Voiced labiodental stop
|Voiced labiodental stop|
|IPA number||102 408|
|Unicode (hex)||U+0062 U+032A|
The voiced labiodental stop is a consonant sound produced like a [b], but with the lower lip contacting the upper teeth, as in [v]. This can be represented in the IPA as ⟨b̪⟩. A separate symbol that is sometimes seen, especially in Bantu linguistics but not recognized by the IPA, is the db ligature ⟨ȸ⟩.
The voiced labiodental stop is not known to be phonemic in any language. However, it does occur allophonically:
In the Austronesian language Sika, this sound occurs as an allophone of the labiodental flap in careful pronunciation.
The XiNkuna dialect of Tsonga has affricates, [p̪͡f] (voiceless labiodental affricate) and [b̪͡v] (voiced labiodental affricate) (that is, [ȹ͡f] and [ȸ͡v]), which unlike the bilabial-labiodental affricate [p͡f] of German are purely labiodental.
Features of the "voiced labiodental stop":
- Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
- Its place of articulation is labiodental, which means it is articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Danish||Standard||véd||[b̪̆e̝ːˀð̠˕ˠ]||'know(s)'||Rather short; also described as an approximant [ʋ]. A rare alternative is a fricative [v]. See Danish phonology|
|Sika||Allophone of /ⱱ/ in careful pronunciation.|
- ↑ Basbøll (2005), p. 27.
- ↑ Basbøll (2005), pp. 27, 66.
- Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5