Voiceless bilabial affricate

Voiceless bilabial affricate

A voiceless bilabial affricate ([p͡ɸ] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a bilabial stop [p] and released as a voiceless bilabial fricative [ɸ]. It has not been reported to occur phonemically in any language.


Features of the voiceless bilabial affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[1] up [ʊp͡ɸ] 'up, onto' Optional pre-pausal allophone of /p/.[1] See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
English Broad Cockney[2] up [ˈɐʔp͡ɸ] 'up' Allophone of /p/, occurs mainly word-finally.[3] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[4] Rare allophone of /p/.[4] See English phonology
North Wales[5] [ˈəp͡ɸ] Word-initial and word-final allophone of /p/; in free variation with a strongly aspirated stop [pʰ].[5] See English phonology
Scouse[6] [ˈʊp͡ɸ] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /p/.[7] See English phonology
German Some speakers tropfen [ˈtʁ̥ɔp͡ɸn̩] 'to drop' Word-internal and word-final allophone of /p͡f/. See German phonology
Kaingang[8] [ˈp͡ɸɤ] 'seed' Possible word-initial allophone of /ɸ/.[8]
Northern Tiwa Taos dialect [ˌp͡ɸìˑˈwɛ̈̄ːnǣ] 'daughter' Allophone of /pʰ/, in free variation with [ph] and [ɸ]. See Taos phonology


  1. 1 2 Peters (2010), p. 240.
  2. Wells (1982), pp. 322-323.
  3. Wells (1982), p. 323.
  4. 1 2 Gimson (2014), p. 172.
  5. 1 2 Penhallurick (2004), pp. 108-109.
  6. Wells (1982a), p. 372.
  7. Wells (1982), p. 372.
  8. 1 2 Jolkesky (2009), pp. 680-681.


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