of verbal conjugation
In Wolof, verbs are unchangeable stems that cannot be conjugated. To express different tenses or aspects of an action, personal pronouns are conjugated – not the verbs. Therefore, the term temporal pronoun has become established for this part of speech. It is also referred to as a focus form.
Example: The verb dem means "to go" and cannot be changed; the temporal pronoun maa ngi means "I/me, here and now"; the temporal pronoun dinaa means "I am soon / I will soon / I will be soon". With that, the following sentences can be built now: Maa ngi dem. "I am going (here and now)." – Dinaa dem. "I will go (soon)."
Conjugation with respect to aspect instead of tense
In Wolof, tenses like present tense, past tense, and future tense are just of secondary importance, they play almost no role. Of crucial importance is the aspect of an action from the speaker's point of view. The most important distinction is whether an action is perfective, i.e., finished, or imperfective, i.e., still going on, from the speaker's point of view, regardless whether the action itself takes place in the past, present, or future. Other aspects indicate whether an action takes place regularly, whether an action will take place for sure, and whether an action wants to emphasize the role of the subject, predicate, or object of the sentence. As a result, conjugation is not done by tenses, but by aspects. Nevertheless, the term temporal pronoun became usual for these conjugated pronouns, although aspect pronoun might be a better term.
Example: The verb dem means "to go"; the temporal pronoun naa means "I already/definitely", the temporal pronoun dinaa means "I am soon / I will soon / I will be soon"; the temporal pronoun damay means "I (am) regularly/usually". Now the following sentences can be constructed: Dem naa. "I go already / I have already gone." – Dinaa dem. "I will go soon / I am just going to go." – Damay dem. "I usually/regularly/normally/am about to go."
If the speaker absolutely wants to express that an action took place in the past, this is not done by conjugation, but by adding the suffix -(w)oon to the verb (in a sentence, the temporal pronoun is still used in a conjugated form along with the past marker).
Example: Demoon naa Ndakaaru. "I already went to Dakar."
Wolof does not mark for grammatical gender: there is one pronoun encompassing the English 'he', 'she', and 'it'. The descriptors bu góor (male / masculine) or bu jigéen (female / feminine) are often added to words like xarit, 'friend', and rakk, 'younger sibling' to indicate the person's sex.
Markers of noun definiteness (usually called "definite articles") agree with the noun they modify. There are at least ten articles in Wolof, some of them indicating a singular noun, others a plural noun. In Urban Wolof, spoken in large cities like Dakar, the article -bi is often used as a generic article when the actual article is not known.
Any loan noun from French or English uses -bi: butik-bi, xarit-bi "the boutique, the friend"
Most Arabic or religious terms use -ji: jumma-ji, jigéen-ji, "the mosque, the girl"
Four nouns referring to persons use -ki/-ñi:' nit-ki, nit-ñi, 'the person, the people"
Plural nouns use -yi: jigéen-yi, butik-yi, "the girls, the boutiques"
Miscellaneous articles: "si, gi, wi, mi, li".
The Wolof numeral system is based on the numbers "5" and "10". It is extremely regular in formation, comparable to Chinese. Example: benn "one", juróom "five", juróom-benn "six" (literally, "five-one"), fukk "ten", fukk ak juróom benn "sixteen" (literally, "ten and five one"), ñent-fukk "forty" (literally, "four-ten"). Alternatively, "thirty" is fanweer, which is roughly the number of days in a lunar month (literally "fan" is day and "weer" is moon.)
|0||tus / neen / zéro [French] / sero / dara ["nothing"]|
|2||ñaar / yaar|
|3||ñett / ñatt / yett / yatt|
|4||ñeent / ñenent|
|11||fukk ak benn|
|12||fukk ak ñaar|
|13||fukk ak ñett|
|14||fukk ak ñeent|
|15||fukk ak juróom|
|16||fukk ak juróom-benn|
|17||fukk ak juróom-ñaar|
|18||fukk ak juróom-ñett|
|19||fukk ak juróom-ñeent|
|26||ñaar-fukk ak juróom-benn|
|30||ñett-fukk / fanweer|
|66||juróom-benn-fukk ak juróom-benn|
|101||téeméer ak benn|
|106||téeméer ak juróom-benn|
|110||téeméer ak fukk|
|1000||junni / junne|
|1100||junni ak téeméer|
|1600||junni ak juróom-benni téeméer|
|1945||junni ak juróom-ñeenti téeméer ak ñeent-fukk ak juróom|
|1969||junni ak juróom-ñeenti téeméer ak juróom-benn-fukk ak juróom-ñeent|
|1000000||tamndareet / million|
For example, two is ñaar and second is ñaaréél
The one exception to this system is "first", which is bu njëk (or the adapted French word premier: përëmye)
Conjugation of the temporal pronouns
| Situative (Presentative)
(Past tense for action verbs or present tense for static verbs)
(Emphasis on Object)
| Processive (Explicative and/or Descriptive)
(Emphasis on Verb)
(Emphasis on Subject)
|1st Person singular "I"||maa ngi
(I am+ Verb+ -ing)
(I + past tense action verbs or present tense static verbs)
(I will ... / future)
(Puts the emphasis on the Object of the sentence)
(Indicates a habitual or future action)
(Puts the emphasis on the Verb or the state 'condition' of the sentence)
(Indicates a habitual or future action)
(Puts the emphasis on the Subject of the sentence)
(Indicates a habitual or future action)
|2nd Person singular "you"||yaa ngi||yaa ngiy||nga||dinga||nga||ngay||danga||dangay||yaa||yaay||nga||ngay|
|3rd Person singular "he/she/it"||mu ngi||mu ngiy||na||dina||la||lay||dafa||dafay||moo||mooy||mu||muy|
|1st Person plural "we"||nu ngi||nu ngiy||nanu||dinanu||lanu||lanuy||danu||danuy||noo||nooy||nu||nuy|
|2nd Person plural "you"||yéena ngi||yéena ngiy||ngeen||dingeen||ngeen||ngeen di||dangeen||dangeen di||yéena||yéenay||ngeen||ngeen di|
|3rd Person plural "they"||ñu ngi||ñu ngiy||nañu||dinañu||lañu||lañuy||dañu||dañuy||ñoo||ñooy||ñu||ñuy|
In urban Wolof it is common to use the forms of the 3rd person plural also for the 1st person plural.
It is also important to note that the verb follows certain temporal pronouns and precedes others.
The New Testament was translated into Wolof and published in 1987, second edition 2004, and in 2008 with some minor typographical corrections.
- Wolof at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Gambian Wolof at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Wolof". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Falola, Toyin; Salm, Steven J. Urbanization and African cultures. Carolina Academic Press, 2005. ISBN 0-89089-558-9. p 280
- Ngom, Fallou. Wolof. Lincom, 2003. ISBN 3-89586-845-0. p 2
- Pamela Munro and Dieynaba Gaye, "Ay Baati Wolof/A Wolof Dictionary, Revised Edition, 1997, UCLA Occasional Papers in Linguistics, Number 19". Regents of the University of California, Los Angeles, 1997. p 145
- Frank A. Collymore, Notes for a Glossary of Words and Phrases of Barbadian Dialect, Advocate Company, Bridgetown, 1970.
- Danielle D'Offay & Guy Lionet, Diksyonner Kreol-Franse / Dictionnaire Créole Seychellois – Français, Helmut Buske Verlag, Hamburg, 1982. In all fairness, the word might as easily be from Fula: nyaamde, "to eat".
- Harper, Douglas. ""banana"". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Such as Kobiana and Banyum. Guillaume Segerer & Florian Lionnet 2010. "Isolates in Atlantic". Language Isolates in Africa workshop. 25images.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr. December 4, 2010.
- Hammarström (2015) Ethnologue 16/17/18th editions: a comprehensive review: online appendices
- Everson, Michael (26 April 2012). "Preliminary proposal for encoding the Garay script in the SMP of the UCS" (PDF). UC Berkeley Script Encoding Initiative (Universal Scripts Project)/International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- Long ëë is rare (Torrence 2013:10).
- Torrence 2013:11
- Omar Ka, 1994, Wolof Phonology and Morphology
- Or ⟨n̈⟩ in some texts.
- Pape Amadou Gaye, Practical Cours in / Cours Practique en Wolof: An Audio–Aural Approach.
- Some are restricted or rare, and sources disagree about this. Torrence (2013) claims that all consonants but prenasalized stops may be geminate, while Diouf (2009) does not list the fricatives, q, or r y w, and does not recognize glottal stop in the inventor. The differences may be dialectical or because some sounds are rare.
- Diouf (2009)
- Ngom, Fallou (2003-01-01). Wolof. Lincom. ISBN 9783895868450.
- "Biblewolof.com". Biblewolof.com. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
- Encyclopedia of African Literature, p 801
- Omar Ka: Wolof Phonology and Morphology. University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland, 1994, ISBN 0-8191-9288-0.
- Mamadou Cissé: "Graphical borrowing and African realities" in Revue du Musée National d'Ethnologie d'Osaka, Japan, June 2000.
- Mamadou Cissé: "Revisiter 'La grammaire de la langue wolof' d'A. Kobes (1869), ou étude critique d'un pan de l'histoire de la grammaire du wolof.", in Sudlangues Sudlangues.sn, February 2005
- Leigh Swigart: Two codes or one? The insiders' view and the description of codeswitching in Dakar, in Carol M. Eastman, Codeswitching. Clevedon/Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters, ISBN 1-85359-167-X.
- Fiona McLaughlin: "Dakar Wolof and the configuration of an urban identity", Journal of African Cultural Studies 14/2, 2001, p. 153–172
- Gabriele Aïscha Bichler: "Bejo, Curay und Bin-bim? Die Sprache und Kultur der Wolof im Senegal (mit angeschlossenem Lehrbuch Wolof)", Europäische Hochschulschriften Band 90, Peter Lang Verlagsgruppe, Frankfurt am Main, Germany 2003, ISBN 3-631-39815-8.
- Pathé Diagne: Grammaire de Wolof Moderne. Présence Africaine, Paris, France, 1971.
- Pape Amadou Gaye: Wolof: An Audio-Aural Approach. United States Peace Corps, 1980.
- Amar Samb: Initiation a la Grammaire Wolof. Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire, Université de Dakar, Ifan-Dakar, Sénegal, 1983.
- Michael Franke: Kauderwelsch, Wolof für den Senegal – Wort für Wort. Reise Know-How Verlag, Bielefeld, Germany 2002, ISBN 3-89416-280-5.
- Michael Franke, Jean Léopold Diouf, Konstantin Pozdniakov: Le wolof de poche – Kit de conversation (Phrasebook/grammar with 1 CD). Assimil, Chennevières-sur-Marne, France, 2004 ISBN 978-2-7005-4020-8.
- Jean-Léopold Diouf, Marina Yaguello: J'apprends le Wolof – Damay jàng wolof (1 textbook with 4 audio cassettes). Karthala, Paris, France 1991, ISBN 2-86537-287-1.
- Michel Malherbe, Cheikh Sall: Parlons Wolof – Langue et culture. L'Harmattan, Paris, France 1989, ISBN 2-7384-0383-2 (this book uses a simplified orthography which is not compliant with the CLAD standards; a CD is available).
- Jean-Léopold Diouf: Grammaire du wolof contemporain. Karthala, Paris, France 2003, ISBN 2-84586-267-9.
- Fallou Ngom: Wolof. Verlag LINCOM, Munich, Germany 2003, ISBN 3-89586-616-4.
- Sana Camara: Wolof Lexicon and Grammar, NALRC Press, 2006, ISBN 978-1-59703-012-0.
- Diouf, Jean-Leopold: Dictionnaire wolof-français et français-wolof, Karthala, 2003
- Mamadou Cissé: Dictionnaire Français-Wolof, L’Asiathèque, Paris, 1998, ISBN 2-911053-43-5
- Arame Fal, Rosine Santos, Jean Léonce Doneux: Dictionnaire wolof-français (suivi d'un index français-wolof). Karthala, Paris, France 1990, ISBN 2-86537-233-2.
- Pamela Munro, Dieynaba Gaye: Ay Baati Wolof – A Wolof Dictionary. UCLA Occasional Papers in Linguistics, No. 19, Los Angeles, California, 1997.
- Peace Corps Gambia: Wollof-English Dictionary, PO Box 582, Banjul, the Gambia, 1995 (no ISBN, available as PDF file via the internet; this book refers solely to the dialect spoken in the Gambia and does not use the standard orthography of CLAD).
- Nyima Kantorek: Wolof Dictionary & Phrasebook, Hippocrene Books, 2005, ISBN 0-7818-1086-8 (this book refers predominantly to the dialect spoken in the Gambia and does not use the standard orthography of CLAD).
- Sana Camara: Wolof Lexicon and Grammar, NALRC Press, 2006, ISBN 978-1-59703-012-0.
- Official documents
- Government of Senegal, Décret n° 71-566 du 21 mai 1971 relatif à la transcription des langues nationales, modifié par décret n° 72-702 du 16 juin 1972.
- Government of Senegal, Décrets n° 75-1026 du 10 octobre 1975 et n° 85-1232 du 20 novembre 1985 relatifs à l'orthographe et à la séparation des mots en wolof.
- Government of Senegal, Décret n° 2005-992 du 21 octobre 2005 relatif à l'orthographe et à la séparation des mots en wolof.
|Wolof edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wolof language.|
- Easy wolof (IPhone application)
- Wolof Language Resources
- An Annotated Guide to Learning the Wolof Language
- Yahoo group about Wolof (in English and German)
- Wolof Online
- Wolof English Dictionary (this dictionary mixes Senegalese and Gambian variants without notice, and does not use a standard orthography)
- A French-Wolof-French dictionary partially available at Google Books.
- Firicat.com (an online Wolof to English translator; you can add your own words to this dictionary; it uses almost exclusively the Gambian variants and does not use a standard orthography)
- PanAfrican L10n page on Wolof
- OSAD spécialisée dans l’éducation non formelle et l’édition des ouvrages en langues nationales
- JangaWolof.wordpress.com (A blog about the Wolof language and culture)
- xLingua – Online-Dictionary German-Wolof/Wolof-German, 2009