Voiced retroflex stop

Voiced retroflex stop
IPA number 106
Entity (decimal) ɖ
Unicode (hex) U+0256
Kirshenbaum d.
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)
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The voiced retroflex stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɖ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of a dee (the letter used for the corresponding alveolar consonant). Many Indian languages, such as Hindustani, have a two-way contrast between plain and murmured (breathy voice) [ɖ].


Features of the voiced retroflex stop:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian Astierna dialect ḷḷingüa [ɖiŋɡwä] 'tongue' Corresponds to /ʎ/ in other dialects. See Che Vaqueira
Bengali ডাকাত [ɖakat]'robber' Corresponds to /d/ in other dialects. See Bengali phonology
Chinese Wu [ɖiŋ] 'long' May be an affricate [ɖ͡ʐ] instead.
English Indian dialects dine [ɖaɪn] 'to eat' Corresponds to /d/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Hindi[1] डेढ़ [ɖeːɽʱ] 'one and a half' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Javanese ?/dhahar [ɖahaɽ] 'to eat'
Kannada ಸು [ʌɖʌsu] 'to join'
Malayalam പാണ്ഡവര് [ˈpäːɳɖäʋər]'Pandavas'
Marathi हा [haːɖ] 'bone' See Marathi phonology
Nihali [biɖum] 'one'
Norwegian varde [ˈʋɑɖːə] 'beacon' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto ډﻙ [ɖak]'full'
Punjabi ਡੱਡੂ [ɖəɖːu]'frog'
Sardinian cherveddu  [kerˈveɖːu]  'brain'
Sicilian beddu [ˈbɛɖːu] 'handsome'
Somali dhul [ɖul] 'earth, land, ground' See Somali phonology
Swedish nord [nuːɖ] 'north' See Swedish phonology
Tamil[2] ண்டி [ʋəɳɖi] 'cart' Allophone of /ʈ/. See Tamil phonology
Telugu రు [ʌɖʌru] 'to arise'
Torwali[3] ? [ɖiɣu] 'late afternoon' Realised as [ɽ] between vowels.
Urdu ڈالنا [ɖɑːlnɑː] 'to put' See Hindi-Urdu phonology

See also



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