Hallingmål-Valdris (also known by the individual names Halling, Hallingdøl, or Valdresmål) is a group of Norwegian dialects traditionally spoken in the traditional districts Hallingdal, Buskerud and Valdres, Oppland.
- /rn/ is usually realized as a prestopped nasal [dn̩], while the allophone [ɳ] only occurs in words like baren ([bɑːɳ]) "the bar".
- /rl/ also has a prestopped realization [dl].
- The phoneme which is commonly called thick L (written /ɽ/ in IPA), exists in words that had either ⟨l⟩ or ⟨rð⟩ in Old Norse. In Vang, /ɽ/ occurs only in the first case.
- The consonant clusters ⟨sk⟩, ⟨skj⟩, and ⟨sj⟩ were not pronounced as [ʂ], only ⟨-rs-⟩ was. Sørbygdi in Flå pronounces ⟨sj⟩ as [ʂ], while Gulsvik pronounces it as [ʂj].
- The consonant clusters ⟨sl⟩ and ⟨tl⟩ were mostly assimilated to [sl]. Hol and Ål assimilated these to [l̥], and Sørbygdi in Flå assimilated ⟨sl⟩ to [ʂl].
- The clusters ⟨-ld⟩, ⟨-nd⟩ and ⟨-mb⟩ are pronounced as spelled.
- The Old Norse cluster ⟨-fn⟩ is pronounced as assimilated [bdn] or [bn].
- The back vowels [ʊ, uː] and [ɔ, oː] in older Hallingmål-Valdris were pronounced as in Old Norse, without the vowel shift to, respectively, [ʉ, ʉː] and [ʊ, uː] that is found in most other Norwegian dialects.
- The short Old Norse vowels ⟨o⟩ and ⟨ö⟩ are pronounced as central [ɞ] almost everywhere, except for Ål (but not Torpo), where these are back [ɔ]. In Valdres (except for Vang), the schwa /ə/ can also be realized as [ɞ].
- Traditionally, /æ, æː/ were pronounced as open-mid [ɛ, ɛː].
- The words pronounced [e(ː)] and [ɛ(ː)] mean "I" and "am", respectively.
- Itacism is found in southern Hallingdal (Flå, Nes and some in Gol), making the vowel /yː/ to be unrounded to [iː].
- The Old Norse diphthongs ⟨ei⟩, ⟨ey⟩ and ⟨au⟩ are traditionally pronounced as [aɪ̯], [ɔʏ̯] ([eɪ̯] in southern Hallingdal) and [aʊ̯]. This is occurs today especially in upper Valdres and Hol and Ål.
- The southern villages Begnadalen and Hedalen in Sør-Aurdal, Valdres don't speak Valdris, as their dialect is closer to the Ringerike dialect.
- It may also be realized as [tn̩] in Hemsedal, Gol and the southern villages in Valdres, although this only occurs in plural definite form.
- The IPA used here is with the traditional diphthongs, and the vowel shift.
- Only used in Valdres.
- Only used in Hallingdal and the southern villages in Valdres.
- Only used in Hallingdal.
- These forms are used interchangeably, though Hallingdal only uses the first, without the r.
- Only used in Aurdal and Etnedal.
- Only used in Valdres, except for Vang.
- Only used in Sør-Aurdal.
- In the older dialects of Vang and Slidre, [ˈvoːˈra] has been used for feminine, but is not used today.
- Only used in Hol and Ål.
- Kvåle 1999, p. 7.
- Jahr 1990, p. 57.
- Kvåle 1999, p. 12.
- Skjekkeland 1997, p. 116.
- Kvåle 1999, p. 19, 21.
- Jahr 1990, p. 58.
- Kvåle 1999, p. 17.
- Venås 1977, p. 36.
- Ross 1907, p. 20.
- Venås 1977, p. 16.
- Kvåle 1999, p. 18.
- Skjekkeland 1997, p. 216.
- Venås 1977, p. 48.
- Kvåle 1999, p. 15.
- Skjekkeland 1997, p. 47.
- Kvåle 1999, p. 16.
- Venås, Kjell. "dialekter i Hallingdal". snl.no. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- Kvåle 1997, p. 15.
- Jahr 1990, p. 56.
- Kvåle 1999, p. 20-25.
- Ross 1907, p. 22.
- Kvåle 1999, p. 32-34.
- Venås 1977, p. 127-133.
- Kvåle 1999, p. 32.
- Venås 1977, p. 127-128.
- Kvåle 1997, p. 34.
- Venås 1977, p. 129.
- Jahr, Ernst Håkon (1990). Den Store dialektboka (in Norwegian). Oslo: Novus. ISBN 8270991678.
- Kvåle, Karen Marie (1999). Dè è'kji gøtt veta ko dai saia: talemålsendring i Valdres (in Norwegian). Oslo: Valdreslaget i Oslo. ISBN 8299538505.
- Ross, Hans (1907). Norske bygdemaal. 3-6: Oust-telemaal o numedalsmaal; Hallingmaal o valdresmaal; Gudbrandsdalsmaal; Upplandsmaal (in Norwegian). Christiania: I kommision hos Jacob Dybwad.
- Skjekkeland, Martin (1997). Dei norske dialektane: tradisjonelle særdrag i jamføring med skriftmåla (in Norwegian). Kristiansand: Høyskoleforlaget. ISBN 8276341039.
- Strand, Thea Randina (2009). Varieties in Dialogue: Dialect Use and Change in Rural Valdres, Norway. The University of Arizona: ProQuest. ISBN 1109104251.
- Venås, Kjell (1977). Hallingmålet (in Norwegian). Oslo: Samlaget. ISBN 8252107176.