It was created on 15 July 1902 for the Conservative politician Victor Spencer, 3rd Baron Churchill. The title of Baron Churchill, of Wychwood in the County of Oxford, was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1815 for his grandfather Lord Francis Spencer, younger son of George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough (see Duke of Marlborough (title) for earlier history of the family). He had previously represented Oxfordshire in Parliament. As of 2010 the titles are held by the first Viscount's youngest son, the third Viscount, who succeeded his half-brother, the second Viscount, in 1973. As a descendant of the fourth Duke of Marlborough he is also in remainder to this peerage and its subsidiary titles.
Barons Churchill (1815)
- Francis Almeric Spencer, 1st Baron Churchill (1779–1845)
- Francis George Spencer, 2nd Baron Churchill (1802–1886)
- Victor Albert Francis Charles Spencer, 3rd Baron Churchill (1864–1934) (created Viscount Churchill in 1902)
Viscounts Churchill (1902)
- Victor Albert Francis Charles Spencer, 1st Viscount Churchill (1864–1934)
- Victor Alexander Spencer, 2nd Viscount Churchill (1890–1973)
- Victor George Spencer, 3rd Viscount Churchill (b. 1934)
There is no heir to the viscountcy. The heir presumptive to the barony is the present holder's second cousin once removed, Richard Harry Ramsay Spencer (b. 1926). He is the great-grandson of General the Hon. Sir Augustus Almeric Spencer, third son of the first Baron.
- The London Gazette: . 18 July 1902.
- Kidd, Charles, Williamson, David (editors). Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage (1990 edition). New York: St Martin's Press, 1990,
- Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Francis George Spencer, 2nd Baron Churchill
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Victor Alexander Spencer, 2nd Viscount Churchill
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Victor George Spencer, 3rd Viscount Churchill