Trialetian culture
Period Mesolithic
Dates c. 14000 – c. 6000 BCE
Major sites Trialeti, Shanidar Cave, Huto and Kamarband Caves, Kotias Klde
Preceded by Baradostian culture
Followed by Nemrikian culture
The Mesolithic
The Epipaleolithic
Mesolithic Europe
Epipaleolithic Europe
Fosna–Hensbacka culture
Komsa culture
Maglemosian culture
Lepenski vir culture
Kunda culture
Narva culture
Komornica culture
Swiderian culture
Epipaleolithic Transylvania
Mesolithic Transylvania
Schela Cladovei culture
Mesolithic Southeastern Europe
Levantine corridor
Stone Age

Trialetian is the name for an Upper Paleolithic-Epipaleolithic stone tool industry from the area south of the Caucasus Mountains[1] and to the northern Zagros Mountains. It is tentatively dated to the period between 14,000 / 11,000 BCE and 6,000 BCE.[2] The name of the archaeological culture derives from sites in the district of Trialeti in south Georgian Khrami river basin. These sites include Barmaksyzkaya and Edzani-Zurtaketi,.[3] In Edzani, an Upper Paleolithic site, a significant percentage of the artifacts are made of obsidian.[4]

The Caucasian-Anatolian area of Trialetian culture was adjacent to the Iraqi-Iranian Zarzian culture to the east and south as well as the Levantine Natufian to the southwest.[5] Alan H. Simmons describes the culture as "very poorly documented".[6] In contrast, recent excavations in the Valley of Qvirila river, to the north of the Trialetian region, display a Mesolithic culture. The subsistence of these groups were based on hunting Capra caucasica, wild boar and brown bear.[7]



  1. Anna Stolberg: Glossar In: Vor 12.000 Jahren in Anatolien. Die ältesten Monumente der Menschheit, Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (ed.), Stuttgart 2007, pg. 375–377, here: pg. 377.
  2. Frédérique Brunet: Asie centrale: vers une redéfinition des complexes culturels de la fin du Pléistocène et des débuts de l’Holocène, in: Paléorient 28,2 (2002) pg. 9-24.
  3. Nikolay I. Burchak-Abramovich, Oleg Grigor'evich Bendukidze: Fauna epipaleoliticheskoy stoyanki Zurtaketi, in: SANGSSR 55,3 (1969) pg. 32-33.
  4. Karine Khristoforovna Kushnareva: The Southern Caucasus in Prehistory. Stages of Cultural and Socioeconomic Development from the Eighth to the Second Millennium B.C., University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology, 1997, pg. 9.
  5. Nach Henri de Cotenson in: Syria, tomus 80, 2003, 270-271, here: pg. 271; Besprechung zu Marcel Otte (ed.): Préhistoire d’Anatolie. Genèse de deux mondes. Actes du Colloque international, Liège, 28 avril-3 mai 1997. Liège 1998.
  6. Alan H. Simmons says the culture is "very poorly documented" (Alan H. Simmons: The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East. Transforming the Human Landscape, University of Arizona Press, 2011, pg. 53).
  7. Ofer Bar-Yosef: Upper palaeolithic hunter-gatherers in western Asia, in: Vicki Cummings, Peter Jordan, Marek Zvelebil (ed.): The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers, Oxford University Press, 2014, pg. 252–278, here: pg. 265 ff.

See also

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