Treaty of Constantinople (1736)
Treaty of Ahmet Pasha (1732) between the two countries had been found unsatisfactory in both countries. Ottoman Sultan Mahmut I didn’t approve the abandonment of Tabriz and Nader, the future Shah of Iran dethroned Tahmasp II for accepting Ottoman control of the Caucasus.
Shortly after the treaty of Ahmet Pasha, Nader declared war and attacked Iraq and Caucasus. In Iraq, after some initial victories such as capturing Kirkuk, he was repelled. But in Caucasus he was more successful. In less than two years Ottomans had to abandon both Tblisi and Yerevan. Meanwhile Russian Empire was about to attack Ottoman Empire in Crimea and Ukraine (see Russo-Turkish War, 1735-1739). So the porte was compelled to sign a peace treaty.
Terms of the treaty
Initial discussions between Ali Pasha (Ottoman side) and Mirza Muhammed (Persian side) in Iran about the territorial changes presented no big problem. But the competition between the two sects of Islam resulted heated discussions in the following sessions in Constantinople. Finally the terms were;
- Ottoman Empire recognized Nader as the new shah of Persia.
- Ottoman Empire conceded Caucasus to Persia
- The Ottomans also agreed to allow the Iranian hajis (pilgrims) to Mecca (then under Ottoman control)
By the treaty of Ahmet Pasha Persia had gained West Iran and by the treaty of Constantinople Persia had further gained Caucasus. But Nader had other plans. He was also planning to annex Iraq and possibly Eastern Anatolia. That’s why he renewed war in 1743. But this time, he was not successful. (see Treaty of Kerden)
References and notes
- Prof. Yaşar Yüce-Prof. Ali Sevim: Türkiye tarihi Cilt IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, İstanbul, 1991, p 4-8
- Nicolae Jorga: Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches IV, (trans by Nilüfer Epçeli),İstanbul 2009, ISBN 975-6480-21-1 p.345
- Moreover Austrian Empire, the ally of Russia was also preparing for the war. see Austro-Turkish War, 1737-1739,
- The dominant sect in Ottoman Empire was Sunni and in Persia Shia