Location in Syria
|Coordinates: 32°54′21″N 36°36′20″E / 32.90583°N 36.60556°ECoordinates: 32°54′21″N 36°36′20″E / 32.90583°N 36.60556°E|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
Umm al-Zaytun (also spelled Umm ez-Zeitoun) is a village in the al-Suwayda Governorate in southwestern Syria. It is situated along the southeastern edge of the Lejah lava plateau, northwest of the city of al-Suwayda. Umm al-Zaytun had a population of 1,913 in the 2004 census. Its inhabitants are Druze.
Umm al-Zaytun had been abandoned sometime in the middle Ottoman era, but was settled by Druze prior to 1810. It was one of the earliest Druze settlements in the Lejah plateau. The village was controlled by the Bani Amer clan. In 1839, Ibrahim Pasha, the Egyptian governor of Syria, sent a conscription expedition of 100 cavalry to subdue the Druze of Hauran. The latter engaged and destroyed Ibrahim Pasha's troops at Umm al-Zaytun. The Egyptian army withdrew from Syria in 1841 and Ottoman rule was restored. Umm al-Zaytun joined the Hauran Druze Rebellion of 1910 was subdued by Ottoman troops commanded by Badr Khan Bey.
Roman Empire-era structures are located in Umm al-Zaytun. In particular are the ruins of a religious building with a large stone facade and a room with niches suited for statues. The inscription found at the building date to 282 CE and mention and describe the building as a "sacred kalybe". This type of building is relatively unique in Syria, being found only in Umm al-Zaytun and nearby Shaqqa and Hayyat.
- General Census of Population and Housing 2004. Syria Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). Al-Suwayda Governorate. (Arabic)
- Firro 1992, p. 175.
- Firro 1992, p. 183.
- Socin, Albert (1876). Palestine and Syria: Handbook for Travellers. Karl Baedeker. p. 420.
- Murphy, C. C. R. (1921). Soldiers of the Prophet. John Hogg. p. 18.
- Butcher, Kevin (2003). Roman Syria and the Near East. Getty Publications. p. 361.