According to the ancient Roman tradition, the Sabine king of Cures, who, after the rape of the Sabine women, attacked Rome and captured the Capitol with the treachery of Tarpeia. The Sabine women, however, convinced Tatius and the Roman king, Romulus, to reconcile and subsequently they ruled jointly over the Romans and Sabines. Rome was to retain its name and each citizen was to be called a Roman, but as a community they were to be called Quirites; the Sabines were to be incorporated in the state and admitted into the tribes and curies. After this arrangement had lasted for five years it came to an end by the death of Tatius, who was killed out of revenge by the inhabitants of Lavinium, leaving Romulus to rule alone, and Tatius is thus not counted as one of the traditional "Seven Kings of Rome".
He had one daughter Tatia, who married Numa Pompilius (Romulus's successor), and one son, who was the ancestor of the noble family of Tatii.
War with Rome
Dionysius of Halicarnassus reports that after a year of preparation, Rome and the Sabines engaged in several skirmishes and minor engagements, before fighting two major battles. two days after the first, the second and final battle between them was fought in between the two Roman hills they wereoccupying. It was an epic contest, featuring multiple reversals wherein both armies had and then lost the upper hand. At the end of the day, the Sabines retreated to the citadel and the Romans didn't pursue them.
Before combat could be resumed, the Sabine women, some in funerary attire, some carrying their children with them, convinced Tatius and Romulus to end the fighting. After a ceasefire, the nations signed a treaty creating a single kingdom under the joint rule of both kings. They reigned together until the death of Tatius.
The two kings oversee an expansion of Rome and the building of several landmarks, as well as the conquest of Carmania. Their first disagreement came in the sixth year of their reign. Dionysius relates that some of Tatius' friends had victimized some Laurentii and when the city sent ambassadors to demand justice, Tatius would not allow Romulus to hand over the perpetrators. After the ambassadors had left for home, a group of Sabines waylayed them as they slept. Some escaped and when word got back to Rome, Romulus promptly arrested and surrendered the men responsible--including a member of Tatius' own family--over to a new group of ambassadors. Tatius followed the group out of the city and freed the accused men by force. Later, while both kings are participating in a sacrifice in Lavinium he is killed in retribution.
Dionysius also tells the account of Licinius Macer, wherein Tatius was killed when he went alone to try and convince the victims in Lavinium to forgive the crimes committed. When they discovered he had not brought the men responsible with him, as the senate and Romulus had ordered, an angry mob stoned him to death.
According to Mommsen, the story of his death, (for which see Plutarch) looks like an historical version of the abolition of blood-revenge. Tatius, who in some respects resembles Remus, is not a historical personage, but the eponymous hero of the religious college called Sodales Titii. As to this body Tacitus expresses two different opinions, representing two different traditions: that it was introduced either by Tatius himself to preserve the Sabine cult in Rome; or by Romulus in honour of Tatius, at whose grave its members were bound to offer a yearly sacrifice. The sodales fell into abeyance at the end of the republic, but were revived by Augustus and existed to the end of the 2nd century AD. Augustus himself and the emperor Claudius belonged to the college, and all its members were of senatorial rank. Varro mentions him as a king of Rome who enlarged the city and established certain cults, but he may just have been the eponym of the tribe Titiae, or even an invention to serve as a precedent for collegial magistracy.
- Chisholm 1911.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus. "Roman Antiquities vol II ch 42". doi:10.4159/DLCL.dionysius_halicarnassus-roman_antiquities.1937. Retrieved 13 November 2016. – via digital Loeb Classical Library (subscription required)
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus. "Roman Antiquities vol II ch 51-52". doi:10.4159/DLCL.dionysius_halicarnassus-roman_antiquities.1937. Retrieved 13 November 2016. – via digital Loeb Classical Library (subscription required)
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus. "Roman Antiquities vol II ch 53". doi:10.4159/DLCL.dionysius_halicarnassus-roman_antiquities.1937. Retrieved 13 November 2016. – via digital Loeb Classical Library (subscription required)
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Titus Tatius". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:10-14.
- Tacitus, Annals, i. 54, Histories ii. 95.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus, ii. 36-52.
- Plutarch, Romulus, 19-24.
- Joachim Marquardt, Romische Staatsverwaltung (1885) iii. 446.
- Schwegler, Romische Geschichte, bk. ix. 3, 14; x. 5.