United Kingdom general election, 1970
|Colours denote the winning party, as shown in the main table of results.|
|1964 election • MPs|
|1966 election • MPs|
|1970 election • MPs|
|February 1974 election • MPs|
|October 1974 election • MPs|
The United Kingdom general election of 1970 was held on 18 June 1970, and resulted in a surprise victory for the Conservative Party under leader Edward Heath, who defeated the Labour Party under Harold Wilson. The Liberal Party and its new leader Jeremy Thorpe lost half their seats. The Conservatives, including the Ulster Unionists, were given a majority of 31. The election was the first in which people could vote from the age of 18, after the Representation of the People Act 1969.
As of 2016 it is currently the earliest General Election from which there are still MPs in the House of Commons who have continuous service, with Gerald Kaufman, Kenneth Clarke and Dennis Skinner all entering parliament for the first time.
Most opinion polls prior to the election had indicated a comfortable Labour victory and had put Labour up to 12.4% ahead of the Conservatives. On election day, however, a late swing gave the Conservatives a 3.4% lead and ended almost six years of Labour government, although Wilson remained leader of the Labour Party in opposition.
The result would provide the mandate for Edward Heath as Prime Minister to begin formal negotiations for the United Kingdom to become a member of the European Economic Community or the "Common Market" as it was more widely known at the time and officially joined the EEC on 1 January 1973.
The date of 18 June was supposedly chosen because Harold Wilson wanted to go to the polls before the introduction of decimal coinage in early 1971, for which his government had been responsible and which he thought was hugely unpopular and because Wilson sought to gain some momentum by surprising the Conservatives, who were expecting an October election.
Commentators believed that an unexpectedly bad set of balance of payments figures (a £31 million trade deficit) released on election day and loss of national prestige after the England football team's defeat by West Germany on the 15th of June in the World Cup, contributed to the Labour defeat.
Other factors that were cited as reasons for the Conservative victory included union indiscipline, rising prices, the risk of devaluation, the government’s imposition of Selective Employment Tax (SET) and a set of jobless figures released on polling day showing unemployment at its highest level since 1940. Interviewed by Robin Day, the outgoing Prime Minister Harold Wilson highlighted the possibility that "complacency engendered by the opinion polls" may have resulted in a poor turnout of Labour supporters. As defending world champions, England's venture in the World Cup attracted a much keener public interest than the general election did.
American pollster Douglas Schoen and Oxford University academic R. W. Johnson asserted that Enoch Powell had attracted 2.5 million votes to the Conservatives, although the Conservative vote only increased by 1.7 million. Johnson later stated "It became clear that Powell had won the 1970 election for the Tories... of all those who had switched their vote from one party to another, 50 per cent were working class Powellites". The Professor of Political Science Randall Hansen assessed a range of studies, including some which contended that Powell had made little or no difference to the result, but concluded that "At the very least, Powell's effect was likely to have fired up the Conservative vote in constituencies which would have voted Tory in any event". Election night commentators Michael Barratt and Jeffrey Preece dismissed any special ‘Powell factor’, as did Conservative MPs Reginald Maudling, Timothy Raison and Hugh Dykes.
The 1970-74 Parliament has to date been the only time since the 1924-29 Parliament in which the Conservative Party were only in government for one term before returning to opposition.
The most notable casualty of the election was George Brown, Deputy Leader of the Labour Party, who lost to the Conservative candidate in the Belper constituency. Brown had held the seat since 1945.
Unusually for the Liberals the by-elections between 1966-1970 had proved almost fruitless, with many Liberal candidates losing deposits. The one exception was their by-election gain of Birmingham Ladywood in June 1969, promptly lost in the General Election the following year. The Liberals found themselves struggling to introduce their new leader Jeremy Thorpe to the public due to the extensive coverage and attention paid to Enoch Powell. The election result was poor for the Liberals, with Thorpe only narrowly winning his own seat in North Devon.
On the BBC, the election coverage was led by Cliff Michelmore along with Robin Day, David Butler and Robert McKenzie. There were various cutaways to the BBC regions. The coverage has been rerun on BBC Parliament on several occasions, including on 18 July 2005 as a tribute to Edward Heath upon his death the previous day. Its most recent screening was on 9 October 2010. BBC coverage of the 1970 general election was parodied by Monty Python's Flying Circus in its famous Election Night Special sketch.
Both BBC and ITN carried their 1970 election night broadcasts in colour, although segments broadcast from some remote locations and some BBC and ITN regional bureaus were transmitted in black-and-white. Some ITV regions were not yet broadcasting in colour at the time of the 1970 elections.
The Prime Minister Harold Wilson visited Buckingham Palace on 18 May and asked the Queen to dissolve Parliament on 29 May, announcing that the election would be held on 18 June. The key dates were as follows:
|Friday 29 May||Dissolution of the 44th parliament and campaigning officially begins|
|Monday 8 June||Last day to file nomination papers|
|Wednesday 17 June||Campaigning officially ends|
|Thursday 18 June||Polling day|
|Friday 19 June||The Conservative Party wins power with a majority of 31|
|Monday 29 June||45th parliament assembles|
|Thursday 2 July||State Opening of Parliament|
Opinion poll summary
Summary of the final polling results before the general election.
|Party||Marplan||Gallup||National Opinion Polls (NOP)||Opinion Research Centre (OPC)||Harris|
|Fieldwork dates||11–14 June||14–16 June||12–16 June||13–17 June||20 May – 16 June|
This was the first general election where 18-year-olds had the right to vote. Therefore, despite 1.1 million more people voting in 1970 compared to 1966, turnout actually fell by 3%. Labour's number of votes, 12.2 million, was ironically the same amount they had needed to win in 1964. The Tory vote surge cost Labour in many marginal seats. As for the Liberals a small 1% drop in their vote share saw them lose 6 seats, 3 of which were held by the narrowest of margins.
In the end the Conservatives achieved a swing of 4.7%, enough to give them a comfortable working majority. As for the smaller parties, they increased their number in the commons from 2 to 6 seats.
|Party||Leader||Standing||Elected||Gained||Unseated||Net||% of total||%||No.||Net %|
|Conservative||Edward Heath||628||330||80||3||+ 77||52.4||46.4||13,145,123||+ 4.5|
|Labour||Harold Wilson||625||288||1||76||– 75||45.7||43.1||12,208,758||– 4.9|
|Liberal||Jeremy Thorpe||332||6||0||6||– 6||1.0||7.5||2,117,035||– 1.0|
|SNP||William Wolfe||65||1||1||0||+ 1||0.2||1.1||306,802||+ 0.6|
|Plaid Cymru||Gwynfor Evans||36||0||0||0||0||0.6||175,016||+ 0.4|
|Communist||John Gollan||58||0||0||0||0||0.1||37,970||– 0.1|
|Protestant Unionist||Ian Paisley||2||1||1||0||+ 1||0.2||0.1||35,303||N/A|
|Republican Labour||Gerry Fitt||1||1||0||0||0||0.2||0.1||30,649||N/A|
|Independent Labour||N/A||3||1||1||0||+ 1||0.2||0.1||24,685||+ 0.1|
|Independent Conservative||N/A||8||0||0||0||0||0.1||24,014||+ 0.1|
|Democratic Party||Desmond Donnelly||5||0||0||0||0||0.1||15,292||N/A|
|National Democratic||David Brown||4||0||0||0||0||0.1||14,276||N/A|
|National Front||John O'Brien||10||0||0||0||0||0.0||11,449||N/A|
|National Democratic||Gerry Quigley||2||0||0||0||0||0.0||10,349||N/A|
|Vectis National Party||R. W. Cawdell||1||0||0||0||0||0.0||1,607||N/A|
|World Government||Gilbert Young||2||0||0||0||0||0.0||1,016||N/A|
|Mebyon Kernow||Len Truran||1||0||0||0||0||0.0||960||N/A|
|Ind. Labour Party||Emrys Thomas||1||0||0||0||0||0.0||847||0.0|
|British Movement||Colin Jordan||1||0||0||0||0||0.0||704||N/A|
|Young Ideas||Screaming Lord Sutch||1||0||0||0||0||0.0||142||N/A|
All parties are listed. The Conservative figure includes eight Ulster Unionists
|Government's new majority||30|
|Total votes cast||28,305,534|
|Conservative and Unionist||46.4%|
|Conservative and Unionist||52.4%|
- These declarations were covered live by the BBC where the returning officer was heard to say "duly elected"
|Constituency||Winning party 1966||Constituency result by party||Winning party 1970|
|Salford West||Labour||14,310||16,986||Labour hold|
|Wolverhampton North East||Labour||15,358||17,251||1,592||Labour hold|
|Salford East||Labour||9,583||15,853||3,000||Labour hold|
|Wolverhampton South West||Conservative||26,252||11,753||2,459||318||Conservative hold|
|Newcastle upon Tyne Central||Labour||4,256||13,671||1,433||Labour hold|
|Newcastle upon Tyne North||Conservative||15,978||12,518||Conservative hold|
- Edwin Brooks (Bebington)
- Brian Parkyn (Bedford)
- Gwilym Roberts (South Bedfordshire)
- George Brown (Belper) – Deputy Leader of the Labour Party
- Eric Moonman (Billericay)
- Christopher Price (Birmingham Perry Barr)
- Ioan Evans (Birmingham Yardley) - Comptroller of the Household
- Robert Howarth (Bolton East)
- Gordon Oakes (Bolton West)
- Woodrow Wyatt (Bosworth)
- Norman Haseldine (Bradford West)
- Colin Jackson (Brighouse and Spenborough)
- Raymond Dobson (Bristol North East) – Assistant Whip
- John Ellis (Bristol North West)
- Robert Maxwell (Buckingham)
- David Ensor (Bury and Radcliffe)
- Jennie Lee (Cannock) - Minister for the Arts
- Ted Rowlands (Cardiff North)
- Alistair Macdonald (Chislehurst)
- Ednyfed Hudson Davies (Conway)
- David Winnick (Croydon South)
- Sydney Irving (Dartford) – Chairman of Ways and Means
- David Ennals (Dover) - Minister of State for Social Services
- Stan Newens (Epping)
- Gwyneth Dunwoody (Exeter) - Parliamentary Secretary at the Board of Trade
- John Dunwoody (Falmouth and Camborne)
- Terence Boston (Faversham)
- John Diamond (Gloucester) - Chief Secretary to the Treasury
- Albert Murray (Gravesend) - Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Transport
- Benjamin Whitaker (Hampstead) - Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Overseas Development
- Roy Roebuck (Harrow East)
- Peter Jackson (High Peak)
- Arnold Shaw (Ilford South)
- Sir Dingle Foot (Ipswich) - Solicitor General for England and Wales
- John Binns (Keighley)
- John Page (Kings Lynn)
- Stanley Henig (Lancaster)
- Harold Davies (Leek) - Parliamentary Private Secretary to Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Wilson
- James Dickens (Lewisham West)
- William Howie (Luton) - Comptroller of the Household
- Jeremy Bray (Middlesbrough West)
- Dennis Coe (Middleton and Prestwich)
- George Perry (Nottingham South)
- John Horner (Oldbury and Halesowen)
- Evan Luard (Oxford)
- Ronald Atkins (Preston North)
- John Lee (Reading)
- Anne Kerr (Rochester and Chatham)
- Anthony Greenwood (Rossendale) - Minister of Housing and Local Government
- Antony Gardner (Rushcliffe)
- Bob Mitchell (Southampton Test)
- Arnold Gregory (Stockport North)
- Ernest Davies (Stretford)
- Gerald Fowler (The Wrekin)
- John Ryan (Uxbridge)
- Malcolm Macmillan (Western Isles)
- Hugh Gray (Yarmouth)
- Kenneth Baker (Acton) – By-election win
- Donald Williams (Dudley) – By-election win
- Esmond Wright (Glasgow Pollok) - By-election win
- Bruce Campbell (Oldham West) - By-election win
- Christopher Ward (Swindon) - By-election win
- Fred Silvester (Walthamstow West) - By-election win
- Wallace Lawler (Birmingham Ladywood)
- Michael Winstanley (Cheadle)
- Richard Wainwright (Colne Valley)
- Eric Lubbock (Orpington) - Liberal Chief Whip
- Alasdair Mackenzie (Ross and Cromarty)
Ulster Unionist Party
- Henry Maitland Clark (Antrim North)
- James Hamilton, Marquess of Hamilton (Fermanagh and South Tyrone)
Scottish National Party
- Winnie Ewing (Hamilton) – By-election win
- Desmond Donnelly (Pembrokeshire) – Former Labour MP
- 1 2 Joe Haines: Glimmers of Twilight. London, Politico's Publishers, 2003
- 1 2 3 1970: Heath's surprise victory BBC News
- 1 2 BBC Election Results Programme, 18–19 July 1970.
- ↑ Simon Heffer, Like the Roman: The Life of Enoch Powell (London: Phoenix, 1999), p. 568
- ↑ Randell Hansen, Citizenship and Immigration in Post-War Britain (Oxford University Press, 2000)
- ↑ BBC Election 1970 BBC Parliament
- ↑ Abrams, M. 1970. The Opinion Polls and the 1970 British General Election. The Public Opinion Quarterly. 34(2): p.317-324.
- ↑ From BBC Parliament Replay
- Butler, David E. et al. The British General Election of 1970 (1971) the standard scholarly study
- F. W. S. Craig, British Electoral Facts: 1832–1987
- United Kingdom election results – summary results 1885–1979 Election Demon
- A Better Tomorrow – 1970 Conservative Party manifesto
- Now Britain's strong – let's make it great to live in – 1970 Labour Party manifesto
- What a Life! – 1970 Liberal Party manifesto