Union, Progress and Democracy

Union, Progress and Democracy
Unión Progreso y Democracia
Spokesperson Gorka Maneiro[1]
Founded 26 September 2007 (2007-09-26)
Headquarters C/ Cedaceros, 11, 2º H, 28014, Madrid
Think tank Progress and Democracy Foundation
Membership 1,703 (2016)[2]
Ideology Progressivism
Social liberalism
European federalism
Radical centrism
Spanish patriotism
Political position Centre
European affiliation None
International affiliation None
European Parliament group Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Colours      Magenta
Regional Parliaments
1 / 1,268
European Parliament
1 / 54
Local Government (2015)
128 / 67,511
Mayors in Spain
4 / 8,122

Union, Progress and Democracy[3][4][5][6][7][8] (Spanish: Unión Progreso y Democracia[note 1] [uˈnjon, pɾoˈɣɾeso i ðemoˈkɾaθja]; officially abbreviated as UPyD [upeiˈðe], although it's occasionally abbreviated as UPYD or UPD [upeˈðe]) is a Spanish political party founded in September 2007. It is a social liberal party which rejects any form of nationalism,[9] especially peripheral nationalism like the separatist Basque and Catalan movements.[10] The party is deeply pro-European and wants the European Union to adopt a federal system without overlap between the European, national and regional governments.[11] Besides, the magenta party wants to replace the State of Autonomies with a symmetric and highly centralized, albeit still federal, system in Spain as well as substituting a more proportional election law for the current one.[12]

Mikel Buesa, at a 2007 party presentation, and Rosa Díez, in a 2007 interview for a magazine, explained the origin of the three concepts which make up the party's name: Union because of their "unconditional defence of the unity of Spain as a guarantor of Spaniards' equality before the law". Progress because they affirm to be "a progressive party with social liberal roots and respectful of individual liberty". And Democracy because of their "commitment to a radical regeneration of democracy".[13][14][15][16]

UPyD first stood for election in the 9 March 2008 general election. It received 303,246 votes, or 1.2 percent of the national total, and one seat in the Congress of Deputies[17] for party co-founder Rosa Díez, becoming the newest party with national representation in Spain. Although its core is in the Basque Autonomous Community, with roots in anti-ETA civic associations, it addresses a national audience. Prominent members of the party include philosopher Fernando Savater, party founder and former PSOE MEP Rosa Díez, philosopher Carlos Martínez Gorriarán and writer Álvaro Pombo.

At its Second Party Congress in November 2013, UPyD reported 6,165 registered members (down from an all-time high of 6,634 in 2011.[18] In 2009 the party founded the think tank Fundación Progreso y Democracia (FPyD: Progress and Democracy Foundation), which has been presided over by UPyD spokesperson Rosa Díez.[19]

In the general elections held on 20 November 2011, the party won 1,143,225 votes (4.70 percent), five seats in the Congress of Deputies[20] (four in Madrid and one in Valencia) and became the fourth-largest political force in the country. It had the greatest increase of votes over the previous general election of any party.[21] It lost all its seats at the 2015 general election and suffered a further decline in its vote, to 0.2%, in the 2016 general election.


Two seated, middle-aged men
Álvaro Pombo (left) and Fernando Savater at a party meeting

On 19 May 2007, 45 people met in San Sebastián to discuss the creation of a new political party opposing both major parties (the People's Party and the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party) at the national level. Most present were Basques, many of whom had long experience in political, union and civic organizations with left-wing, liberal and activist backgrounds. After the meeting, to create a broad-based social and political project they formed the Plataforma Pro organization. This united those who considered it necessary to form a new national political party appealing to people across the democratic political spectrum. Its platform was:

Among the supporters of Plataforma Pro were philosopher Fernando Savater, ¡Basta Ya! coordinator and spokesman Carlos Martínez Gorriarán and former Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) MEP Rosa Díez. Díez resigned her PSOE membership and her MEP position in August 2007 to become involved with the UPyD project. Groups supporting Plataforma Pro included Citizens of Catalonia (notably Albert Boadella, Arcadi Espada and Xavier Pericay) and ¡Basta Ya!, a major influence on the new movement. In September 2007, Forum Ermua president Mikel Buesa announced their intention to participate in the political party arising from Plataforma Pro; he resigned in 2009 due to disagreements with Rosa Díez.

Woman speaking onstage, with others seated at a dais
Teresa Giménez Barbat, UPyD council member in Catalonia and president of Citizens of Catalonia

At a 29 September 2007 meeting in the auditorium of the Casa de Campo in Madrid, the new party was formed. Participants in its formation included Catalan dramatist Albert Boadella, Basque philosopher Fernando Savater, Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa and Rosa Díez. Also present were journalist Arcadi Espada, anthropologists Teresa Giménez Barbat and Felix Perez Romera (three prominent Citizens of Catalonia members), historian Antonio Elorza, painter Agustín Ibarrola, former Forum Ermua leader Mikel Buesa, philosopher Carlos Martínez Gorriarán, Citizens deputies Albert Rivera and Antonio Robles, Peruvian writer Fernando Iwasaki, former UGT secretary general Nicolas Redondo and People's Party Basque MP Fernando Maura. Maura joined the new party's advisory council on 6 November 2007. Writer Álvaro Pombo later expressed support for UPyD, running as a candidate for the party.


Woman in a dress, speaking at a podium
Rosa Díez at a party meeting

Ideologically, UPyD is not defined by itself as either left or right and its constituency includes voters with an affinity for the political right as well as part of the Socialist Party's disenchanted voters.[22] When UPyD is asked to be placed on the left–right political spectrum, it defines itself as "a progressive party that is simultaneously positioned on the political centre and cross-sectionalism, thus embracing ideas across the political spectrum".[23][24] According to spokesperson Rosa Díez, the party is "progressive and cross-sectional: it's got leftist people and right-wing, liberal people".[25] Other additional identity signs are "constitutionalism", defining it as the upholding of the Spanish state of law under the Spanish Constitution of 1978; "secularism", defining it as the defence of a religiously neutral state in which a religious confession isn't privileged over others;[26] "liberal democracy", defining it as the form of government which best balances power and individual rights;[27][28] "pro-Europeanism", defining it as the desire to move towards a real European federalism with the concept of citizenship as a fundamental pillar;[29] "Spanish patriotism", defining it as the defence of common values: justice, freedom and equality;[30][31] and "non-nationalism", defining it as the opposition to compulsory nationalism.[32] Rosa Díez defined UPyD, in opposition to Spain's peripheral nationalist and pro-independence parties, as "an unequivocally national party, with a unique agenda for Spain".[33] According to Rosa Díez, "social liberalism" is the political doctrine which UPyD is identified with because the party combines elements of "political liberalism" and "social democracy".[14] Furthermore, Rosa Díez said that UPyD is "a radical party which wants to transform politics by bringing off substantial, in-depth changes from within institutions".[34] Also, Miguel Zarranz, UPyD's coordinator in Navarre, has clarified that UPyD is "a partially centralist party because it wants to centralize powers such as education, health, water resource management or transport management within a symmetric federal state with other decentralized responsibilities in the autonomous communities".[35] Lastly, Álvaro Anchuelo commented that UPyD is "a monarchist party insofar as the monarchy fulfils its function".[36]

UPyD has been assessed by the vast majority of political scientists and the media such as the European Social Survey, The Financial Times[37] and The Economist[38] as a centre party, even though it was considered as centre-left by the political scientist Donatella Maria Viola[39] and centre-right by the Encyclopædia Britannica.[3] Also, the self-proclaimed cross-sectionalism of UPyD has been linked to radical centrism.[40][41][42]

UPyD is a progressive party which combines social liberalism with centralism from the centre of the political spectrum.[43] UPyD is a centralist party which stands out for being the only statewide party that actively defends the abolition of chartered regimes in all Spain, even in those regions which have them: Navarre and the Basque Country.[44] Similarly, UPyD argues that the extreme political decentralization of the State of Autonomies has weakened the welfare state and created inequalities across the territory.[45][46] Accordingly, UPyD wants to adopt a symmetric federalism that entails a high degree of political centralization in Spain.[9]

UPyD wholeheartedly defends the unity of Spain, thereby being an enemy of peripheral nationalism. The magenta party is an advocate for the indissoluble unity of the Spanish nation so unconditional that supports the application of the Article 155 of Spain's Constitution so as to suspend Catalonia's home rule,[47] and the prosecution of Catalan separatist leaders for rebellion and sedition.[48] Although UPyD is a progressive party strongly characterized by its rejection of peripheral nationalism,[49] it also has objections to nation-state nationalism, including Spanish nationalism, because the party considers this kind of nationalism to be a threat to the progress of Europe's unity.[50][51] UPyD is the most pro-European party in Spain and therefore supports a federal Europe, which the magenta party sees as an important guarantor of individual rights.[52]

Considering only outside sources, the distinguishing signs of UPyD are: progressivism,[49][53][54][55][56] social liberalism,[9][43][57][58][59] secularism,[60][61] centralism,[43][59][60][62][63] reformism,[63][64][65] constitutionalism,[66] European federalism,[52][60] radical centrism,[40][41][42] monarchism,[67][68] Spanish patriotism[69][70] and anti-nationalism.[56]


Party proposals are:

Woman in a dress, speaking at a podium
Rosa Díez at a party meeting
  1. Reform of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, focusing on three areas:
    • Doing away with the Spanish autonomic state.[71] UPyD wants Spain to adopt a system of symmetric federalism with broad political centralization as a territorial model,[9] clearly defining in the Constitution which powers are exclusive of the State and which ones are transferable to autonomous communities or municipalities.[72] The party wants to centralize competences that concern citizens' fundamental rights like education, health and justice among others[73] because the State of Autonomies, besides creating nationwide inequalities,[74] is considered to be "elephantine, politically unviable and economically unsustainable".[75] Another aspect of UPyD's symmetric federalism is the abolition of Navarre's and the Basque Country's chartered regimes, establishing a common system of funding for all autonomous communities.[76] Other noteworthy proposals are municipal mergers so that municipalities have a minimum dimension of 20,000 inhabitants,[77] the suppression of the provincial councils (diputaciones provinciales), chartered councils (diputaciones forales), Basque General Assemblies (Juntas Generales vascas) and district councils (comarcas),[78][79] and the unicameralism of the Spanish General Courts after eliminating the Senate.[80]
    • Improvement and reinforcement of individual rights and obligations, strictly defined for all Spanish citizens without territorial, linguistic, ideological or religious inequalities. By advocating a unitary and centralizing concept of the Spanish nation,[46] UPyD defends the unity of Spain as "a key instrument to ensure the equality of the whole of the Spanish citizenry".[81]
    • Deepening of the separation of powers, increasing judicial autonomy to ensure the independence of the Constitutional Court, the Court of Accounts and economic regulatory bodies from the executive.
  2. By turning Spain into a secular state, the party supports a revision of existing agreements with the Holy See, the self-financing of the Catholic Church and other religious confessions and the total separation of church and state.[82] Secularity for UPyD "consists in respecting only religions which are compatible with human rights, the state of law and democracy",[83][84] in a way that the magenta party decries Islam because of "adulterous women's stoning" and "homosexuals' murder".[85][86] Following this line of thought, the party supports the banning of Islamic headscarves (from burqa to hijab) in public spaces because they are considered to be "a way to subjugate women to men within Islam".[87][88]
  3. Reform of the Organic Act of the General Electoral Regime (LOREG) with 3 hopes: achieving voters' equality, regardless of residence; increasing the minority-party representation, underrepresented with today's electoral system compared to the majority-party one; and reducing regionalist and peripheral nationalist parties' representation. This reform raises biproportional apportionment of 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies. Of the 350 MPs, one would be elected from each province and one from each autonomous city for a total of 52 and the remaining 298 MPs would be elected by provinces, redeployed in proportion to the population, using the Sainte-Laguë method. But, the allocation of seats to parties would be based on the votes obtained in the 52 constituencies so that a party which has fewer votes than another can't receive more seats than that one. Firstly, the value of r-parameter, equivalent to 0.25% of the total valid votes, would be calculated. Secondly, r votes would be subtracted from those parties which have passed r votes, getting the reduced votes for each party; however, parties that hadn't reached r votes would be removed from the allocation of seats. Thirdly, using the D'Hondt method, 325 seats would be allocated proportionally to the reduced votes while the remaining 25 would be assigned according to the square of the reduced ones so as to achieve equity in parties' representation and compatible proportionality and governance. Finally, BAZI computer program, developed at the University of Augsburg, would be used to distribute the seats won by each party in the 52 constituencies.[89][90]
  4. Improvements in education, establishing a secular public education system in which scientific investigation is strengthened and language discrimination is eradicated. UPyD vituperates against compulsory language immersion in autonomous communities with more than one official language, thereby defending the freedom to choose the language in the enrolment of all nonlinguistic subjects and ensuring bilingualism by being the study of not only the Spanish language but also the regional language compulsory.[91] The party opposes language discrimination in all public services.[92] [93]
  5. Changes in the democratic system: eliminating the requirement for extra-parliamentary parties to receive 0.1 percent of their constituencies' electorate,[94] an open list electoral system,[95] the direct election of mayors in a two-round system preventing post-election agreements misrepresenting the citizens' will,[96] a limit of two successive full terms for executive public officeholders,[97] banning the combination of two (or more) public offices[98] and reducing former high officeholders' conflicts of interest.[99] The party suggests making political parties' funding more transparent, increasing their independence from economic interests.
  6. Measures to tackle terrorism that put emphasis on defeating ETA, closing its funding channels and blocking its political justification. Consequently, UPyD wants to toughen the law on parties in order to outlaw the political parties which form part of the EH Bildu coalition (Alternatiba, Aralar, Eusko Alkartasuna and Sortu) because they're considered to be ETA's political arm.[100] The magenta party puts forward that these parties don't condemn ETA's terrorism and even justify ETA's killings, for example, calling ETA's imprisoned members "jailed politicians".[101]
  7. Economic and social measures promoting economic development and correcting inequalities. The state should improve workers' education, training and safety, integrate internal markets with infrastructure, favour research and innovation in business and guarantee economic freedom and competition.
  8. Regarding immigration, UPyD wish to transfer immigration policy to the European Union as an exclusive competence because it affects the whole of Europe.[102] Therefore, the party asks the European Commission for the inclusion of Ceuta and Melilla in the European customs area as full-fledged territories and, hence, external borders of the European Union.[103] UPyD states that controlled immigration is good and necessary for Europe because of its demographic ageing and advocates a common immigration policy with strict respect for international law and human rights that entails a European action protocol to contain illegal immigration.[102][104] Although the magenta party supports greater immigration control by arguing that Ceuta's and Melilla's Spanish border fences must be protected, illegal immigrants must be treated sensitively and humanely.[102] The party believes that the Civil Guard should stop illegal immigrants and legally repatriate them to their country of origin or return them to the country which they entered from without violating their human rights,[102] thereby banning deterrents like firing rubber bullets and the use of razor wires.[104][105] UPyD is favourable to earmark financial resources for promoting democracy in countries where there is no democracy and even to intervene militarily if financial resources are insufficient "to defend and protect human rights and thus no one has to leave those countries".[106]
  9. Environmental policy which makes technological and economic development compatible with environmental and biodiversity protection. Some measures are: nuclear power as an essential part of the energy mix that, together with renewable energy and hydraulic fracturing, Spain should have,[107][108] the scientific research of climate change and its possible corrective measures, and a toughening of laws on the protection of natural areas by opposing the loss of coastline and sensitive natural areas due to urbanization and other misuses.
  10. Concerning abortion, UPyD favours an abortion law that decriminalizes induced abortion until a fourteen-week provisional period in which any woman can freely abort.[109] The definitive time limit would be established by a medical and scientific consensus based on the early detection of possible malformations. Beyond that gestational limit, UPyD would only allow abortion in cases of "the foetus's nonviability after birth" and "risk of the mother's death" with the aim of reconciling the mother's right to a consenting maternity with the unborn person's legal protection.[110] However, from party's point of view, abortion is always "a drama" and its regulation as a right, instead of its decriminalization under certain circumstances, is incompatible with Article 15 of the Spanish Constitution, which applies to the unborn according to the Constitutional Court's jurisprudence.[111] Therefore, the magenta party supports an early sex education within secondary education giving students information about all available contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and, simultaneously, fostering the notion that abortion has to be avoided as much as possible.[112] Finally, UPyD opposes abortion access by minors without parental consent.[113]


Shortly after the party's creation, on 13 December 2007, UPyD held a press conference headed by Rosa Díez, Mikel Buesa, and Fernando Savater at which it denounced "evidently unequal" treatment by Spanish banks, which denied the party loans while forgiving debts held by the other political parties. Although party activity was funded by membership fees and small donations, it "could not continue this way" or contest an election with such meager resources. Therefore, the party leadership decided to offer €200, €500 and €1,000 bonds to fund the party's campaign for the 2008 general elections. The bonds, totaling €3 million–€5 million, were sold at party offices, on the internet and over a toll-free phone line. The party pledged to report the amount of the loans obtained and the state of its accounts, and intended to repay the money after the elections with institutional funding for parties with parliamentary representation.


The party's national spokesperson, Rosa Díez, won a seat in the general election of 2008 from Madrid Province with 3.74 percent of the vote. Other prominent candidates were writer Álvaro Pombo (for the Senate) and Carlos Martínez Gorriarán, both of whom failed to win seats.

In 2009, the party gained representation in the European Parliamentary election and the Basque Regional Elections. Their MEP, Francisco Sosa Wagner, sat in the non-aligned group in the European parliament. In the Basque elections, Gorka Maneiro was elected to represent Álava.

In 2011, Luis de Velasco Rami and 7 other UPyD members were elected to the Madrid Assembly, with UPyD becoming the fourth-largest party. In the 2011 local elections, the party won seats in Madrid, Burgos, Ávila, Granada, Alicante and Murcia. UPyD received the fourth-largest number of votes in the 2011 general election: 1,143,225, or 4.70 percent. Of the five seats won, four (held by Rosa Díez, Carlos Martínez Gorriarán, Álvaro Anchuelo and Irene Lozano) were in Madrid; actor Toni Cantó was elected in Valencia Province.

In the 2014 European Parliament Elections, Francisco Sosa Wagner was re-elected, and UPyD won three extra seats (for Maite Pagazaurtundúa, Fernando Maura and Beatriz Becerra), consolidating their support nationwide. The party's MEPs planned to join the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) Group.[114]


In July 2009, party co-founder Mikel Buesa announced his resignation from UPyD, denouncing "authoritarian control" imposed by a group in the party.[115] After its First Party Congress in November 2009, 100 UPyD critics (including four founding members) left the party, "tired and disappointed" with the "authoritarian" Rosa Díez and the party's "lack of internal democracy".[116] By early 2010, the party lost 40 percent of its membership in Catalonia,[117] amid allegations that the party was a fraud.[118]

Electoral performance

Cortes Generales

Election Leader Votes % # Seats Outcome
Congress Senate
2008 Rosa Díez 306,079 1.19 #6
1 / 350
0 / 208
PSOE minority
2011 1,143,225 4.70 #4
5 / 350
0 / 208
PP majority
2015 Andrés Herzog 155,153 0.62 #11
0 / 350
0 / 208
New election
2016 Gorka Maneiro 50,247 0.21 #12
0 / 350
0 / 208

European Parliament

Election Candidate Votes % # Seats
2009 Francisco Sosa Wagner 451,866 2.85 #5
1 / 54
2014 1,022,232 6.51 #5
4 / 54

Notes and references


  1. The official Spanish name doesn't include the comma, as said in the Official Registry of Political Parties.


  1. (Spanish) Gorka Maneiro encabeza la nueva Dirección de UPYD, UPyD
  2. (Spanish) “Dimito porque UPyD es un partido suicida”, Interviú
  3. 1 2 Encyclopædia Britannica 2014, p. 488: "and Union, Progress and Democracy (UPD, 7.7%) on the centre-right"
  4. Ugarriza & Caluwaerts 2014, p. 68.
  5. Bel i Queralt 2012, p. XVII.
  6. Field & Botti 2013, p. 10.
  7. Ross, Richardson & Sangrador-Vegas 2013, p. 77.
  8. Ştefuriuc 2013, p. XII.
  9. 1 2 3 4 "Political Parties in Andalucia - UPyD". andalucia.com. Retrieved 25 August 2015. Formed in 2007, the UPYD is a social liberal party that rejects nationalism in all forms and wants to adopt a system of symmetric federalism with political centralization as a territorial model
  10. Henderson, Karen; Sitter, Nick (2008), "Political Developments in the EU Member States", The JCMS Annual Review of the European Union in 2007, Wiley, p. 196
  11. "12 propuestas de UPyD | Europa federal". cadavotovale.es. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  12. "browser – TPL_WARP_OUTDATEDBROWSER_PAGE_TITLE". sevillaactualidad.com. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  13. Unión, Progreso y Democracia (18 December 2007). "La economía hace aguas por todos los lados, se ha aumentado la presión fiscal en un 2 % del PIB". upyd.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 January 2015. Mikel Buesa explicó el significado de la denominación del partido, "Unión porque somos un partido contra la disgregación política de la última legislatura y abogamos por la unión de España sin condiciones, Progreso porque somos un partido progresista de raíz liberal y socialdemócrata y, por otra parte, respetamos la libertad individual y de elección y Democracia porque es el sistema que alberga todas las identidades, podemos ser lo que queramos y lo podemos expresar libremente"
  14. 1 2 "El día menos pensado - Rosa Díez: "Si fuera Rajoy hace tiempo que estaría negociando condiciones del rescate"" (in Spanish). RTVE. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2015. Dentro de Unión, Progreso y Democracia coexisten y conviven bien esas dos grandes familias del pensamiento político europeo: el liberalismo político y la socialdemocracia. Si hubiera que buscarle un adjetivo, pero es que no me gustan los adjetivos, pues diría que somos un partido, por las políticas que defendemos y no porque nos definamos así, pues que podríamos decir social liberal
  15. Navarro, Pedro Antonio (17 September 2007). "Rosa Díez: "El voto del desencanto nos vendrá desde la izquierda"". El siglo de Europa (in Spanish). 754. ISSN 2254-9234. Retrieved 1 May 2016. Reivindicamos la unión; la unión es más que la unidad, en el sentido de compañeros, pero en el sentido etimológico del término, de acompañar, de trabajar juntos, de compartir. La unión, frente a un momento en que en España, lo que más se lleva –y parece que es lo más progre– es la diversidad. Creo que hay diversas posiciones, diversas historias, diversas culturas, pero tiene que haber una unión en la ley, tenemos que ser todos iguales. Queríamos expresar que la igualdad sólo es posible con la unión, con la unión en lo sustancial. Progreso, no hace falta que lo explique. Es nuestra apuesta; aunque sabemos que el término progreso no es una palabra de la que se deba apropiar nadie, pero nosotros venimos de la izquierda y no renunciamos a ello. Y, si bien es cierto que sabemos que muchas veces, en nombre de la izquierda, se hacen políticas que fomentan la desigualdad, como, por ejemplo, el Estatuto de Autonomía de Cataluña, que por mucho que se haga en nombre de la izquierda, no son políticas de progreso, nosotros reivindicamos las verdaderas políticas de progreso, las plantee quien las plantee, y rechazamos las políticas que tienen efectos reaccionarios, se planteen por quien se planteen. Y Democracia, porque es nuestra apuesta la regeneración democrática
  16. Mezcua, Unai (18 May 2015). "UPyD: "El magenta es necesario para crear otros colores, como lo es UPyD para la regeneración de la democracia"" (in Spanish). ABC. Retrieved 19 May 2015. En las directrices que Díez envió a la agencia figuraba una fundamental, según explica Labarthe: "que en el logotipo estuvieran representados los conceptos e ideas que defendemos como Unión, Progreso y Democracia". En 2007, cuando Díez presentó UPyD arropada por Mikel Buesa, Carlos Martínez Gorriarán y Fernando Savater, desde el partido se justificó la elección del nombre porque defendería incondicionalmente la unidad de España, respetaría las libertades individuales y apostaría por una democracia "radical"
  17. 2008 Cortes Generales Election Results. Ministerio del Interior. 10 March 2008. Last Retrieved 10 April 2008. (Spanish)
  18. "UPyD alcanzó su cuota máxima de afiliación en 2011 con más de 6.600 miembros (spanish)". Europa Press. 1 November 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  19. Presentación (Spanish), Fundación Progreso y Democracia website, Retrieved 6 April 2014
  20. Gobierno de España (20 November 2011). "Resultados de UPyD en las Elecciones Generales de 2011". Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  21. "El llamativo ascenso de UPyD, región a región". La Voz Libre. 21 November 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  22. Muñoz Mendoza 2012, p. 65: "UPyD, que evita ubicarse con claridad en el eje izquierda-derecha, recoge algunos sectores descontentos del PSOE pero también ciertos sectores más o menos vinculados con la derecha"
  23. "Andrés Herzog sucederá a Rosa Díez al frente de UPyD" (in Spanish). Reuters. 11 July 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2016. En su último discurso como portavoz de UPyD, Díez reivindicó a su formación -que se define como un partido progresista situado en el centro político-, como el artífice del cambio político en España
  24. González Almeida, José María (12 November 2013). "UPyD: La evolución de la política en España". upyd.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 28 April 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2016. UPyD ofrece entendimiento a través del transversalismo, que bien pueden servir sin necesidad de inclinarse a un lado o a otro, ya que todos tienen algo positivo que aportar y la formación magenta sabe bien sintetizar lo mejor de cada idea, ofreciendo un dulce cóctel al ciudadano
  25. (Spanish) Rosa Díez abre las puertas del nuevo partido a la "derecha liberal" - Libertad Digital
  26. Fernández-Savater Martín, Fernando (October 1, 2013). "Laicismo y lengua común". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  27. (Spanish) "y avanzar hacia una auténtica democracia liberal igualitaria", Political resolutions of UPyD's second congress
  29. Unión, Progreso y Democracia. "UPyD propone avanzar hacia un federalismo europeo, con el ciudadano como protagonista" (PDF). upyd.es. Archived from the original (pdf) on 4 October 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2016. El europeísmo es una de las ideas que atraviesan todo el pensamiento político de Unión Progreso y Democracia. [...] Por ello, UPyD propone avanzar hacia un verdadero federalismo europeo con el concepto de ciudadanía como pilar fundamental en la construcción de la UE
  30. (Spanish) Rosa Díez: «ser patriota español no es otra cosa que defender los valores comunes», UPyD
  31. (Spanish) Rosa Díez presenta a UPyD como el partido del voto útil - La Voz de Galicia
  32. Martínez Gorriarán, Carlos (27 November 2008). "Constitucionalistas". upyd.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2015. A mediados de los ochenta se hacía urgente encontrar un término alternativo al de "no nacionalistas" que usábamos para distinguirnos del nacionalismo obligatorio
  33. (Spanish) Rosa Díez asegura que hay suficientes ciudadanos descontentos como para conseguir hasta dos diputados nacionales por Burgos - Radio Arlanzón
  34. (Spanish) "Somos un partido radical y profundamente institucional, hay que transformar la política a fondo y de fondo desde las instituciones", UPyD
  35. (Spanish) UPyD dice que no contempla colaborar con UPN "ni antes ni después de las elecciones", Periodista Digital
  36. (Spanish) UPyD apoya la monarquía en la medida que "cumpla su función", Agencia Efe
  37. Buck, Tobias (25 February 2014), "Spain's Popular party challenged by newcomers", Financial Times, retrieved 28 May 2014
  38. A paella coalition?, The Economist
  39. Viola 2015, p. 325: "In the 2008 general elections, a new small political party loomed on the national horizon, called Unión Progreso y Democracia UPyD (Union, Progress and Democracy). This centre-left party, founded by a former member of the Socialist party, Rosa Díez, opposes any form of asymmetrical 'federalism' or regionalization"
  40. 1 2 "How much is enough?". The Economist. 6 November 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2011. Mr Savater and Rosa Díez, a former Basque Socialist leader, have set up a new party of the radical centre called Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD), in an effort to combine social liberalism with a defence of the idea of Spain
  41. 1 2 Dvořáková, Monika (2012). "Politický a stranický systém Andalusie a volby v letech 2008 - 2012" (pdf) (in Czech). Masarykova univerzita: 19. Retrieved February 3, 2016. UPyD je považována za stranu radikálního centrismu
  42. 1 2 Azagra Ros & Romero González 2012, p. 120: "más el radical-centrismo de UPyD"
  43. 1 2 3 Mateos, Araceli; Penadés, Alberto (2013). "España: crisis y recortes" (pdf). Revista de ciencia política (Santiago) (in Spanish). 33 (1): 175. ISSN 0718-090X. Retrieved January 12, 2016. Unión Progreso y Democracia (5 escaños) es un partido de centro, con una combinación de ideología social liberal y de centralismo territorial, enemigo del nacionalismo periférico en España
  44. Gillespie & Gray 2015: "The Concierto has been subject to a growing number of attacks from both PP and socialist politicians in other ACs and from the most centralist party, Unión Progreso y Democracia (UPyD, Union Progress and Democracy) founded in 2007 —the only state-wide party actively to oppose the Concierto even in the Basque Country"
  45. Europa Press (15 March 2012). "El Congreso rechaza las propuestas de UPyD para reestructurar el Estado". Europa Press (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 June 2016. La portavoz de UPyD ha insistido en la "necesidad de reestructurar el Estado de las autonomías, para no reestructurar, en el sentido de limitar, el Estado del Bienestar"
  46. 1 2 Magone 2009, p. 186: "The UPyD is against the devolution process in education and health, because it creates inequalities across the territory. The party advocates a centralising unitary concept of the Spanish nation"
  47. (Spanish) Rosa Díez insta al Gobierno a "intervenir" Cataluña y "suspender" su autonomía, Europa Press
  48. (Spanish) UPyD se querella contra los separatistas: "Hay que parar ya el golpe de Estado", Libertad Digital
  49. 1 2 Medina, Lucía (2015). "From recession to long-lasting political crisis? Continuities and changes in Spanish politics in times of crisis and austerity" (pdf). Working Paper. Vol. 334. Institut de Ciències Polítiques i Socials (ICPS). p. 4. ISSN 1133-8962. Retrieved 3 Feb 2016. and Union, Progress and Democracy (a progressive party founded in 2007 and strongly characterized by its rejection of the peripheral nationalisms
  50. The Democratic Society. "Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD)". demsoc.org. Retrieved 3 Feb 2016. Its key issue is opposition to nationalism, predominantly sub-state nationalism though it also has objections to Spanish nationalism
  51. (Spanish) UPyD: Los nacionalismos, estatales o separatistas, son la gran amenaza para la Unión Europea, UPyD
  52. 1 2 The Democratic Society. "Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD)". demsoc.org. Retrieved 3 Feb 2016. The party is the most pro-European in Spain, and supports a federal Europe, which it sees as an important guarantor of individual rights
  53. Miftari 2015, p. 32: "The center oriented and progressive UPyD"
  54. Lansford 2014, p. 1337: "Founded in 2007, the UPyD is a liberal, progressive party that advocates expanded federalism, including restoring central control over education and healt care"
  55. Sánchez-Cuenca & Dinas 2016, p. 144: "Unión Progreso y Democracia (UPyD– a progressive party in favour of the unity of Spain)"
  56. 1 2 Seoane Pérez 2010, p. 266: "The anti-nationalist, progressive UPyD failed to become the third political force, as some polls had predicted, but still won its first seat in the EP with 2.9 per cent of the vote"
  57. Painter 2013, p. 208: "The leftist ‘United Left’ and the moderate social liberal party Union, Progress and Democracy, saw their support increase by 3 per cent and 3.5 per cent, respectively"
  58. Wolfram Nordsieck. "SPAIN". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 15 August 2015. Unión, Progreso y Democracia (UPD): Social liberalism
  59. 1 2 UPyD. Ideology: centralism, social liberalism. Political Position: Centre, European Social Survey
  60. 1 2 3 Ávila López 2015, p. 85: "Party: UPyD: Unión Progreso y Democracia (Union, Progress & Democracy). President / Leader: Andrés Herzog. Ideology: Centralism, secularism, European federalism"
  61. The Democratic Society. "Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD)". demsoc.org. Retrieved 3 Feb 2016. The party is rigidly secularist, and declares itself to be neither left nor right
  62. Leonisio, Rafael; Strijbis, Oliver (2014). "Beyond Self-placement: Why Nationalism is a Better Predictor of Electoral Behaviour in the Basque Country" (pdf). Spanish Journal of Sociological Research (REIS) (in Spanish and English) (146): 56. ISSN 0210-5233. UA had disappeared and a centralist and centrist party had emerged: UPyD (Union Progress and Democracy)
  63. 1 2 Fernández-Albertos, José (May 19, 2014). "EU election: idea of Europe remains powerful in Spain". The Conversation. Retrieved February 20, 2015. and the liberal-reformist and centralist Union Progress and Democracy (UPyD)
  64. Vaquer, Jordi (2015). "Party Systems in Disarray, and the Emergence and Consolidation of New Actors in Southern Europe" (pdf). Retrieved November 13, 2016. and the centre reformist UPyD (6.5%)
  65. Vidal & Jiménez Losantos 2012: "cualquier acuerdo con UPyD, la única fuerza reformista española"
  66. (Spanish) UPyD y Ciudadanos no pueden resignarse a ser irrelevantes, El Mundo's editorial
  67. Navarro, Pedro Antonio (2014). "El Congreso da su plácet al relevo" (pdf). El siglo de Europa (in Spanish). No. 1068. p. 18. ISSN 2254-9234. Retrieved 3 Feb 2016. Por su parte, UPyD, por boca de su jefa de filas, Rosa Díez, sorprendía en su intervención, no por el sentido de su pronunciamiento, que ya había sido anunciado con anterioridad, sino por la dureza de su exposición cuando aludía a la forma de Estado republicana, recurriendo a comparaciones como las de la República Popular de Corea o la República Islámica de Irán para denostar esta modalidad de Estado. Su confesión monárquica iba más allá, cuando dedicaba encendidos elogios a Juan Carlos I, de quien aseguró que “supo aprender de la sociedad española, aprender de fracasos y se puso del lado de los que queríamos construir una España plural y democrática”
  68. Rivero, Borja (26 May 2015). "Elecciones regionales en España: ¿Quién teme al lobo feroz?". Cafébabel (in Spanish). ISSN 2110-5669. Retrieved April 9, 2016. UPyD o Unión Progreso y Democracia, partido de centro político, socio-liberal, progresista, centralista y monárquico
  69. (French) Un parti centriste irrite les grands partis, Le Temps
  70. Armada, Alfonso (4 July 2008). "Otra España. Atisbos de un nuevo patriotismo" (in Spanish). ABC. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  71. Junquera, Natalia (5 September 2012). "Rosa Díez: "Hay que elegir: O Estado de las autonomías o el Estado del bienestar"". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 June 2016. La líder de UPyD, Rosa Díez, ha anunciado esta mañana en rueda de prensa que este curso político propondrá un proceso constituyente para cambiar el modelo de Estado. "Hay que elegir: o Estado de las autonomías o Estado del bienestar, ha dicho. Para Díez el actual sistema autonómico "ha fracasado y no es sostenible ni política ni económicamente". "No nos empecinemos en mantenerlo", ha insistido
  72. Europa Press (4 May 2013). "UPyD dice que la encuesta del CIS en la Región avala su propuesta sobre la necesidad de reformar el modelo territorial". Europa Press (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 September 2015. Así, ha subrayado las propuestas de su partido para que haya un único modelo de financiación autonómico, eliminando los regímenes forales del País Vasco y Navarra, cuya financiación tenga como base la población de las distintas Comunidades y en el que queden recogidas en la Constitución cuáles son las competencias exclusivas del Estado, entre ellas Sanidad y Educación, y cuáles son transferibles a las CCAA
  73. (Spanish) "Las competencias de educación, sanidad y justicia deben volver a ser del Estado", UPyD
  74. (Spanish) UPyD denuncia el aumento de desigualdad en riqueza por habitante entre CCAA, con Extremadura y Euskadi en los extremos, Europa Press
  75. (Spanish) Díez: "Tenemos un modelo de Estado elefantiásico, inviable e insostenible", Libertad Digital
  76. "Suprimir la disposición adicional primera que consagra los derechos históricos de los territorios forales, por ser contrarios al valor superior de la igualdad que rige la Constitución y por consolidar una situación inaceptable de privilegio de unos españoles sobre otros, además de por pretender la existencia de derechos históricos anteriores a la Constitución, lo que es insostenible", Political resolutions of UPyD's first congress
  77. Fusión de ayuntamientos y eliminación de Diputaciones, UPyD
  78. (Spanish) UPyD plantea un Estado federal simétrico que se blinde frente al nacionalismo, Diario Vasco
  79. (Spanish) Díez insiste en eliminar las comarcas y unir municipios, El Periódico de Aragón
  80. Carracelas, Pilar (7 December 2015). "UPyD y C's se parecen más de lo que crees". El Nacional.cat (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 June 2016. En cambio, la candidatura de Andrés Herzog ya había defendido una transformación similar de esta cámara cuando la encabezaba Rosa Díez y ahora propone su supresión, convirtiendo las Cortes españolas en un parlamento unicameral, haciendo el cambio pertinente en la Constitución
  81. Díez, Rosa (7 October 2013). "¿Quién defiende a España?". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 June 2016. Frente a quienes quieren construir una “patria” pequeña rompiendo la lealtad entre conciudadanos españoles, nosotros defendemos la unidad de la nación española como un instrumento imprescindible para garantizar la igualdad de todos los ciudadanos, unidos por vínculos de solidaridad y propietarios de todo el país
  82. (Spanish) "Hay que revisar el Concordato con la Santa Sede, pero sin aspavientos", UPyD
  83. El Pueblo de Ceuta’s editorial (30 September 2008). "UPyD festeja su primer año como formación política en Madrid". El Pueblo de Ceuta (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 December 2015. Laico porque “un Estado democrático tiene que ser laico, es decir, neutral ante todas las creencias religiosas respetuosas con los Derechos Humanos y con nuestro sistema jurídico, y también ante la creencia de los que no creen en religión alguna
  84. "Discurso de Rosa Díez en la sesión de investidura de José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). 9 April 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2015. Creemos que hay que avanzar en la laicidad del Estado precisamente para garantizar un trato justo a todas las confesiones religiosas que sean compatibles con la democracia
  85. Vilas, Raúl (22 January 2009). "Rosa Díez y UPyD respetan "todas las religiones excepto las que lapidan mujeres"". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 December 2015. Ser laico no significa ser antirreligioso, yo no lo soy. El PSOE sí se comporta como un partido antirreligioso". En esta línea, dejó claro que "la laicidad es el respeto a las religiones que sean respetuosas con el Estado de Derecho porque algunas no lo son. Las que lapidan mujeres no lo son". Cuando Federico le pregunta si se refiere al Islam, responde: "Es evidente"
  86. Díez, Rosa (19 January 2009). "Vamos a por todas". upyd.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2015. Si a los del PSOE les parece que somos de derechas porque tachamos de hipócritas a quienes hacen discursos contra la jerarquía eclesiástica católica y no dicen nunca nada contra los líderes religiosos que defienden la lapidación de mujeres o el asesinato de homosexuales, pues, a mucha honra, seremos de derechas
  87. (Spanish) Rosa Díez (UPyD), favorable a prohibir el velo islámico en espacios públicos, El Confidencial
  88. (Spanish) UPyD critica la sentencia que avala el uso del burka en edificios municipales, Las Provincias
  89. (Spanish) Así es la reforma electoral de UPyD, ABC
  90. Unión, Progreso y Democracia. "Proposición de Ley de UPyD para la reforma electoral" (pdf). upyd.es. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  91. (Spanish) Gorriarán: "Privar a un niño de una educación en lengua materna es un atentado contra sus derechos", UPyD
  92. (Spanish) UPyD planteará en el Congreso erradicar por ley la imposición lingüística, Libertad Digital
  93. (Spanish) En defensa de la igualdad lingüística, UPyD
  94. "UPYD defiende la despolitización de la justicia y la reforma de la Ley Electoral" (in Spanish). ciudadrodrigo.net. 6 December 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2016. Arranz ha terminado señalando que “el pluralismo político es una de las riquezas más grandes de cualquier democracia” por lo que ha apostado por la eliminación de cualquier obstáculo en este sentido, tales como la obligación de recoger firmas del 0,1% de los miembros del censo o la subvención para mailing electoral
  95. (Spanish) "Una reforma de la Ley Electoral no puede ser un parche para responder a un problema puntual" - UPyD
  96. (Spanish) UPyD exige que los dirigentes políticos asuman su responsabilidad política en el caso de corrupción policial - Europa Press
  97. (Spanish) Rosa Díez: "En UPyD establecemos limitación de mandatos para nosotros mismos. Y defendemos que para los cargos institucionales ejecutivos esa limitación de mandatos se incorpore en la ley" - Andalucía Información
  98. (Spanish) UPyD apuesta por la celeridad en sus propuestas de medidas anticorrupción - Te interesa
  99. (Spanish) UPyD pide una regulación más estricta para evitar "puertas giratorias" como la que permite a Aznar negociar comisiones - Europa Press
  100. (Spanish) UPyD pide reforzar la Ley de Partidos para que los que apoyan al terrorismo "no destruyan la democracia desde dentro", UPyD
  101. (Spanish) Maneiro a EH Bildu: "Todos los días del año justifican los crímenes de ETA, y eso debería ser motivo de ilegalización", UPyD
  102. 1 2 3 4 Liberal parties stance on immigration policies across Europe, Friedrich Naumann Stiftung für die Freiheit
  103. (Spanish) UPyD exigirá a la UE que Ceuta y Melilla se incluyan en el espacio aduanero europeo, UPyD
  104. 1 2 (Spanish) Inmigración. UPyD reclama un protocolo europeo para contener la inmigración ilegal, Lainformación.com
  105. (Spanish) UPyD critica que el Gobierno recoloque las cuchillas en la valla de Melilla, "crueldad gratuita que atenta contra DDHH", Europa Press
  106. (Spanish) UPyD pide voluntad política y recursos económicos para promover la democracia en Siria, Europa Press
  107. (Spanish) Rosa Díez pide una "Garoña II" y el mantenimiento de la actual planta, Diario de Burgos
  108. (Spanish) Gorriarán: "No se puede prohibir el 'fracking' si queremos una política energética racional", UPyD
  109. (Spanish) Carlos M. Gorriarán UPyD: "Aborto: no se puede imponer por ley una moral particular", vidqt.com
  110. (Spanish) Ni de izquierdas, ni de derechas, El País
  111. Unión, Progreso y Democracia (8 May 2013). "El aborto visto sin sectarismo ni hipocresía". upyd.es. Retrieved 16 August 2016. No puede existir un derecho al aborto, porque ello exigiría de los poderes públicos unas políticas que chocarían con el artículo 15 de la Constitución Española, que según la jurisprudencia del TC se aplica al nasciturus. Lo que sí permite la Constitución es despenalizar la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo bajo ciertas condiciones, de modo que, al no estar prohibido, pueda hacerse sin repercusiones penales
  112. (Spanish) Enmienda a la totalidad de UPyD al Proyecto de Ley Orgánica de salud sexual y reproductiva y de la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo. ABORTO, UPyD
  113. (Spanish) Toni Cantó pide un "debate serio y en profundidad" sobre la reforma, Europa Press
  114. "UPyD anuncia su integración en ALDE, que respetará la integridad territorial - Sabado". elconfidencial.com. 7 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
  115. "Mikel Buesa, fundador de UPyD, deja el partido por su 'autoritarismo'". El Mundo. 4 July 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  116. "Un centenar de críticos de UPyD abandonan el partidoSe confiensan "cansados y decepcionados" con el "autoritarismo" de Rosa Díez y por la "falta de democracia interna"". Público. 12 December 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  117. "Problemas para Rosa Díez – Un reguero de bajas deja tocada a UPyD en Cataluña en año electoral". El Semanal Digital. 21 January 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  118. "Un grupo de militantes catalanes de UPyD abandona el partidoCritican a Rosa Díez por "asfixiarles" y consideran que ha sido un "enorme fraude político"". Público. 21 January 2010.


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