Wine tasting

Monk Testing Wine by Antonio Casanova y Estorach (c.1886)

Wine tasting (often, in wine circles, simply tasting) is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. While the practice of wine tasting is as ancient as its production, a more formalized methodology has slowly become established from the 14th century onwards. Modern, professional wine tasters (such as sommeliers or buyers for retailers) use a constantly evolving specialized terminology which is used to describe the range of perceived flavors, aromas and general characteristics of a wine. More informal, recreational tasting may use similar terminology, usually involving a much less analytical process for a more general, personal appreciation.[1]

Tasting stages

Ready tasting room of port wine in a wine cellar of a producer

The results of the four recognized stages to wine tasting:

– are combined in order to establish the following properties of a wine:

A wine's overall quality assessment, based on this examination, follows further careful description and comparison with recognized standards, both with respect to other wines in its price range and according to known factors pertaining to the region or vintage; if it is typical of the region or diverges in style; if it uses certain wine-making techniques, such as barrel fermentation or malolactic fermentation, or any other remarkable or unusual characteristics.[3]

Whereas wines are regularly tasted in isolation, a wine's quality assessment is more objective when performed alongside several other wines, in what are known as tasting "flights". Wines may be deliberately selected for their vintage ("horizontal" tasting) or proceed from a single winery ("vertical" tasting), to better compare vineyard and vintages, respectively. Alternatively, in order to promote an unbiased analysis, bottles and even glasses may be disguised in a "blind" tasting, to rule out any prejudicial awareness of either vintage or winery.

Blind tasting

Main article: Blind wine tasting

To ensure impartial judgment of a wine, it should be served blind – that is, without the taster(s) having seen the label or bottle shape. Blind tasting may also involve serving the wine from a black wine glass to mask the color of the wine. A taster's judgment can be prejudiced by knowing details of a wine, such as geographic origin, price, reputation, color, or other considerations.

Scientific research has long demonstrated the power of suggestion in perception as well as the strong effects of expectancies. For example, people expect more expensive wine to have more desirable characteristics than less expensive wine. When given wine that they are falsely told is expensive they virtually always report it as tasting better than the very same wine when they are told that it is inexpensive.[4] French researcher Frédéric Brochet "submitted a mid-range Bordeaux in two different bottles, one labeled as a cheap table wine, the other bearing a grand cru etiquette." Tasters described the supposed grand cru as "woody, complex, and round" and the supposed cheap wine as "short, light, and faulty."

Similarly, people have expectations about wines because of their geographic origin, producer, vintage, color, and many other factors. For example, when Brochet served a white wine he received all the usual descriptions: "fresh, dry, honeyed, lively." Later he served the same wine dyed red and received the usual red terms: "intense, spicy, supple, deep."[5]

One of the most famous instances of blind testing is known as the Judgment of Paris, a wine competition held in 1976 where French judges blind-tested wines from France and California. Against all expectations, California wines bested French wines according to the judges, a result which would have been unlikely in a non-blind contest. This event was depicted in the 2008 movie Bottle Shock.

Price bias

Another well-publicized double-blind taste test was conducted in 2011 by Prof. Richard Wiseman of the University of Hertfordshire. In a wine tasting experiment using 400 participants, Wiseman found that general members of the public were unable to distinguish expensive wines from inexpensive ones.[6] "People just could not tell the difference between cheap and expensive wine".[7]

Color bias

In 2001, the University of Bordeaux asked 54 undergraduate students to test two glasses of wine: one red, one white. The participants described the red as "jammy" and commented on its crushed red fruit. The participants failed to recognize that both wines were from the same bottle. The only difference was that one had been colored red with a flavorless dye.[8][9]

Geographic origin bias

For 6 years, Texas A&M University invited people to taste wines labeled "France", "California", "Texas", and while nearly all ranked the French as best, in fact, all three were the same Texan wine. The contest is built on the simple theory that if people don't know what they are drinking, they award points differently than if they do know what they are drinking.[10]

Vertical and horizontal tasting

Vertical and horizontal wine tastings are wine tasting events that are arranged to highlight differences between similar wines.

Tasting flights

Tasting flight is a term used by wine tasters to describe a selection of wines, usually between three and eight glasses, but sometimes as many as fifty, presented for the purpose of sampling and comparison.

Tasting notes

A tasting note refers to a taster's written testimony about the aroma, taste identification, acidity, structure, texture, and balance of a wine. Online wine communities like Bottlenotes allow members to maintain their tasting notes online and for the reference of others.

Serving temperature

The temperature that a wine is served at can greatly affect the way it tastes and smells. Lower temperatures will emphasize acidity and tannins while muting the aromatics. Higher temperatures will minimize acidity and tannins while increasing the aromatics.

Wine type Examples Temperature (Celsius) Temperature (Fahrenheit)
Light bodied sweet dessert wines Trockenbeerenauslese, Sauternes 6–10 °C 43–50 °F
White sparkling wines Champagne 6–10 °C 43–50 °F
Aromatic, light bodied white Riesling, Sauvignon blanc 8–12 °C 46–54 °F
Red sparkling wines Sparkling Shiraz, some frizzante Lambrusco 10–12 °C 50–54 °F
Medium bodied whites Chablis, Semillon 10–12 °C 50–54 °F
Full bodied dessert wines Oloroso Sherry, Madeira 8–12 °C 46–54 °F
Light bodied red wines Beaujolais, Provence rosé 10–12 °C 50–54 °F
Full bodied white wines Oaked Chardonnay, Rhone whites 12–16 °C 54–61 °F
Medium bodied red wines Grand Cru Burgundy, Sangiovese 14–17 °C 57–63 °F
Full bodied red wines Cabernet Sauvignon, Nebbiolo based wines 15–18 °C 59–64 °F

WSET recommendations

The Wine & Spirit Education Trust that administers the Master of Wine program uses the following recommendations for serving temperatures:[11]


Main article: Wine glass

The shape of a wineglass can have a subtle impact on the perception of wine, especially its bouquet.[12][13][14] Typically, the ideal shape is considered to be wider toward the bottom, with a narrower aperture at the top (tulip or egg shaped). Glasses which are widest at the top are considered the least ideal. Many wine tastings use ISO XL5 glasses, which are "egg"-shaped. Interestingly, the effect of glass shape does not appear to be related to whether the glass is pleasing to look at.[14]

Wine color

Without having tasted the wines, one does not know if, for example, a white is heavy or light. Before taking a sip, the taster tries to determine the order in which the wines should be assessed by appearance and nose alone. Heavy wines will be deeper in color and generally more intense on the nose. Sweeter wines, being denser, will leave thick, viscous streaks (called legs or tears) down the inside of the glass when swirled.


Judging color is the first step in tasting wine.

There are five basic steps in tasting wine: color, swirl, smell, taste, and savor.[15] These are also known as the "five S" steps: see, swirl, sniff, sip, savor. During this process, a taster must look for clarity, varietal character, integration, expressiveness, complexity, and connectedness.[16]

A wine's color is better judged by putting it against a white background. The wine glass is put at an angle in order to see the colors. Colors can give the taster clues to the grape variety, and whether the wine was aged in wood.

Characteristics assessed during tasting

Varietal character describes how much a wine presents its inherent grape aromas.[16] A wine taster also looks for integration, which is a state in which none of the components of the wine (acid, tannin, alcohol, etc.) is out of balance with the other components. When a wine is well balanced, the wine is said to have achieved a harmonious fusion.[16]

Another important quality of the wine to look for is its expressiveness. Expressiveness is the quality the "wine possesses when its aromas and flavors are well-defined and clearly projected."[17] The complexity of the wine is affected by many factors, one of which may be the multiplicity of its flavors. The connectedness of the wine, a rather abstract and difficult to ascertain quality, describes the bond between the wine and its land of origin (terroir).[16]

Connoisseur wine tasting

A wine's quality can be judged by its bouquet and taste. The bouquet is the total aromatic experience of the wine. Assessing a wine's bouquet can also reveal faults such as cork taint, oxidation due to age, overexposure to oxygen, or lack of preservatives and wild yeast contamination due to Brettanomyces or acetobacter yeasts. Although low levels of Brettanomyces aromatic characteristics can be a positive attribute, giving the wine a distinctive character, generally it is considered a wine spoilage yeast.

The bouquet of wine is best revealed by gently swirling the wine in a wine glass to expose it to more oxygen and release more aromatic[18] etheric, ester, and aldehyde molecules that comprise the essential components of a wine's bouquet.[15] Sparkling wine should not be swirled to the point of releasing bubbles.[19]

Pausing to experience a wine's bouquet aids the wine taster in anticipating the wine's flavors. The "nose" of a wine – its bouquet or aroma – is the major determinate of perceived flavor in the mouth. Once inside the mouth, the aromatics are further liberated by exposure to body heat, and transferred retronasally to the olfactory receptor site. It is here that the complex taste experience characteristic of a wine actually commences.

Thoroughly tasting a wine involves perception of its array of taste and mouthfeel attributes, which involve the combination of textures, flavors, weight, and overall "structure". Following appreciation of its olfactory characteristics, the wine taster savors a wine by holding it in the mouth for a few seconds to saturate the taste buds. By pursing ones lips and breathing through that small opening oxygen will pass over the wine and release even more esters. When the wine is allowed to pass slowly through the mouth it presents the connoisseur with the fullest gustatory profile available to the human palate.

The acts of pausing and focusing through each step distinguishes wine tasting from simple quaffing. Through this process, the full array of aromatic molecules is captured and interpreted by approximately 15 million olfactory receptors,[18] comprising a few hundred olfactory receptor classes. When tasting several wines in succession, however, key aspects of this fuller experience (length and finish, or aftertaste) must necessarily be sacrificed through expectoration.

Although taste qualities are known to be widely distributed throughout the oral cavity, the concept of an anatomical "tongue map" yet persists in the wine tasting arena, in which different tastes are believed to map to different areas of the tongue. A widely accepted example is the misperception that the tip of the tongue uniquely tells how sweet a wine is and the upper edges tell its acidity.[18]

Scoring wine

Main article: wine rating

As part of the tasting process, and as a way of comparing the merits of the various wines, wines are given scores according to a relatively set system. This may be either by explicitly weighting different aspects, or by global judgment (although the same aspects would be considered). These aspects are 1) the appearance of the wine, 2) the nose or smell, 3) the palate or taste, and 4) overall.[20] Different systems weight these differently (e.g., appearance 15%, nose 35%, palate 50%). Typically, no modern wine would score less than half on any scale (which would effectively indicate an obvious fault). It is more common for wines to be scored out of 20 (including half marks) in Europe and parts of Australasia, and out of 100 in the US. However, different critics tend to have their own preferred system, and some gradings are also given out of 5 (again with half marks).[21]


Spitting into a spittoon at a wine tasting.

Because intoxication can affect the consumer's judgment, wine tasters generally spit the wine out after they have assessed its quality at formal tastings, where dozens of wines may be assessed. However, since wine is absorbed through the skin inside the mouth, tasting from twenty to twenty-five samplings can still produce an intoxicating effect, depending on the alcoholic content of the wine.[22]

Visiting wineries

Traveling to wine regions is another way of increasing skill in tasting. Many wine producers in wine regions all over the world offer tastings of their wine. Depending on the country or region, tasting at the winery may incur a small charge to allow the producer to cover costs.

It is not considered rude to spit out wine at a winery, even in the presence of the wine maker or owner. Generally, a spittoon will be provided. In some regions of the world, tasters simply spit on the floor or onto gravel surrounding barrels. It is polite to inquire about where to spit before beginning tasting.

Attending wine schools

A growing number of wine schools can be found, offering wine tasting classes to the public. These programs often help a wine taster hone and develop their abilities in a controlled setting. Some also offer professional training for sommeliers and winemakers. It is even possible to learn how to assess wine methodically via e-learning.[23]

Sensory analysis

Tasting plays an important role in the sensory analysis (also referred to as organoleptic analysis) of wine. Employing a trained or consumer panel, oenologists may perform a variety of tests on the taste, aroma, mouthfeel and appeal of wines. Difference tests are important in determining whether different fermentation conditions or new vineyard treatments alter the character of a wine, something particularly important to producers who aim for consistency. Preference testing establishes consumer preference, while descriptive analysis determines the most prominent traits of the wine, some of which grace back labels. Blind tasting and other laboratory controls help mitigate bias and assure statistically significant results. Many large wine companies now boast their own sensory team, optimally consisting of a Ph.D. sensory scientist, a flavor chemist and a trained panel.

Grape varieties

Wine grape varieties are variously evaluated according to a wide range of descriptors which draw comparisons with other, non-grape flavors and aromas.[24][25] The following table provides a brief and by no means exhaustive summary of typical descriptors for the better-known varietals.

Red grape variety Common sensory descriptors
Cabernet Franc tobacco, green bell pepper, raspberry, freshly mown grass
Cabernet Sauvignon blackcurrants, eucalyptus, chocolate, tobacco
Gamay pomegranate, strawberry
Grenache smoky, pepper, raspberry
Malbec violet, plums, tart red fruit, earthy minerality
Merlot black cherry, plums, tomato
Mourvèdre thyme, clove, cinnamon, black pepper, violet, blackberry
Nebbiolo leather, tar, stewed prunes, chocolate, liquorice, roses, prunes
Norton red fruit, elderberries
Petite Sirah (Durif) earthy, black pepper, dark fruits
Petit Verdot violets (later), pencil shavings
Pinot noir raspberry, cherry, violets, "farmyard" (with age), truffles
Pinotage bramble fruits, earthy, smoky
Sangiovese herbs, black cherry, leathery, earthy
Syrah (Shiraz) tobacco, black/white pepper, blackberry, smoke
Tempranillo vanilla, strawberry, tobacco
Teroldego spices, chocolate, red fruits
Zinfandel black cherry, pepper, mixed spices, mint, anise

White grape variety Common sensory descriptors
Albariño lemon, minerals, apricot, peach
Breidecker apple, pear
Chardonnay butter, melon, apple, pineapple, vanilla (if oaked, e.g. vinified or aged in new oak aging barrels)
Chenin blanc wet wool, beeswax, honey, apple, almond
Gewürztraminer rose petals, lychee, spice
Grüner Veltliner green apple, citrus
Marsanne almond, honeysuckle, marzipan
Melon de Bourgogne lime, salt, green apple
Muscato honey, grapes, lime
Palomino honeydew, citrus, raw nuts
Pinot gris (Pinot grigio) white peach, pear, apricot
Prosecco apple, honey, musk, citrus
Riesling citrus fruits, peach, honey, petrol
Sauvignon blanc gooseberry, lime, asparagus, cut grass, bell pepper (capsicum), grapefruit, passionfruit, cat pee (tasters' term for guava)[26]
Sémillon honey, orange, lime
Trebbiano (Ugni blanc) lime, herbs
Verdicchio apple, minerals, citrus, lemon, almond
Vermentino pear, cream, green fruits
Viognier peach, pear, nutmeg, apricot

See also


  1. Peynaud, Émile (1996) The Taste of Wine: The Art and Science of Wine Appreciation, London: Macdonald Orbis, p1
  2. Ronald S. Jackson, Wine Tasting: A Professional Handbook, pp 2–3
  3. Peynaud, Émile (1996) The Taste of Wine: The Art and Science of Wine Appreciation, London: Macdonald Orbis, p2
  4. Chemical Object Representation in the Field of Consciousness – Frédéric Brochet
  5. Wine Snob Scandal – Brochet's work on dyed wine
  6. Georgiou, Maroulla (Apr 15, 2011). "Expensive and inexpensive wines taste the same, research shows". Phys.Org.
  7. Sample, Ian (April 14, 2011). "Expensive wine and cheap plonk taste the same to most people". The Guardian.
  8. Wine-tasting: it's junk science; The Guardian; June 22, 2013.
  9. The Colour of Odors; Morrot, Brochet and Dubourdeiu; 28 August 2001
  10. Liquid Assets - A fair competition; The Austin Chronicle; April 8, 2005.
  11. Wine & Spirits Education Trust "Wine and Spirits: Understanding Wine Quality" pg 66, Second Revised Edition (2012), London, ISBN 9781905819157
  12. Huttenbrink, K., Schmidt, C., Delwiche, J., & Hummel, T. (2001). The aroma of red wine is modified by the form of the wine glass. Laryno-Rhino-Otologie, 80(2), 96–100.
  13. Delwiche, J., & Pelchat, M. (2002). Influence of glass shape on wine aroma. Journal of Sensory Studies, 17(1), 19–28.
  14. 1 2 Hummel, T., Delwiche, J., Schmidt, C., & Huttenbrink, K. (2003). Effects of the form of glasses on the perception of wine flavors: a study in untrained subjects. Appetite, 41(2), 197–202.
  15. 1 2 Zraly, Kevin. Windows on the World: Complete Wine Course; Sterling Publishing, 2005.
  16. 1 2 3 4 MacNeil, Karen. The Wine Bible; Workman Publishing, New York (2001).
  17. MacNeil, Karen. The Wine Bible; Workman Publishing, New York, p.5 (2001).
  18. 1 2 3 Gluckstern, Willie (1998). The Wine Avenger. Simon & Schuster, Inc.
  19. "Eviter les erreurs Encyclopédie des Vignes au plaisir" (in French).
  20. Professional Friends of Wine
  21. Wine-Searcher
  22. Walton, Stuart (2005). Cook's Encyclopedia of Wine. Anness Publishing Limited 2002, 2005. pp. 10, 11. ISBN 0-7607-4220-0.
  23. Wine Campus offers an Honours Brevet via e-learning
  24. Varietal Profiles | Professional Friends of Wine
  25. Grape Varieties Explained
  26. "Sauvignon Blanc | Wine grapes". Retrieved 7 January 2016.

Further reading

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