|Founded||April 6, 1926 (as Varney Air Lines)|
|Commenced operations||March 28, 1931|
|Airport lounge||United Club|
|Company slogan||"Fly the Friendly Skies"|
|Parent company||United Continental Holdings|
|Headquarters||Willis Tower, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.|
|Revenue||US$ 37.864 billion (2015)|
|Operating income||US$ 5.166 billion (2015)|
|Net income||US$ 7.340 billion (2015)|
|Total assets||US$ 39.210 billion (2015)|
|Total equity||US$ 2.396 billion (2015)|
United Continental Holdings, Inc., commonly referred to as United, is a major American airline headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. It is the world's largest airline when measured by number of destinations served, operates a comprehensive domestic and international route network, and has significant presence in the Asia-Pacific region. In the late 1920s, just prior to the use of the United Airlines name, The Boeing Company, currently one of the world's largest aircraft manufacturers, operated a predecessor airline. United was previously known as United Air Lines (UAL).
United is a founding member of Star Alliance, the world's largest global airline alliance. Regional service is operated by independent carriers under the brand name United Express. Its main competitors are American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, and Southwest Airlines.
United operates out of nine airline hubs located in Chicago, Denver, Guam, Houston, Los Angeles, Newark, San Francisco, Tokyo and Washington, D.C. George Bush Intercontinental Airport in Houston is United's largest passenger carrying hub handling 16.6 million departing passengers annually with an average of 45,413 passengers daily, while Chicago-O'Hare is its largest hub in terms of daily departures. The company employs over 86,000 people while maintaining its headquarters in Chicago's Willis Tower (formerly known as Sears Tower). Through the airline's parent company, United Continental Holdings, it is publicly traded under NYSE: UAL with a market capitalization of over $18 billion as of September, 2014. United operates maintenance bases in Cleveland and Orlando in addition to the maintenance locations located at United's hubs.
In 1927, aviation pioneer William Boeing founded his airline Boeing Air Transport to operate the San Francisco to Chicago air mail route. In 1929, Boeing merged his company with Pratt & Whitney to form the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation (UATC) which then set about buying, in the space of just 28 months, Pacific Air Transport, Stout Air Services, Varney Air Lines and National Air Transport, as well as numerous equipment manufacturers at the same time.
Thus it is said that United Airlines traces its roots to the Varney Air Lines air mail service of Walter Varney, who also founded Varney Speed Lines from which Continental Airlines had originated. Founded in Boise, Idaho in 1926, the carrier flew the first contract air mail flight in the U.S. on April 6, 1926, marking the first scheduled airline service in the country's history with flights between Pasco, WA and Elko, NV via Boise.
In 1933, United began operating the Boeing 247, the first all-metal airliner. It was able to fly a transcontinental flight in 20 hours, making it significantly faster than its predecessors. After passage of the Air Mail Act in 1934, UATC separated into United Aircraft (the future United Technologies), the Boeing Airplane Company and United Air Lines.
After World War II, United gained from a boom in customer demand for air travel, with its revenue per passenger-miles jumping five-fold in the 1950s, and continued growth occurring through the next two decades.
In 1954 United Airlines became the first airline to purchase modern flight simulators which had visual, sound and motion cues for training pilots. Purchased for US$3 million (1954) from Curtiss-Wright, these were the first of today's modern flight simulators for training of commercial passenger aircraft pilots.
United merged with Capital Airlines in 1961 and regained its position as the United States' largest airline. In 1968, the company reorganized, creating UAL Corporation, with United Airlines as a wholly owned subsidiary. In 1970, the UAL Corporation acquired Western International Hotels, and its name was later changed to Westin Hotel Company. The 1970s also saw economic turmoil, resulting in "stagflation" and labor unrest. The 1978 Airline Deregulation Act, resulting in industry shakeups, further added to the carrier's difficulties in a loss-making period.
In 1982, United became the first carrier to operate the Boeing 767, taking its first delivery of 767-200s on August 19. In May 1985, the airline underwent a 29-day pilot strike over management's proposed "B-scale" pilot pay rates. Then-company CEO Richard Ferris changed United's parent company's name from UAL Corporation to Allegis in February 1987, but following his termination, the company reverted to the name UAL Corp. in May 1988, and divested non-airline properties.
In 1985, United expanded dramatically by purchasing Pan Am's entire Pacific Division, giving it a prime Asian hub at Tokyo's Narita International Airport, and in 1991 purchased routes to Heathrow Airport from ailing Pan Am,. making it one of two US carriers permitted exclusive access to Heathrow under Bermuda II until "open skies" took effect in 2008 (American Airlines being the other, after it purchased TWA's Heathrow landing slots). The aftermath of the Gulf War and increased competition from low-cost carriers led to losses in 1991 and 1992. In 1994, United's pilots, machinists, bag handlers and non-contract employees agreed to an Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP), acquiring 55% of company stock in exchange for 15–25% salary concessions, making the carrier the largest employee-owned corporation in the world. The carrier also launched a low-cost subsidiary in 1994, Shuttle by United a high frequency, west coast-based operation, in an attempt to compete with low-cost carriers; the subsidiary remained in operation until 2001.
In 1995, United became the first airline to introduce the Boeing 777 in commercial service. In 1997, United co-founded the Star Alliance airline partnership. In May 2000, United announced a controversial plan to acquire US Airways for US$11.6 billion, but withdrew the offer in July 2001 before the United States Department of Justice barred the merger on antitrust grounds due to widespread objection from employee unions, customers and political leaders. May 2000 also saw a bitter contract dispute between United and its pilots' union over pay cuts and concessions to fund the ESOP and overtime work, causing summer flight cancellations until a salary increase was agreed upon.
During the September 11, 2001 attacks, two of the four airliners hijacked and crashed by al-Qaeda members were United Airlines aircraft (United Airlines Flight 175 was flown into the south World Trade Center tower; United Airlines Flight 93 was crashed in a field in Pennsylvania after the passengers fought back against the hijackers). An airline industry downturn resulted, and coupled with economic difficulties, skyrocketing oil prices, and higher labor costs, the company lost US$2.14 billion in 2001. In the same year United applied for a US$1.5 billion loan guarantee from the federal Air Transportation Stabilization Board established in the wake of the September 11 attacks. After attempts to secure additional capital failed, UAL Corporation filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in December 2002 and the ESOP was terminated.
United's bankruptcy operations resulted in furloughing thousands of workers, closing all U.S. city ticket offices, cancelling several existing and planned routes, downsizing its Miami operations, closing maintenance bases, replacing employee pensions, and fleet reductions. The carrier also negotiated cost cuts with employees, suppliers, and contractors, and terminated feeder contracts with United Express carriers Atlantic Coast Airlines and Air Wisconsin. The carrier launched a new, all coach, low-cost carrier named Ted in 2003, and a luxury "p.s." (for "premium service") coast-to-coast service on re-configured 757s in 2004. In 2005, United cancelled its pension plan in the largest such default in U.S. corporate history.
In 2005, United announced it had raised US$3 billion in financing to exit bankruptcy and filed its Plan of Reorganization, as announced, on September 7, 2005. United Airlines emerged from bankruptcy on February 1, 2006. In late 2006, Continental Airlines participated in preliminary merger discussions with United. On June 4, 2008, United announced it would close its Ted unit and reconfigure the subsidiary's aircraft for a return to mainline configuration.
On April 16, 2010, United resumed merger talks with Continental Airlines. (The two airlines had previously discussed merging in 2008.) The board of directors of both Continental and UAL Corporation's United Airlines reached an agreement to combine operations on May 2, 2010. While United would be the surviving airline, the merged airline would adopt Continental's logo and livery. Continental's CEO Jeff Smisek would head the new company. The merger was contingent upon shareholder and regulatory approval.
The United-Continental merger was approved by the European Commission in July 2010 and by the US Justice Department on August 27, 2010. On September 17, 2010, United's shareholders approved the merger deal with Continental Airlines. On October 1, 2010, UAL Corporation changed its name to United Continental Holdings, Inc. to reflect that both United Airlines, Inc. (“United”) and the Company ("Continental") are its wholly owned subsidiaries. Both carriers planned to begin merging operations in 2011 to form the world's biggest carrier. The airline began operating under a single operating certificate from the FAA on November 30, 2011, in the process retaining Continental's air operator's certificate, and surrendering the one of the original United.
In October 2015, United Airlines appointed Brett J. Hart as its acting CEO, four days after chief executive Oscar Muñoz suffered a heart attack.
United Airlines is a combination of a number of air carriers that have merged with each other starting in the 1930s, with the most recent being Continental Airlines (which had previously merged with or acquired several airlines during its history) thus reflecting changes in focus of both United and the U.S. air transport market.
Predecessor air carriers that form the present United Airlines include:
- Boeing Air Transport (formed in 1927, merged into United Airlines in 1931)
- Capital Airlines (formed in 1936, merged into United Airlines in 1961)
- Continental Airlines (formed in 1934, merged into United Airlines in 2010)
- Air Micronesia (formed in 1968 as a division of Continental Airlines, later became Continental Micronesia and merged into Continental Airlines in 2010)
- New York Air (formed in 1980, merged into Continental Airlines in 1987)
- Pioneer Airlines (formed in 1939, merged into Continental Airlines in 1955)
- People Express Airlines (PEOPLExpress) (formed in 1981, merged into Continental Airlines in 1987)
- Frontier Airlines (formed in 1950, merged into People Express Airlines in 1986)
- Texas International Airlines (formed in 1944 as Trans-Texas Airways (TTa), Continental Airlines merged into Texas Air in 1982, with Texas Air changing its name to Continental)
- National Air Transport (formed in 1925, merged into United Airlines in 1931)
- Pacific Air Transport (formed in 1926, merged into United Airlines in 1931)
- Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) (Formed in 1927, Pacific Division acquired by and merged into United in 1985, Heathrow Airport international traffic rights acquired by and merged into United in 1990. Pan Am was later forced to declare bankruptcy in 1991)
- Varney Air Lines (formed in 1926, merged into United Airlines in 1931)
Many of these acquisitions and mergers were completed by Continental Airlines when this carrier was under the ownership and control of Texas Air Corporation from 1982 to 1987. During that time period, New York Air and Texas International Airlines (which were already owned by Texas Air Corporation before this company acquired Continental) were merged into Continental. Texas Air Corporation subsequently acquired PEOPLExpress Airlines (which had previously acquired Frontier Airlines) and then folded these air carriers into Continental as well. As for United, before merging with Continental it had acquired Capital Airlines in the 1960s and had also purchased Pan Am's Pacific Division as well as Pan Am's transatlantic route rights into Heathrow Airport during the 1980s.
The pre-merger United logo, commonly nicknamed the "tulip", was first developed in the early 1970s after the airline commissioned designer Saul Bass to develop a new brand image. The logo skillfully represented the airline's monogram as well as a modernized version of the airline's shield logo which had been adopted in the 1930s, but fell out of use by the late 1960s. The ribbon-like rendering has also been said to symbolize the motion of flight.
The next livery update came in the early 1990s: the CKS Group-designed "Battleship", a grey fuselage with dark blue underbelly and engines, with blue stripes on the vertical stabilizer, a smaller "tulip" on the vertical stabilizer. A smaller, more refined version of the rainbow stripes from the previous livery were incorporated as well. This livery debuted on January 11, 1993. In 2004, the Pentagram-developed "Rising Blue" livery featured a white and lighter blue fuselage, along with a cropped version of the tulip on the tail.
In 2010, the newly merged United adopted Continental Airlines' 1991 livery scheme, which included the Continental globe symbol. The current United livery consists of a white upper fuselage, with a gold globe on a blue tailfin, and a gray underbelly. All mainline aircraft are now painted in this livery, save for the airframes listed in special liveries below, which include two retro liveries. Boeing 787 Dreamliners use a modified version of the livery, with a wavy gold stripe painted along both sides of the fuselage.
United resurrected its popular "Fly the Friendly Skies" slogan in September 2013. Until September, 2013, the slogan, adopted after the merger of United and Continental in October 2010, was "Let's fly together". This replaced the slogan "It's time to fly" created in 2004. United's earliest slogan, "The Main Line Airway", emphasized its signature New York-Chicago-San Francisco route, and was replaced in 1965 with "Fly the Friendly Skies". The "friendly skies" tagline was in use until 1996 in its first iteration.
On September 20, 2013 United announced a return of the "Fly the Friendly Skies" slogan in an ad campaign to start the following day. The resurrected slogan will be accompanied by the "Rhapsody in Blue" theme song and a voice over provided by Matt Damon.
United's theme song is George Gershwin's 1924 "Rhapsody in Blue", which it licensed from Gershwin's estate for US$500,000 (equivalent to $2,082,749 in 2015) in 1976. "Rhapsody" would have entered the public domain in 2000, but the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 extended its copyright another 20 years. United announced that it would continue to use "Rhapsody in Blue" as its theme song following the merger with Continental.
United is a major sponsor of six of Chicago's seven major professional sports teams—the Bears, Blackhawks, Bulls, Fire, Sky and White Sox. It had previously served as a sponsor of the Chicago Cubs, however, the club signed a deal with United's O'Hare rival American Airlines in 2015. United also flies the U.S. Olympic Team, D.C. United, Denver Broncos, Golden State Warriors, Kansas City Royals, Kansas City Chiefs, Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, Los Angeles Dodgers, Miami Marlins, San Francisco 49ers, SF Giants, San Jose Earthquakes, San Jose Sharks, Sporting KC, Washington Capitals, Washington Mystics, Washington Redskins and Washington Wizards. The Blackhawks and Bulls play their games in the United Center, which the airline holds the naming rights to until 2033.
Through its merger with Continental Airlines, United also became the official airline of the Brooklyn Nets, Buffalo Bills, Cleveland Indians, Cleveland Cavaliers, Cleveland Browns, New York Giants, New Jersey Devils, Houston Dynamo, Houston Texans, Houston Astros, and all of the New York Road Runners races (which after the merger, in 2015, became the title sponsor of the New York City Half Marathon). The Houston Rockets had used them as their airline sponsor; they signed a deal with Southwest in 2015.
United sponsors all Tuesday subscription concerts of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.
In 2007, United Airlines moved its headquarters and its 350 top executives from its headquarters at 1200 East Algonquin Road in suburban Elk Grove Township to 77 West Wacker Drive after considering alternate locations in Denver, Colorado and San Francisco, California. The Elk Grove Village campus was renamed an Operations Center and United Airlines consolidated several of its offices in the suburbs of Chicago into the Elk Grove Village campus.
After the City of Chicago submitted a US$35 million (2010) incentive, including US$10 million (2010) in grants for United to move its remaining employees to Chicago, United proceeded to schedule a move of about 2,500 employees out of the former Elk Grove Township headquarters and into Willis Tower (formerly known as the Sears Tower) in downtown Chicago. Monica Davey of The New York Times said that the move may have contributed to United's decision to base the newly merged United Continental Holdings out of Chicago instead of Houston. On May 31, 2012, United opened its new operations center at Willis Tower in downtown Chicago. The company occupies 16 floors of the Willis Tower.
UAL, United Airline's parent company prior to its merger with Continental Airlines, previously held majority ownership stakes in several major travel and leisure companies. UAL's former subsidiaries include international hotel chains Westin Hotels and Resorts and Hilton Hotels Corporation as well as global car rental company Hertz. UAL sold or spun off most of its assets not related to its core airline operations during the 1980s and '90s.
United formerly owned the Waikiki Seaside Hotel, a hotel in Honolulu, Hawaii which was used by its flight crews and was sold in February 2012.
On August 23, 2011, United announced a conversion to paperless flight decks and deployed 11,000 iPads to all United pilots. Each iPad, which weighs less than 1.5 pounds, replaced approximately 38 pounds of paper operating manuals, navigation charts, reference handbooks, flight checklists, logbooks and weather information in a pilot's flight bag. The electronic flight bags (EFBs) replaced conventional flight bags full of paper materials that contains an average of 12,000 sheets of paper per pilot, and as a first for major network carriers, provide pilots with paperless aeronautical navigational charts through an iPad app. The green benefits of moving to EFBs include reductions in paper use, printing, and fuel consumption. Distribution of the iPads began in early August 2011, and all pilots were using them by the years end.
On November 7, 2011, United Airlines flew the world's first commercial aviation flight on a microbially derived biofuel using Solajet™, Solazyme's algae-derived renewable jet fuel, and fueled with 40 percent Solajet and 60 percent petroleum-derived jet fuel. This was operated by the "Eco-Skies" Boeing 737-800 aircraft on a flight from Houston to Chicago.
On July 12, 2012, United announced an order for 100 Boeing 737 MAX 9s, a new, more fuel efficient version of the Boeing 737 family. These aircraft will be used to replace the less fuel efficient domestic fleet of Boeing 757-200s.
On January 15, 2013, Aviation Partners Boeing (APB) announced that United had placed an order to retrofit its existing Boeing Next Generation 737s' Blended Winglets with APB's new Split Scimitar Winglet. The program consists of retrofitting 737NGs' winglets by replacing the aluminum winglet tip cap with a new aerodynamically shaped "Scimitar" winglet tip cap and by adding a new Scimitar tipped Ventral Strake. This modification demonstrated significant aircraft drag reduction over the basic Blended Winglet configuration. The new APB winglet technology was estimated to save United more than $250 million per year in jet fuel costs fleet wide.
All United Airlines pilots are represented by the Air Line Pilots Association. A new Joint Collective Bargaining Agreement was ratified by a majority of the United/Continental pilots on December 15, 2012, which struck down a scope clause that disallowed Continental from outsourcing the flying of regional jets with 70 or more passenger seats.
In 2013, after pressure from PETA, United announced that it would no longer transport monkeys to laboratories. United was the last North American passenger airline to transport these animals to laboratories.
In a first for the U.S. airline industry, United awarded airline miles as "bug bounties" to hackers who could identify gaps in the carrier’s web security. Two hackers have each been rewarded with 1 million miles of air travel as of July 15, 2015. This cyber security program was announced a few weeks before the company experienced two software glitches. The first incident delayed 150 United flights on June 2 due to a problem with its flight dispatching system. Six days later, United’s reservation system delayed flights by not allowing passengers to check in. In addition to the "bug bounty" program, United said it tests systems internally and engages cybersecurity firms.
- George Bush Intercontinental Airport – located in Houston, is United's 2nd largest hub. It is the airline's hub for the Southern United States and primary gateway to Latin America (inherited after the merger with Continental Airlines). About 15.8 million passengers depart IAH on United every year, or about 43,300 people per day. United currently has about 78% of the seat share at Bush, making it the airport's largest tenant. Houston was also previously Continental's biggest hub before the United-Continental merger.
- Chicago O'Hare International Airport – O'Hare is United's Largest hub and its hub for the Midwest. United flies approximately 16.1 million departing passengers through O'Hare every year, which is about 44,000 people per day, making it also the busiest airline at the airport. United's corporate headquarters are also in Chicago.
- Newark Liberty International Airport – The third largest hub for United in terms of number of flights and destinations and United's primary hub for the East Coast and gateway to Europe, Latin America and Asia (inherited after the merger with Continental Airlines). About 12.2 million passengers depart on United through Newark every year, or about 33,495 people per day. United controls about 81% of the slots at Newark and carries about 68% of all passengers at the airport, making it the airport's largest airline. Newark was previously Continental's second biggest hub before the United-Continental merger. United controls all of Terminal C and uses part of Terminal A for United Express Flights.
- Denver International Airport – The fourth largest hub in terms of number of destinations and flights and United's hub for the central and western United States. United flies approximately 10.3 million departing passengers a year through DIA, which is about 28,333 people per day. As of March 2015, United has about 43.37% of the market share at DIA, making it the airport's biggest airline. DIA was previously United's second biggest hub before the United-Continental merger. Denver is the only domestic hub without service to Europe (although the carrier at one point operated a seasonal service from Denver to Heathrow Airport. Star Alliance partner Lufthansa operates nonstop service to Frankfurt and Munich with a United code share agreement).
- San Francisco International Airport – The fifth largest hub in terms of number of flights, and sixth biggest in terms of number of destinations, and United's primary hub for the West Coast and gateway to Asia, Europe and Australia. About 10.1 million passengers depart through SFO every year on United, which is about 27,746 people per day. United has about 46.1% of the market share at San Francisco International, making it the biggest airline at the airport. San Francisco was previously United's third biggest hub before the United-Continental merger.
- Washington Dulles International Airport – The sixth largest hub in terms of number of flights, and fifth biggest in terms of number of destinations, and United's secondary hub for the East Coast and gateway to Europe. United has about 65.2% of the market share at Washington Dulles, making it the largest airline at the airport. About 6.5 million departing passengers fly through Dulles every year on United, which is about 17,824 people per day. Dulles was previously United's fourth biggest hub before the United-Continental merger.
- Los Angeles International Airport – The seventh largest hub for United in terms of number of destinations and flights and United's secondary hub for the West Coast and gateway to Asia and Australia. About 5.9 million departing passengers fly through LAX on United every year, or about 16,041 people per day. United has about 16.65% of the market share at LAX, making it the third biggest carrier at the airport. LAX was previously United's fifth biggest hub before the United-Continental merger.
- Guam A. B. Won Pat International Airport – The eighth biggest hub in terms of number of destinations and flights and United's hub for the Pacific (inherited after the merger with Continental Airlines). Guam was previously Continental's fourth biggest hub before the United-Continental merger.
- Tokyo Narita International Airport – The ninth largest hub in terms of number of destinations and flights and United's hub for Asia. Narita was previously United's sixth biggest hub before the United-Continental merger.
- Cleveland Hopkins International Airport – United Airlines maintained a secondary East Coast hub in Cleveland until 1985, when they began to move the hub to Washington Dulles. By the time the transition finished in 1987, Continental Airlines made the airport its then fifth hub as their first Midwest hub. United kept Cleveland as a hub following the United-Continental merger. Four years after the merger on February 1, 2014, United announced it was dehubbing Cleveland due to the hub not being profitable. The airport was officially dehubbed on June 5, 2014. Other reasons for the dehubbing include the close proximity of the larger hubs of Chicago-O'Hare, Washington-Dulles and Newark, which were bigger hubs, and the lack of any flights out of North America.
- Miami International Airport – When United bought Pan Am's international routes from Miami to Europe and Latin America in 1991, Miami became a hub for the airline. In May 2004, MIA was dehubbed and United moved its flights to its main hub in Chicago.
- Stapleton International Airport – Both United and Continental operated hubs from Denver International Airport's predecessor airport, with both hubs lasting from 1972 until the airport closed in 1995. When Stapleton was replaced with DIA, United made the transfer, but Continental decided against keeping a hub in Denver.
United Airlines operates to 235 destinations and 138 international destinations in 60 countries across Asia, Americas, Europe, and Oceania. United operates an extensive domestic route network from its seven domestic hubs and is a leading U.S. carrier between Hawaii and the continental U.S. United also operates international hubs in Guam and Tokyo. The carrier, along with Air Canada, Air China, British Airways, Delta Air Lines, Emirates, Etihad Airways, Korean Air, Qantas, Qatar Airways, Singapore Airlines, and South African Airways, was one of the few airlines to fly to all six inhabited continents. However, since 30 June 2016, United no longer holds this distinction, as scheduled services to Africa were discontinued.
|3||Newark, New Jersey||397||161|
|5||San Francisco, California||275||99|
|7||Los Angeles, California||139||56|
United inaugurated service to Accra, Ghana on June 20, 2010, which was the carrier's first African destination. With this addition, United has provided service to all continents except Antarctica. United's service to Accra was extended to Lagos, Nigeria which was the carrier's second African destination on December 12, 2010, with nonstop service commencing on November 16, 2011, and terminating on December 18, 2011 - although Lagos was still serviced by the carrier, albeit with a non-stop flight from Houston. United later terminated services to Accra altogether on July 3, 2012. United's last remaining service to Africa from Houston to Lagos was terminated on June 30, 2016.
In 1988, the bilateral (though not reciprocal) treaty with Japan was amended to allow additional routes between the two countries. United's application to fly from Chicago-O'Hare to Tokyo-Narita, a significant gap in its routes previously, was approved. On October 18, 2013, United filed an application with the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) to fly from San Francisco to Tokyo's Haneda Airport; the airline launched flights in October 2014. On February 28, 2014, the USDOT tentatively granted approval for the airline's San Francisco-Haneda route; which launched on October 26, 2014.
United is the leading U.S. carrier to the People's Republic of China in terms of capacity, with nonstop flights to Beijing, Chengdu, Hangzhou, Shanghai, and Xi'an, as well as the former British territory of Hong Kong, from its hubs in Chicago, Los Angeles, Newark, San Francisco and Washington, D.C. In September 2007, United was granted a route from San Francisco to Guangzhou but the route was never launched. On May 20, 2011, the airline was granted service from Los Angeles to Shanghai that launched. On June 9, 2014, the airline introduced nonstop service to Chengdu from San Francisco, operated with a Boeing 787. United will introduce nonstop seasonal service to Xi'an from San Francisco beginning May 8, 2016 operating until October 27, 2016, which will be operated with a Boeing 787.
On January 29, 2016, United Airlines introduced a daily nonstop service from San Francisco to Singapore operated with a Boeing 787, from June 1, 2016, making it the first airline to offer direct services from the United States to Singapore. The eastbound journey will take 15 hours 30 minutes and 16 hours 20 minutes westbound. With the introduction of the nonstop service, existing services from Singapore Changi Airport to Tokyo Narita will be terminated. Star Alliance partner Singapore Airlines, on 16 June 2016 announced that it would be starting a daily nonstop service to San Francisco from 23 October 2016. The new service will be flown with an Airbus A350-900.
United has service to Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, both with daily flights from Los Angeles and daily flights to Sydney from San Francisco. United also launched service three times weekly to Auckland, New Zealand from San Francisco on July 1, 2016. This flight now operates daily with a Boeing 777-200ER aircraft.
As of May 2016, United serves 27 cities in the western, southern and northern parts of Europe with direct year-round or seasonal flights, most of them from Newark, Chicago-O'Hare or Washington-Dulles. The country with the most airports served is the United Kingdom with 6 destinations, followed by Germany with 4 destinations. United also is the only US airline with service to the European cities of Oslo, Hamburg, and Berlin. Services to Copenhagen, Denmark were terminated in September 2012. United will end service to Belfast on January 9, 2017.
United offers service to Tel Aviv from Newark and San Francisco. United previously launched service to Kuwait City via Bahrain on April 18, 2010 and Doha via Dubai on May 1, 2012. Services to Bahrain, Kuwait City, Doha and Dubai were terminated due to competition from Middle Eastern airlines.
During winter months, United has made a point of increasing its flights into regional airports that serve ski resorts, such as Aspen, Bozeman, Jackson Hole and Montrose, as the airline has found it a profitable niche. This is in addition to its major hub service in Denver. With more than 300 weekly flights into regional ski town airports, United has more than triple the ski service of the next closest airline, Delta.
United had requested to do a slot swap at New York-JFK and New York-Newark (EWR) by giving Delta its 24 JFK slots in return for 24 of Delta's EWR slots. This is a direct result of the movement of United's transcontinental p.s. flights from JFK to EWR around the same time. However, this would further increase United's monopoly at EWR beyond the current 73%, causing any such deal to face a great amount of scrutiny. As of November 2015, the US DOJ has sued UAL and DAL to block the slot swap.
United codeshares with the following airlines:
- Aer Lingus
- Air Canada
- Air China
- Air Dolomiti
- Air New Zealand
- All Nippon Airways
- Asiana Airlines
- Austrian Airlines
- Avianca Brazil
- Azul Brazilian Airlines
- Brussels Airlines
- Cape Air
- Copa Airlines
- Croatia Airlines
- Ethiopian Airlines
- EVA Air
- Great Lakes Airlines
- Hawaiian Airlines
- Island Air
- Jet Airways
- LOT Polish Airlines
- Scandinavian Airlines
- Silver Airways
- Singapore Airlines
- South African Airways
- Swiss International Air Lines
- TAP Portugal
- Turkish Airlines
Most of the United Airlines fleet consists of Boeing aircraft. As of November 2016, its fleet consists of the following:
|Airbus A350-1000||—||35||Order under review for conversion to Airbus A350-900 and Airbus A330. Deliveries begin in 2018.|
|Boeing 737-700||40||—||12||—||40||66||118||Order for 65 aircraft converted in November 2016 to 4 737-800s and 61 deferred indefinitely.|
Future conversions to 737 MAX under consideration.
|Boeing 737 MAX 9||—||99||Deliveries begin in 2018.|
|Boeing 747-400||20||—||12||52||70||240||374||To be phased out by 2018|
Will be replaced by 777-300ER and A350-1000.
|—||28||42||72||142||United p.s. configuration.|
|Boeing 767-300ER||35||—||6||26||71||80||183||To be reconfigured into 2-class configuration.|
|Boeing 777-200||19||—||32||—||98||214||344||266-seat aircraft used for international operations to be reconfigured for domestic use.|
|Boeing 777-200ER||55||—||8||40||113||108||269||Largest operator of the 777-200ER|
|Boeing 777-300ER||—||14||—||60||102||204||366||First delivery launches United Polaris business class on December 1, 2016.|
|Boeing 787-9||18||5||—||48||88||116||252||To be delivered through 2017.|
|Boeing 787-10||—||14||Deliveries begin in 2018.|
|Embraer E175||—||24||Aircraft originally ordered by Republic Airways Holdings|
Order taken over by United in November 2016
United received its first Boeing 787 Dreamliner on September 22, 2012, becoming the first U.S. carrier to do so. The airline announced plans to place the Boeing 787 into scheduled passenger service effective November 4, 2012, on U.S. domestic routes from Houston to Chicago, New York Newark, Washington-Dulles and San Francisco prior to operating the Dreamliner in scheduled international service. However several Dreamliner battery incidentsBoeing_787_Dreamliner_battery_problems caused all 787s to be grounded for four months from January 2013; and United's 787s did not resume operations until mid-May that year. United is also the North American launch customer for the 787-9 and 787-10, stretched versions of the base 787-8 model.
|Airbus A320-200||1970s United "Friendship" retro livery||N475UA|
|Boeing 737-700||Star Alliance livery||N13720|
|Boeing 737-900ER||March of Dimes partial on current livery||N66848|
|"Eco-skies" partial on white fuselage||N75432|
|Continental Retro "Blue Skyways" livery||N75435|
|Boeing 757-200||Star Alliance livery||N14120|
|Boeing 80A||1934||Launch customer (as Boeing Air Transport)|
|Boeing 40A||1937||Launch customer (as Boeing Air Transport); also operated by Varney Air Lines|
|Boeing 247||1942||Launch customer; all 59 of the base model were built for United|
|Ford Trimotor||Operated in 1931 on a transcontinental route between New York City and San Francisco.|
|Laird Swallow J-5||Single seat biplane used to carry US Air Mail (CAM 5) by predecessor Varney Air Lines.|
|Boeing 377 Stratocruiser||1954|
|Vickers Viscount||1969||Boeing 727 & 737||Former Capital Airlines aircraft. Only mainline turboprop aircraft type ever operated by United.|
|Sud Aviation Caravelle||1970||Boeing 727 & 737||Only U.S. airline operator of this French-manufactured intermediate range twinjet|
|Lockheed L-1011 TriStar||1989||McDonnell Douglas DC-10||Purchased from Pan American World Airways.|
|Boeing 720||1976||Boeing 727||Launch Customer.|
|Douglas DC-8||1992||Boeing 757-200||Largest DC-8 operator.|
Fleet included stretched DC-8 "Super 60" series (DC-8-61) and re-engined "Super 70" series (DC-8-71) aircraft.
United accomplished the re-engining of its Super DC-8 aircraft in-house via its maintenance dept. One crashed in 1960 (UA 826).
|Boeing 727-100||1993||Boeing 737-500||Launch customer|
|Boeing 747SP||1995||Boeing 747-400||Purchased from Pan American World Airways|
|Boeing 747-100||1999||Boeing 777-200/-200ER|
|McDonnell Douglas DC-10||2001||Boeing 777-200/-200ER||Launch Customer. Fleet included original DC-10-10 variant and larger, longer range DC-10-30 variant. One crashed in 1989.|
|Boeing 747-200||2000||Boeing 747-400|
|Boeing 727-200||2001||Airbus A320 family|
|Boeing 737-200||2001||Airbus A320 family||Launch customer|
|Boeing 737-300||2009||Airbus A320 family|
|Boeing 737-500||2009, 2013||Airbus A320 family,
|The United 737-500 and 767-200ER fleet had been retired by 2009 and 2005, respectively. The 737-500s and 767-200ERs inherited from the merger with Continental Airlines were disposed of by 2013. One 767-200 crashed during the September 11 attacks (UA 175).|
|Boeing 767-200ER||2005, 2013||Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner|
United Polaris First
United Polaris First is United's international first class product, and is offered on all Boeing 747-400s, as well as select Boeing 767-300ERs and Boeing 777-200ERs. A standard Polaris First suite is 6.5 ft (2.0 m) long and reclines into a fully flat bed. All seats are equipped with a personal LCD television with Audio-Video-on-Demand (AVOD), an adjustable headrest, an iPod adapter, a US-style 120-volt power outlet, a large tray table, and other amenities. United launched a new turn-down service which is available on all long-haul international flights. United Polaris First is used as a temporary brand for existing 3-class aircraft until they are reconfigured or retired.
United Polaris Business
United Polaris Business is offered on all wide-body aircraft (with the exception of domestically configured 777-200s), as well as all Boeing 757-200s. Polaris Business passengers check in at separate counters and can use priority security screening where available. In-flight services include pre-departure beverages, table linens and multi course meals designed by United's Congress of Chefs on international flights. Passengers are also given priority with boarding and baggage handling and access to the United Polaris Lounge where available, as well as the United Club and partner airline lounges. Routes from Newark and Washington-Dulles to Honolulu utilize Polaris Business equipped aircraft, however these flights are sold as United First but do not allow for complimentary premier upgrades. All Polaris Business seats recline 180 degrees into a full, flat bed. On Boeing 747-400, select Boeing 777-200ER and Boeing 767-300ER aircraft, the seats alternate facing forward and backwards. On the Boeing 787, Boeing 767-400, Boeing 757-200 and select Boeing 767-300ER and Boeing 777-200ER aircraft, all seats face forward.
Other domestic routes, especially hub-to-hub service and certain non "United p.s." transcontinental flights regularly see internationally configured aircraft with BusinessFirst (and sometimes GlobalFirst) for operational reasons (such as transferring international aircraft from one hub to another). While the physical seats and entertainment are the same as on international flights, the service, catering and other amenities are the same as in domestic first class. Unlike routes marketed as "BusinessFirst" and United p.s., these flights are eligible for complimentary premier upgrades.
On June 2, 2016, United introduced their new, redesigned international business class seat that will replace BusinessFirst. The new Polaris Business seat will be featured on Airbus A350-1000, Boeing 777-300ER, and Boeing 787-10 aircraft, and will be retrofitted later on Boeing 767, Boeing 777-200ER, and Boeing 787 aircraft. The Polaris seat converts into a 6' 6" flat bed in a 1-2-1 configuration, providing all-aisle access for every seat. The seat boasts multiple storage areas, mood lighting, multiple charging ports, lumbar support, and improved dining and amenity services. United will provide nine new airport lounges to accompany the new business class seats.
p.s. (short for "Premium Service") is a sub-brand for transcontinental flights between Newark and Los Angeles or San Francisco. Initially launched in 2004, these flights utilize Boeing 757-200s, with 180-degrees-flat Polaris Business seats. The premium cabin also features international style catering, while all seats have access to inflight wi-fi, on demand entertainment, and power outlets. Passengers also have access to the United Club at Newark, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.
United p.s. routes are not eligible for complimentary Premier upgrades, although MileagePlus members can upgrade using Regional Premier Upgrade e-certificates, Global Premier Upgrade e-certificates, or miles.
United First and United Business
United First is offered on all domestically configured aircraft. When such aircraft are used on international services such as services to Canada, Central America and the Caribbean destinations, this cabin is branded as United Business. United First seats on narrowbody aircraft have a 38 in (96.5 cm) pitch, while United First seats on domestic Boeing 777-200 aircraft feature fully flat bed seats. Passengers receive priority boarding and baggage handling, pre-departure beverages, complimentary meals and separate check-in desks.
In 2015, United released their new domestic first class seat design. The new leather seats feature cradling headrests, granite cocktail tables, and a tablet stand. These seats will debut on Airbus A319 and Airbus A320 aircraft, and will eventually be installed on all domestic aircraft.
United Economy Plus is available on all aircraft. Economy Plus seats are located in the front few rows and exit rows of the economy cabin and have 2 inches more recline and at least 5-6 inches of additional seat pitch totaling 4-7 inches of recline (aircraft dependent) and 35-37 inches of pitch. Economy Plus is complimentary for all MileagePlus Premier members. Premier 1K, Platinum and Gold members may select an Economy Plus seat when booking, while silver members can select an Economy Plus seat at check-in. It can also be purchased depending upon availability by other passengers.
Prior to the merger between United and Continental, United Airlines aircraft offered Economy Plus, while Continental did not. Following the merger, Economy Plus was rolled out across the combined fleet.
United Economy is available on all aircraft, and usually have a pitch of 31 inches (30 inches on aircraft refurbished with Slimline seats, and 32 inches on Boeing 787s) and a recline of 2-5 inches. All economy seats feature an adjustable headrest and some form of entertainment, ranging from AVOD, inflight wi-fi, personal device entertainment, or overhead entertainment. Economy seats on Boeing 767, Boeing 777 and Boeing 787 aircraft feature a personal a 7 inches (18 cm) touchscreen television at the back of each seat with United Private Screening. Boeing 757-300 and a select Boeing 737 aircraft feature overhead entertainment. On Airbus A319, A320, select Boeing 737, Boeing 747, select Boeing 757-300 and domestically configured Boeing 777 aircraft feature personal device entertainment, and WiFi. Other Boeing 737 and Boeing 757-300 aircraft feature DirecTV. On Boeing 747-400s, entertainment is also provided by main-screen TVs above the aisles above the seats. Food and snacks are available for purchase on domestic, Caribbean, and some Latin America flights. These include snacks, fresh meals, and snack boxes, depending on flight time and distance. Meals are complimentary on all other international flights. Only beverages are complimentary in economy on North America flights. Alcoholic beverages are available for purchase on North America flights, but are complimentary on long-haul international flights. On flights where meals are served, a cocktail snack with a beverage is served shortly after takeoff, followed by a main course, then dessert. Longer international flights feature a pre-arrival meal, which usually consists of a light breakfast or snack. United announced that it will offer free snacks on domestic, Caribbean, and Latin America flights beginning in February 2016.
Frequent flyer services
The United Club is the airline lounge associated with United Airlines and United Express carriers. United Clubs feature snacks, hot foods, beverages, and many areas to relax. The United Club replaced the former United Red Carpet Club and Continental Airlines Presidents Club prior to the merger with Continental.
Among United's subscriptions that passengers pay an annual fee for:
Accidents and incidents
|1930s||NC13304||Flight 6||Flight 4||NC13323||NC13355|
|1940s||Flight 521||Flight 608||Flight 624|
|1950s||Flight 129||Flight 610||Flight 615||Flight 409||Flight 629||Flight 718||Flight 736|
|1960s||Flight 826||Flight 859||Flight 297||Flight 823||Flight 389||Flight 227||Flight 266|
|1970s||Flight 553||Flight 2860||Flight 173|
|1980s||Flight 811||Flight 232||Flight 2885|
|1990s||Flight 585||Flight 826|
|2000s||Flight 175||Flight 93|
- Berryman, Marvin E. "A History of United Airlines". United Airlines Historical Foundation. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
- "The Boeing Logbook: 1927-1932". Boeing. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
- "Airline Certificate Information – Detail View". av-info.faa.gov. Federal Aviation Administration. August 11, 1938.
Certificate Number CALA014A
- "Corporate Fact Sheet". United Airlines. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- "United Airlines Names Oscar Muñoz Chief Executive Officer". September 8, 2015. Retrieved September 8, 2015.
- "United Poaches American Airlines President Scott Kirby". August 30, 2016. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
- "United names former Air Canada CEO Robert Milton as chairman, settles proxy dispute". September 2, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
- "News Releases".
- "Earnings Releases".
- "United Technical Operations". www.unitedtechops.com. Retrieved 2016-01-11.
- "United Mainline Fleet (Refresh for latest) - The United Airlines Fleet Website". google.com. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
- Destinations Served. United Airlines Official Statistics. Copyright 2013.
- "Star Alliance Facts and Figures" (PDF). Star Alliance. 31 Mar 2014. Retrieved 4 Apr 2014.
- http://www.timetableimages.com, June 1, 1961 United Air Lines system timetable
- "Airport Fact Sheets". unitedcontinentalholdings.com. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
- "Airport Fact Sheets, Houston George Bush Intercontinental Airport". United Airlines. December 1, 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-01.
- "The Willis Tower: 233 South Wacker Drive, Chicago, Illinois, 60606". Chicago Architecture Info. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
- Nickey Friedman (September 29, 2014). "3 Reasons United Continental Holdings Inc's Stock Could Rise". fool.com. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
- "United Technical Operations". unitedtechops.com. Retrieved 2016-01-11.
- Davies Air Enthusiast January/February 2007, pp. 66–67.
- "The Boeing Logbook: 1927 - 1932". Boeing.com. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
- "History of UAL Corporation". FundingUniverse. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- Davies Air Enthusiast January/February 2007, p. 74.
- "Era 1: 1910–1925". united.com. United Airlines, Inc. 2007. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2011.
...Walter T Varney, who launched air mail service over a desolate stretch of terrain between Pasco, Wash., and Elko, Nev., on April 6, 1926.
- Fredericks, Darold (November 29, 2010). "Walter Varney Airfield and United Airlines". smdailyjournal.com. San Mateo Daily Journal. Archived from the original on January 3, 2011. Retrieved January 13, 2011.
He later based his business, Varney Air Lines, in Boise, Idaho.
- Fuscher, David; Garvey, Bill. "History of Flight in the US – Seventy-Five Years United". Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Davies Air Enthusiast March/April 2007, p. 71.
- Sherman, Stephen (April 2007). "Boeing Model 247 - The first modern airliner". AcePilots.com. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- Davies Air Enthusiast March/April 2007, pp. 72–73.
- Handbook of Airline Statistics (biannual CAB publication)
- "Airline Pilots Fly Anywhere in the world – Without Leaving the Ground." Popular Mechanics, August 1954, p. 87.
- "Boeing 767 Milestones". Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Warren, James; Jouzaitis, Carol (13 June 1985). "Accord In United Strike". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- "United's Parent Is Again UAL." The New York Times.
- "United Once More." TIME. 2
- Petzinger Jr. 1995, p. 594.
- "United Airlines – Timeline". United.com. Archived from the original on February 8, 2005. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- Manjoo, Farhad (12 December 2002). "United's ESOP fable". Salon.com. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "About the 777 family". Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- "United-US Airways Merger Dead". ABC News. 27 July 2000. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- "United Airlines, pilots union reach tentative agreement". CNN. 26 August 2000. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Donnelly, Sally (24 November 2003). "Air Support". Time Magazine. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- "Timeline of United Airlines' bankruptcy". USA Today. 1 February 2006. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- "Timeline of United Airlines' Bankruptcy". USATODAY.
- "UAL, Continental Discuss Merger As AirTran Presses Bid for Midwest." Carey, S.; Trottman, M.; Berman, D. K. The Wall Street Journal. December 13, 2006.(subscription required)
- "United and Continental Discussing Possible Merger." Sorkin, A. R. and Bailey, J. The New York Times. December 12, 2006.
- Raabe, Steve (5 June 2008). "United's Ted to fly no more". The Denver Post. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- "Worldwide". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved 2011-12-25.
- Mouawad, Jad; Sorkin, Andrew Ross (15 April 2010). "Continental and United Are in Merger Talks Again". New York Times. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- AP (May 2, 2010). "Continental, United airlines to combine". New York Post. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- Karp, Aaron; Flint, Perry (July 28, 2010). "United, Continental name merged management team, wins EC approval". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Johnsson, Julie (27 August 2010). "Justice Department approves United and Continental airlines merger". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Peterson, Kyle (September 17, 2010). "UAL and Continental shareholders approve merger". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
- J. Sabatino, Jr., Thomas. "Form 8-K Continental Airlines Inc.". sec.org. United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- "United, Continental to merge operations in 2011". The San Francisco Chronicle. September 20, 2010.
- Blachly, Linda (December 1, 2011). "FAA approves single operating certificate for United, Continental merger". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Riegler, Paul. "United and Continental Complete Computer System and Web Site Merger". Frequent Business Traveler.
- "United Airlines named Brett J. Hart its acting CEO". Quartz. Retrieved 2015-10-20.
- "Corporate And Legal History Of United Airlines And Its Predecessors And Subsidiaries 1925-1955" Chicago: United Airlines. 1965
- Davies, R.E.G. "Airlines of the United States since 1914". Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. 1972
- Fisher, David; William Garvey "The Age of Flight: A History of America’s Pioneering Airline" Greensboro, NC: Pace Communications, 2001
- ERIC WEINER (1990-08-10). "Lorenzo, Head of Continental Air, Quits Industry in $30 Million Deal". New York Times - Webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved 2012-12-25.
- "Continental Airlines – 1934". Fabulair. 2011-11-30. Retrieved 2012-12-25.
- Mouawad, Jad (December 23, 2011). "On Jet Exteriors, a Parade of Vanilla (page 1 of 2)". New York Times. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- Mouawad, Jad (December 23, 2011). "On Jet Exteriors, a Parade of Vanilla (page 2 of 2)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "Fifteen Years of Flying United".
- "How Saul Bass changed design".
- Vit, Armin (May 4, 2010). "The United and Continental Airline Mashup". Brand New. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
- "United Plans Return to the "Friendly Skies"". frequentbusinesstraveler.com. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
- "Old Slogan Returns as United Asserts It Is Customer-Focused". The New York Times. September 20, 2013.
- Levere, Jane L. (September 20, 2013). "Old Slogan Returns as United Asserts It Is Customer-Focused". The New York Times.
- United Airlines "Rhapsody in Blue" Theme Song Information
- Rosenthal, Phil (January 8, 2012). "'Rhapsody' remains familiar refrain at United". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- "American Airlines scores big as new official airline of Cubs". Chicago Tribune. 2015-02-05. Retrieved 2015-02-07.
- "Inside the Giants United Flight to SF!". Giants.com. 2012-01-21. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
- "United Hub - New York Road Runners announce United as title sponsor of the NYC Half Marathon - News". Hub.united.com. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
- "National & Local Community Partnerships". United.com. Retrieved 2015-01-04.
- "Tuesday A". cso.org. Retrieved 2015-01-04.
- "United Airlines To Move Corporate Headquarters To Willis Tower". CBS Chicago. August 13, 2012. Archived from the original on December 17, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Corfman, Thomas A., Greg Hinz, and Julie Jonsson. "United HQ heading for Chicago." Crain's Chicago Business. July 13, 2006. Retrieved on November 12, 2009.
- "United Airlines Foundation." United Airlines. February 5, 2006. Archived from the original on December 24, 2010. Retrieved on January 4, 2013.
- "United Airlines Picks Chicago for New Headquarters." United Airlines. July 15, 2006. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved on January 4, 2013.
- "Chicago Wins Prize as Home of Big Carrier." The New York Times. May 4, 2010. Retrieved on October 1, 2010.
- Morris, Emily (June 18, 2012). "United shows off new downtown operations center". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on December 17, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "United Airlines to sell Waikiki Seaside Hotel". USA Today. February 15, 2012. Archived from the original on December 17, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "United Airlines Launches Paperless Flight Deck With iPad". ir.unitedcontinentalholdings.com. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- "Solazyme Announces First U.S. Commercial Passenger Flight on Advanced Biofuel" (Press release). Solazyme. November 7, 2011. Archived from the original on December 17, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "United orders new Boeing 737 MAX 9" (Press release). July 12, 2012. Archived from the original on December 17, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "Aviation Partners Boeing Launches Split Scimitar Winglet Program". http://m.prnewswire.com. Retrieved 2013-01-19. External link in
- "Form 10-K Filing". United Airlines SEC filings. United Continental Holdings, Inc. p. 13. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Ranson, Lori (September 2, 2011). "Scope uncertainty pushes SkyWest to study large turboprops". Washington, D.C.: Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- United Continental Pilots Approve Pact - WSJ.com. Webcache.googleusercontent.com (2012-12-15). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
- Wadman, Meredith (8 January 2013). "United Airlines ends transport of research primates". Nature. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- Stuart, Hunter (9 January 2013). "PETA: United Airlines Will No Longer Fly Monkeys For Use In Lab Experiments". Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- Dastin, Jeffrey (16 July 2015). "United Airlines awards hackers millions of miles for revealing risks". Reuters. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- Bogage, Jacob (16 July 2015). "Why United Airlines is rewarding hackers with millions of free miles". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- "Corporate Fact Sheet". United Airlines. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "Airport Fact Sheets, Houston George Bush Intercontinental Airport". United Airlines|2nd Quarter 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "Spirit Airlines makes a new push from Houston adding some new competition for United and Southwest". Centre for Aviation. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "List of United Airlines Hubs". USA Today. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "Airport Fact Sheets, Chicago O'Hare International Airport". United Airlines|2nd Quarter 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "Airport Fact Sheets, Liberty International Airport". United Airlines|2nd Quarter 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "Issues Raised by the Proposed Merger of American Airlines and US Airways" (PDF). GAO. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "The Port Authority of NY & NJ July 2014 Traffic Report" (PDF). The Port Authority of NY & NJ. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "Airport Fact Sheets, Denver International Airport". United Airlines|2nd Quarter 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "Denver International Airport Total Operations and Traffic March 2015" (PDF). flydenver.com. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "Airport Fact Sheets, San Francisco International Airport". United Airlinesnd Quarter 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "SFO Announces New Record for Passenger Traffic in 2013". San Francisco International Airport. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "Airport Fact Sheets, Washington Dulles International Airport". United Airlines|2nd Quarter 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "Air Traffic Statistics January 2014" (PDF). metwashairport.com. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "Airport Fact Sheets, Los Angeles International Airport". United Airlines|2nd Quarter 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "Los Angeles International Airport Top 10 Carriers January 2015 through March 2015" (PDF). Los Angeles World Airports. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "United Airlines drops Cleveland as Hub Airport". Associated Press. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "United Plans Flight, Staff Cuts in Miami". South Florida Business Journal. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "Continental to Shutter Pilot, Attendant Bases in Denver". Chicago Tribune. July 8, 1994. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
- "United Airline starts direct flight from Accra to Washington DC". Ghana Civil Aviation Authority. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- "United Airlines begins Lagos-Washington D.C flight". Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- Staff, CAPA. "United continues international network shifts and drops service to Accra in Ghana". Center for Aviation. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- 2016, UBM (UK) Ltd. "UNITED Ends Lagos Service in late-June 2016".
- Salpukas, Agis (November 19, 1988). "Seattle-Tokyo Route Won By United". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- "United Airlines Applies to Fly Nonstop from San Francisco to Tokyo's Haneda Airport". ca.finance.yahoo.com. October 18, 2013. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- "United gets tentative U.S. approval for flight to Tokyo Haneda". The Chicago Tribune. February 28, 2014. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- "United:SFO-Tokyo Haneda nonstop to launch Oct. 26". USA Today. May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- "United.com Speech detail". United.com. 2005-10-19. Archived from the original on June 13, 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-25.
- Johnsson, Julie (October 13, 2010). "United wins approval to launch Shanghai flights". Chicago Breaking Business. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- "United Airlines Makes Seats Available for Sale on New Flights to Chengdu, China". ca.finance.yahoo.com. October 28, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- United Airlines October 12, 2015 12:02 PM (2015-10-12). "Now You Can Book a United 787 Nonstop to Xi'an, China - Yahoo Finance". Finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
- "News Releases". United - Newsroom. Retrieved 2016-06-25.
- united.com - Route maps retrieved 27 May 2016
- ch-aviation.com - United to axe Newcastle, UK flights over weakening pound 12 August 2016
- "Press release detail". united.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "Press release detail". united.com. 2011-12-08. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. Retrieved 2011-12-25.
- team, The Hub. "Service to Dubai ends in January". Retrieved 2016-06-25.
- Steiner, Christopher. "ZRankings: The Best Airline For Skiing". ZRankings. ZRankings. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
- "United, Delta Deal at Newark Upsets the Feds". US News. 2015-11-10. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
- "Profile on United Airlines". CAPA. Centre for Aviation. Archived from the original on 2016-10-30. Retrieved 2016-10-30.
- "Corporate Fact Sheet". united.com. United Continental Holdings. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
- "United Airlines (ATDB)". Aerotransport.org. AeroTransport Data Bank. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
- Leiro, Roberto (November 15, 2016). "United to Defer Boeing 737 Orders, to Buy 24 Embraer E175s". airwaysmag.com. Airways International, Inc. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- "United Airlines - Airbus 319 (319)". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "United Airlines - Airbus 320 (320)". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "Airbus Orders and Deliveries through April 30, 2015". airbus.com. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
- Michael Sasso (November 30, 2016). "New United Airlines CFO Mulls Changing More Aircraft Orders". Skift. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
- Ben Mutzabaugh , USA TODAY (June 20, 2013). "United buys biggest version of Airbus' A350 widebody". USA TODAY. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 737-700". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- Doug Cameron, WSJ Business (2016-11-15). "United Continental Postpones Boeing 737 Jets". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2016-11-15.
- Sasso, Michael; Johnsson, Julie (November 15, 2016). "United to Postpone Boeing Jets in $4.8 Billion Savings Push". bloomberg.com. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 737-800 (738)". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 737-800 (738) version 2". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2014-11-15.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 737-800 (738) version 3". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2014-11-15.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 737-800 (738) version 4". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2016-04-08.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 737-900 (739)". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2014-11-15.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 737-900 (739) version 2". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2014-11-15.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 737-900 (739) version 3". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2014-11-15.
- "Boeing Orders and Deliveries Through October 2016". Retrieved November 18, 2016.
- "United orders new Boeing 737 MAX 9". 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2014-11-15.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 747-400 (747)". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "United Airlines Announces Fleet Update". Airways News. 2016-03-12. Retrieved 2016-03-12.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 757-200 (752) version 2". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 757-200 (752) version 3". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 757-300 (753)". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 767-300 (763)". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 767-300 (763) version 2". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 767-400ER (764)". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 777-200 (777) version 4". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-07-09.
- Dwyer-Lindgren, Jeremy (2015-04-23). "United Fleet Shake-up Includes Dreamliner Swap, Widebodies on Domestic Flights". USA Today. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 777-200 (777) version 5". United.com. 2016-05-25. Retrieved 2016-05-25.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 777-200 (777)". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-07-09.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 777-200 (777) version 2". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-07-09.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 777-200 (777) version 3". United.com. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-07-09.
- "United Unveils Polaris, Its New Business Class Product • Airways Magazine". 2016-06-06. Retrieved 2016-06-25.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner". United.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "United Airlines Announces Fleet Update". United.com. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
- "United Airlines - Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner". United.com. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- Mutzabaugh, Ben (June 18, 2013). "Boeing launches 787-10, United to be 1st in North America". USA Today.
- United Airlines resumes 787 Dreamliner flights. CBS News (2013-05-20). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
- "Retired fleet". United.com. Archived from the original on September 9, 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-25.
- Walt Bohl Boeing model 40 and its descendants
- The Boeing 247: the first modern ... – Google Books. Google Books. 1991-12-01. ISBN 9780295970943. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- http://www.timetableimages.com, June 1, 1931 United Air Lines system timetable
- AirFleets.net United Airlines
- "United retired its last three B737-500s by end of May". ch-aviation. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- "United Airlines retires its last B767-200". ch-aviation. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "United Airlines Unveils New Business Class". Suitedreams.united.com. 2011-12-02. Retrieved 2011-12-25.
- "Turn-down service for first class fliers". CNN. November 12, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "Polaris Business Class". Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- "United Congress of Chefs".
- "United Airlines Revamps Cabins, Adds Flat-Bed Seating on "p.s." Flights". united.com. 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2014-01-30.
- "We're Bringing Premium Transcontinental Service to our New York/Newark Hub". united.com. 2015-06-16. Retrieved 2015-08-20.
- "Upgrades Overview". united.com. Retrieved 2014-01-30.
- TripAdvisor. "United Airlines Information". seatguru.com. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- YouTube. "Introducing the new United aircraft cabin design". Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- , silver member economy plus option.
- United Airlines to Retain Economy Plus, Expand to Continental Aircraft Beginning in 2012 – Yahoo! Finance
- "United Beverage Service".
- Fottrell, Quentin (2015-12-11). "United joins this very short list of airlines that still give you 'free' snacks". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
- "MileagePlus to be the Loyalty Program for the New United Airlines". Yahoo! Finance. June 29, 2011.
- United: 'Subscriptions' offer a year's worth of fees. Usatoday.com (2013-06-03). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
- F. Robert Van der Linden (1991-12-01). The Boeing 247: The First Modern Airliner. University of Washington Press. p. 174. ISBN 9780295970943. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- F. Robert Van der Linden (1991-12-01). The Boeing 247: The First Modern Airliner. University of Washington Press. p. 175. ISBN 9780295970943. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- F. Robert Van der Linden (1991-12-01). The Boeing 247: The First Modern Airliner. University of Washington Press. p. 186. ISBN 9780295970943. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- Bennett, Drake (February 2, 2012). "Making the World's Largest Airline Fly". Bloomberg Businessweek. New York: Bloomberg.
- Davies, Ed (January–February 2007). "Boeing's Airline: The Life and Times of Boeing Air Transport: Part One". Air Enthusiast. No. 127. pp. 64–74. ISSN 0143-5450.
- Davies, Ed (March–April 2007). "Boeing's Airline: The Life and Times of Boeing Air Transport: Part Two". Air Enthusiast. No. 128. pp. 62–73. ISSN 0143-5450.
- Petzinger Jr., Thomas (1995). Hard landing. New York: Three River Press. ISBN 0-8129--2835-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to United Airlines.|
- United Airlines travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Official website (Mobile)
- Film of United Airlines Boeing 247 NC13364 taking off from Vancouver Airport 1934
- UAL.com Official website archive
- Hemispheres inflight magazine
- United Vacations
- United Media Services
- United Continental Merger