Warsaw Ghetto boundary markers

Warsaw Ghetto boundary markers
Pomniki granic warszawskiego getta

Ghetto boundary marker in Bonifraterska Street
Location Warsaw
Designer Eleonora Bergman and Tomasz Lec
Material Bronze, cement
Completion date 2008, 2010
Plaques on the wall of the former "Duschik & Szolce" metal working factory at 63 Żelazna Street (on Grzybowska Street side)
Close-up of the ghetto map with a pin marking the exact location of the commemorated place (Świętojerska Street)
Plaque with historical information (Bielańska Street)
Ghetto boundary lines near the Palace of Culture and Science
Ghetto boundary marker in Twarda Street
Wooden footbridge over Przebieg Street commemorated in Bonifraterska Street
Ghetto walls lining both sides of Chłodna Street and the wooden footbridge which from January to August 1942 connected the small and big ghettos
Ghetto wall in the Iron-Gate Square commemorated on Drzewieckiego Avenue

The Warsaw Ghetto boundary markers are memorial plaques and boundary lines that mark the maximum perimeter of the former ghetto established by the Germans in 1940 in occupied Warsaw, Poland.

The markers were erected in 2008 and 2010 on 22 sites along the borders of the Jewish quarter, where from 1940-1943 stood the gates to the ghetto, wooden footbridges over Aryan streets, and the buildings important to the ghetto inmates.

Description and unveiling

In order to preserve the memory of the perished Jewish quarter, the Jewish Historical Institute and the City Monument Protection office took the initiative to feature in the public space of the Polish capital its most characteristic points on its former boundaries. The markers were designed by Eleonora Bergman and Tomasz Lec in cooperation with Ewa Pustoła-Kozłowska and Jan Jagielski.[1] Each marker consists of three elements:

By order of the German occupation authorities, the ghetto was cut off from the rest of the city on November 16, 1940. The ghetto area, surrounded by a wall, was initially 307 hectares (759 acres); with time, it was reduced. Starting in January 1942, it was divided in two parts called the small and large ghettos. Approximately 360,000 Warsaw Jews and 90,000 from other towns were herded into the ghetto. Nearly 100,000 died of hunger. During the summer of 1942, the Germans deported and murdered close to 300,000 people in the gas chambers of Treblinka. On April 19, 1943, an uprising broke out in the ghetto. Until mid-May, fighters and civilians perished in combat or in the systematically burned ghetto buildings. The remaining population was murdered by Germans in November 1943 in the Majdanek, Poniatowa and Trawniki concentration camps. Only a few survived.
To the memory of those who suffered, fought and perished.
The City of Warsaw, 2008.

The dates 1940-1943 have symbolic meaning as the years when the Warsaw Ghetto existed. Therefore, they should not be treated literally because most of the commemorated places were excluded in 1941-1942, one site was included into the ghetto in 1941, and two – in 1942.

Most plaques were placed on the 2.3 m (7.6 ft) tall cement posts that were specially designed on sett pavement; the rest were placed directly on the walls of the buildings and structures.

The markers were built between April and November 2008 and were inaugurated on 19 November 2008 by the mayor of Warsaw Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz.[2] On 27 January 2010 on the International Holocaust Remembrance Day, the 22nd marker was unveiled on site of the preserved ghetto wall in Sienna Street.[3]

The project was financed by the City of Warsaw and the Polish Ministry of Culture and National Heritage.[4]

Locations of the markers


  1. "Linia pamięci". Stolica (in Polish) (4): 23. April 2008.
  2. "Inauguracja projektu Upamiętnienia Granic Getta Warszawskiego" (in Polish). City of Warsaw. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  3. Rybarczyk, Robert. "Uciekła z getta, teraz odsłoniła tablicę" (in Polish). zyciewarszawy.pl. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  4. Urzykowski, Tomasz. "Tutaj był mur getta" (in Polish). warszawa.gazeta.pl. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  5. Mark, Bernard (1959). Walka i zagłada warszawskiego getta (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej. p. 257.
  6. Nalewajko-Kulikov, Joanna (2004). Strategie przetrwania. Żydzi po aryjskiej stronie Warszawy (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Neriton i Instytut Historii PAN. p. 26. ISBN 83-88973-80-0.
  7. Fuks, Marian (1983). Adama Czerniakowa dziennik getta warszawskiego 6.IX.1939 - 23.VII.1942 (in Polish). Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. p. 243. ISBN 83-01-03042-9.
  8. Stahlowa, Barbara (2009). Parafia Ewangelicko-Reformowana w Warszawie (Informator) (in Polish). Parafia Ewangelicko-Reformowana w Warszawie. p. 3.
  9. Mączewski, Ryszard (2009). Warszawa między wojnami (in Polish). Łódź: Dom Wydawniczy Księży Młyn. p. 124. ISBN 978-83-61253-51-8.
  10. Leociak, Jacek (2001). Spojrzenia na warszawskie getto. Leszno (in Polish). Warszawa: Dom Spotkań z Historią. p. 20. ISBN 978-83-62020-26-3.


Wikimedia Commons has media related to Markers of the Warsaw Ghetto borders.

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 5/31/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.