Transport in the European Union
Transport in the European Union is a shared competence of the Union and its member states. The European Commission includes a Commissioner for Transport, currently Violeta Bulc. Since 2012, the Commission also includes a Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport which develops EU policies in the transport sector and manages funding for Trans-European Networks and technological development and innovation, worth €850 million yearly for the period 2000–2006.
The Commission has also taken the initiative for a Single European Sky to co-ordinate the design, management and regulation of airspace in the Union.
The EU also participates in Eurocontrol, which coordinates and plans air traffic control for all of Europe.
The European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) is charged with reducing the risk of maritime accidents, marine pollution from ships and the loss of human lives at sea by helping to enforce the pertinent EU legislation.
The European Railway Agency has the mandate to create a competitive European railway area, by increasing cross-border compatibility of national systems, and in parallel ensuring the required level of safety. The ERA sets standards for European railways in the form of ERA Technical Specifications for Interoperability, which apply to the Trans-European Rail network.
The first EU directive for railways requires allowing open access operations on railway lines by companies other than those that own the rail infrastructure. It does not require privatisation, but does require the separation of infrastructure management and operations. The directive has led to reorganisations of many national railway systems.
The EU has also taken the initiative of creating the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), a single standard for train control and command systems, to enhance cross-border interoperability and the procurement of signalling equipment.
Germany, Spain and France possess the most extensive network of motorways exceeding 10,000 km each. This figure is more than double to any other European country. Similarly, their rail infrastructure surpasses 15,000 km. The total investment reached 6,000 millions for Spain and nearly double of this for Germany and France. In terms of their population and territorial extension the Netherlands and Belgium have a better coverage and higher investment per square kilometer.
- European railways and motorways infrastructure (2013), http://hypowebsis.blogspot.de/2013/10/european-railway-and-motorway.html, with data from BBSR, BBR, Germany.