Timeline of Portuguese history

This is a timeline of Portuguese history.

This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.

2nd millennium BC

15th century BC

Year Date Event
1500 BC A culture of small fortified villages known as Bronze of Levante appears in the modern-day region of Valencia, particularly in the southern half, being close culturally to El Argar. These people start to install the first settlements in the semi-desertic La Mancha called Motillas (fortifications in the top of man-made hills).[1]
For the first time the cattle-herding tribes of the central plateau organize into a single culture, known as Cogotas I, practising transhumance herding.[1]
The presence of strategic tin resources in North Western Iberia is probably the cause of some development in this region. The Montelavar group is characterized especially by its bronze axes.

13th century BC

Year Date Event
1300 BC El Argar disappears abruptly, giving way to a less homogeneous post-Argarian culture.[1]
The Motillas are abandoned, perhaps due to the disappearance of the Argarian state and its military needs.
The Urnfield culture is the first wave of Indo-European migrations to enter in the Peninsula. Although they stayed in Catalonia, they triggered the Atlantic Bronze Age in the Northwest of the peninsula (modern Galicia and northern Portugal), that maintained commercial relations with Brittany and the British Isles.[2]
In Western Andalusia appears an internally burnished pottery culture.
The Northwest is defined by their typical axes, divided into two types: Galician and Astur-Cantabrian.

12th century BC

Year Date Event
1200 BC Allis Ubbo (Modern Lisbon), uncertain but likely of Iberian origin, is founded

11th century BC

Year Date Event
1100 BC First contacts between Phoenicians and Iberia (along the Mediterranean coast).

1st millennium BC

10th century BC

Year Date Event
1000 BC First wave of Indo-European migrations into Iberia, of the Urnfield culture (Proto-Celts).
Bronze culture (Indo-European) in the Northwest of Iberia (modern Galicia and northern half of Portugal), maintaining commercial relations with Brittany and the British Isles. Emergence of the Castro Village culture in this Iberian area.
Bronze culture in the Portuguese Estremadura (not Indo-European).
Bronze culture of Portuguese Beira Alta (not Indo-European but influenced by).
Development of Tartessos, the first Iberian State mentioned in writing sources. Tartessos was a centralized Monarchy brought about under Phoenician influence and maintained commercial relations with the area of modern Algarve, inhabited by the Cynetes or Cunetes, and Portuguese Estremadura.[3]
Emergence of towns and cities in the southern littoral areas of western Iberia.

9th century BC

Year Date Event
900 BC Phoenicians introduce in Iberia the use of Iron, of the Potter's wheel, the production of olive oil and wine. They were also responsible for the first forms of Iberian writing, had a big religious influence and accelerated urban development.
The Castro Village culture appears in the northwestern part of the peninsula (roughly present-day northern Portugal, Galicia and Asturias). This culture is characterized by their walled villages and hill forts. It expanded from south to north and from the coast to the interior of the peninsula during the next centuries.[2]

8th century BC

Year Date Event
800 BC Strong Phoenician influence in the city of Balsa (modern Tavira in the Algarve).
The Celtic Hallstatt culture reaches the local Urnfields Celts of the Northeast, bringing the iron working technology to Iberia. This culture starts to expand to the nearby areas, embracing the northern region of the Levante and the upper Ebro valley.

7th century BC

Year Date Event
700 BC Strong Tartessian influence in the area of modern Algarve.
Second wave of Indo-European (Celts of the Hallstatt culture) migration into Portuguese territory.
The cattle herding culture of Cogotas I is transformed into Cogotas II, mixing the Celtic culture with the Iberian culture (Celtiberians).[4]
654 BC Phoenician settlers found a port in the Balearic Islands as Ibossim (Ibiza).[5]

6th century BC

Year Date Event
600 BC Decadence of Phoenician colonization of the Mediterranean coast of Iberia. Many of the colonies are deserted.
Phoenician influenced Tavira is destroyed by violence.
Cultural shift in southern Portuguese territory after the fall of Tartessos, with a strong Mediterranean character that prolongs and modifies Tartessian culture. This occurs mainly in Low Alentejo and the Algarve, but has littoral extensions up to the Tagus mouth (namely the important city of Bevipo, modern Alcácer do Sal).
First form of writing in western Iberia (south of Portugal), the Southwest script (still to be translated), denotes Tartessian influence in its use of a modified Phoenician alphabet. In these writings the word Conii (similar to Cunetes or Cynetes, the people of the Algarve) appears frequently.
The poem Ora Maritima, written by Avienus in the 4th century and based on the Massaliote Periplus of the 6th century BC, states that all of western Iberia was once called for the name of its people, the Oestriminis, which were replaced by an invasion of the Saephe or Ophis (meaning Serpent). From then on western Iberia would have been known as Ophiussa (Land of the Serpents).The poem also describes the various ethnic groups present at that time:
Celts penetrate in the Northwest of the Peninsula, although it has been debated whether all tribes of this area are actually Celtic, Celtizied or just native with Celtic influences and admixture.

5th century BC

Year Date Event
500 BC Further development of strong Central European (Celtic) influences and migrations in western Iberia north of the Tagus river.
Development of a second Castro Village culture in Galicia and northern Portugal.
The Celtic Calaicians or Gallaeci inhabit all the region around and above the Douro river (modern Galicia and northern Portugal).
First mint of coins and use of money in the Iberian peninsula.
The Greek historian Herodotus of Halicarnassus cites the word Iberia to designate what is now the Iberian peninsula, according to ancient Greek custom.
Urban bloom of Tartessian influenced Tavira.

4th century BC

Year Date Event
400 BC The Celtici, a new wave of Celtic migration, enter deeply into Portuguese territory and settle in the Alentejo also penetrating in the Algarve.
The Turduli and Turdetani, probably descendants of the Tartessians, are established in the area of the Guadiana river, in the south of modern Portugal, but celtized.
A series of cities in the Algarve, such as Balsa (Tavira), Baesuris (Castro Marim), Ossonoba(Faro) and Cilpes (Silves), are inhabited by the Cynetes or Cunetes progressively mingled with Celtic populations.
The Lusitanians (proto-Celtic) inhabit the area between the Douro and the Tagus rivers (and progressively penetrate the High Alentejo). They are neighbored to the east by the Vettones (also probably proto-Celtic).
Rome begins to rise as a Mediterranean power rival to Carthage.
The Greek historian Herodotus of Halicarnassus cites the word Iberia to designate what is now the Iberian peninsula, according to ancient Greek custom.[3]
Further development of strong Central European Celtic influences and migrations in western Iberia north of the Tagus river.

3rd century BC

Year Date Event
300 BC The Celtic Calaicians or Gallaeci inhabit all the region above the Douro river (modern Galicia and northern Portugal).[6]
Hannibal Barca expands Carthaginian conquests in Iberia. He goes as far as to penetrate in the territory of the Vacceos (north of central Iberia) and captures the cities of Salmantica (Salamanca) and Arbucela (region of Zamora). He is also credited as having founded the Port of Hannibal (possibly Portimão in the Algarve). (to 219 BC)
Ebro Treaty between Rome and Carthage, set the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro.
210 BC Hasdrubal son of Gisco goes into Lusitania and camps near the Tagus mouth.

2nd century BC

Year Date Event
200 BC The Latin poet Quintus Ennius records, for the first time, the use of the word Hispania to designate the Iberian peninsula (from the Carthaginian name). By this time, the Romans control most of eastern and southern Hispania, along the Mediterranean coast.
197 BC In a first attempt of a Roman provincial administration in Hispania, Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus and M. Helvius divide the peninsula into Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior (the one actually controlled by Rome). These two provinces were to be ruled by Governors with a mandate of one year.
Lusitania, Gallaecia and Asturias are included in the Roman province of Hispania Ulterior.
194 BC Lusitanians resist Roman invaders successfully, taking back land and ransacking Conistorgis, the Conii royal capital (in modern Algarve), because of that people's alliance with Rome.
The Lusitanians are defeated by the Romans, led by Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica (Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus' son), when sacking the city of Ilipa (in the Guadalquivir).
180 BC Viriathus, famous Lusitanian leader, is born in the Herminius Mons (probably in modern Serra da Estrela, Portugal).
179 BC The Praetor Lucius Postumius Albinus celebrated a triumph over the Lusitanians.
155 BC Under the command of Punicus first and Cesarus after, the Lusitanians and Vettones reach Gibraltar. There they were defeated by the Praetor Lucius Mummius. Beginning of the Lusitanian War. Still the struggle continues in the years to come with frequent Lusitanian victories.
154 BC Lusitanians, under Cesarus, pillage through Baetica (modern Andalusia).
Lusitanians, under Caucenus, pillage through southern Lusitania (modern Alentejo and Algarve).
There is a Lusitanian migratory movement towards the south.
152 BC From this date onwards the Roman Republic has difficulties in recruiting soldiers for the wars in Hispania, deemed particularly brutal.
150 BC The Lusitanians are defeated by praetor Servius Sulpicius Galba. Springing a clever trap, Galba's Legions killed 9000 Lusitanians and later sold 20000 more as slaves in Gaul (modern France).
147 BC The Lusitanians suffer severe losses at the hands of the Roman army led by Caius Vetilius, appointed governor of Hispania Ulterior.
Caius Vetilius promises the Lusitanians lands in the south if they abide by Roman rule. Viriathus, a survivor of Servius Sulpicius Galba's massacre, urges the tribes not to trust the Romans and fight back.
Viriathus is acclaimed leader of the Lusitanians.
The Lusitanians successfully resist Roman offensive.
Caius Vetilius, appointed governor of Hispania Ulterior, is killed in an ambush led by Viriathus.
146 BC Viriathus' Lusitanians defeat the Roman forces of Caius Plancius, taking the city of Segobriga.
Viriathus' Lusitanians defeat the Roman forces of Claudius Unimanus, governor of Hispania Citerior.
145 BC Viriathus' Lusitanians defeat the Roman forces of Caius Nigidius.
Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus is appointed governor of Hispania Citerior and given the specific task of helping Caius Lelius defeat Viriathus and the Lusitanians. The Romans achieve some military victories.
143 BC The Roman forces of Fabius Maximus Aemilianus are defeated in Ossuma (near modern Córdoba).
The Roman forces of Fabius Maximus Aemilianus are totally defeated near what is today the city of Beja in Alentejo.
142 BC The governor Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus attacks the territory of the Vettones, but is not able to take the cities of Numancia and Termancia.
140 BC Fabius Servilianus, new Consul of Hispania Ulterior, after having sacked several cities loyal to Viriathus in Baetica and southern Lusitania, is defeated by the Lusitanians in Erisane (in Baetica).
Fabius Servilianus, after the defeat, declared Viriathus to be a Friend of the Roman People and recognized the Lusitanian rule over their own lands.
139 BC The Roman Senate deems Fabius Servilianus' actions unworthy of Rome, and sends Servilius Cipianus to defeat the rebellious tribes of Hispania.
In Hispania Ulterior, Servilius Cipianus, with the aid of Marcus Pompilius Lenas' armies, severely defeat the Lusitanians and oblige Viriathus to take refuge north of the Tagus river and surrender hostages, such as his son father-in-law, Astolpas.
Servilius Cipianus armies also attack the Vettones and the Gallaecians.
Servilius Cipianus founds the Roman cities of Castra Servilia and Caepiana (in the territory of the Celtici).
Viriathus send emissaries to negotiate the peace with Servilius Cipianus.
Viriathus is betrayed and killed in his sleep by his companions (that had been sent as emissaries to Servilius Cipianus), Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus, bribed by Marcus Pompilius Lenas.
When Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus return to receive their reward by the Romans, the Consul Servilius Cipianus orders their execution, declaring, "Rome does not pay traitors".
Viriathus' Lusitanian armies, now led by Tautalus, still tries a southern incursion against the Romans, but are defeated. End of the Lusitanian War.
The Romans grant the Lusitanians lands in the south of Lusitania (in modern Alentejo).
138 BC First big Roman campaign deep inside present Portuguese territory led by Consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus. Decimus Junius Brutus, having in his back a pacified southern Lusitania (modern Alentejo and Algarve), established headquarters in the Valley of the Tagus (probably in the site of the Castle of Almourol) and had the allied city of Olisipo (modern Lisbon) fortified before advancing north, destroying settlements as he went. His defeat of a combined army of 60,000 Lusitanians, Gauls, and Callaici earned Decimus a "triumph" and the cognomen Callaicus.
The city of Olisipo (modern Lisbon) sends men to fight alongside the Roman legions against the Celtic tribes of the Northwest.
137 BC Proconsul Decimus Junius Brutus advances further north, mainly along the coastline, and establishes a fortified position in the area of modern Viseu.
The Roman legions cross the Douro river and enter the territory of the Gallaecians.
The Roman legions reluctantly cross the Lima river (Lethe, the river of forgetfulness), only after Decimus Junius Brutus crossed alone and called for them, thus proving he had not lost his memory.
136 BC Roman legions under Proconsul Decimus Junius Brutus reach the Minho river, but do not cross it for fear of losing their memories, again feraing they had reached the Lethe, the river of forgetfulness.
Decimus Junius Brutus lays siege and conquers the city of Talabriga, thus defeating the Gallaecians. After the military campaigns, the Roman legions departed south and left no garrisons.
The Roman Senate grants Praetor Decimus Junius Brutus the title Callaicus for his campaigns in Gallaecia.
133 BC The Celtiberians are defeated ending the Numantian War
132 BC A delegation of Roman Senators visits the new conquered territories in Iberian Peninsula so as to see what needs to be accomplished so Hispania could be incorporated into the growing empire.
114 BC Praetor Gaius Marius is sent to govern Lusitania and has to deal with minor Lusitanian unruliness.
113 BC Romans score victories against Lusitanian attacks with Praetor Gaius Marius and Proconsul Decimus Junius Brutus (who replaced Marius), but still the Lusitanians resist with a long guerrilla war. Eventually they are defeated.
Beginning of the progressive consolidation of Roman administration and control.
105 BC After the Battle of Arausio, the Germanic Teutons and Cimbri plunder through all north Iberia as far as Gallaecia, before moving out and being defeated in the battles of Aquae Sextiae and Vercellae. (to 102 BC)

1st century BC

Year Date Event
97 BC The General Quintus Sertorius serves in Iberia for the first time.
96 BC Publius Licinius Crassus Dives (father of Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives) Governor of Hispania Ulterior, leads a military expedition to the Northwest and finds the source mines of Tin. (to 94 BC)
83 BC Quintus Sertorius goes to Iberia for a second time, where he represented the Marian party (of Gaius Marius) against Lucius Cornelius Sulla in the Roman Republican civil wars.
Quintus Sertorius Hispanic revolt, where he is joined by the Lusitanians. (to 72 BC)
81 BC Generalized Roman Republican war in all of Iberia.
80 BC Battle of the Baetis River, where rebel forces under Quintus Sertorius defeat the legal Roman forces of Lucius Fulfidias, governor of Hispania Ulterior.
Quintus Sertorius' second in command, Hirtuleius, defeats the governor of Hispania Citerior.
79 BC Quintus Sertorius' armies control most of Hispania Ulterior and parts of Hispania Citerior.
The appointed governor of Hispania Ulterior, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, attacks the positions of Quintus Sertorius' armies, namely the city of Lacobriga (probably Lagos in the Algarve), but is unable to take it.
77 BC Quintus Sertorius is joined by the General Marcus Perperna Vento from Rome, with a following of Roman nobles.
Quintus Sertorius defeats the generals Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius at the Battle of Saguntum.
In this period Quintus Sertorius, through pacts of hospitability and clientele, establishes strong solidarity with local indigenous populations.
Quintus Sertorius founds a Roman school for the children of its local allies in Lusitania.
76 BC Quintus Sertorius defeats Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus near the Pyrenees.
In Baetica, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius defeats Hirtuleius, who is obliged to flee.
75 BC Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius again defeats Hirtuleius and is able to join his armies with those of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.
Battle of the Sucro where Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Lucius Afranius defeat Quintus Sertorius.
74 BC Probable expedition to Cale (in Gallaecia, near the modern city of Porto?) promoted by Marcus Perperna Vento.
73 BC Quintus Sertorius loses all the region of Celtiberia (north central Iberia).
72 BC Quintus Sertorius is assassinated at a banquet, Marcus Perperna Vento, it seems, being the chief instigator of the deed due to his grudge against the privileges of non-Roman military commanders.
Marcus Perperna Vento assumes the command of Quintus Sertorius' armies, but is swiftly defeated by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. This marks the end of the Sertorian War.
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius pacifies and submits Hispania Ulterior. The regions north of the Tagus river are still not effectively occupied by the Roman Republic.
69 BC Julius Caesar was elected Quaestor by the Assembly of the Roman People, at the age of 30, as stipulated in the Roman Cursus honorum, having been assigned with a quaestorship in Lusitania (part of Hispania Ulterior, whose governor was then Antistius Vetus).
61 BC Julius Caesar is assigned to serve as the Propraetor governor of Hispania Ulterior.
Julius Caesar attacks the Lusitanian areas between the Tagus and the Douro rivers, from his headquarters in Scallabis (modern Santarém).
Julius Caesar personally conducts an important naval expedition to the shores of Gallaecia.
60 BC Julius Caesar wins considerable victories over the Gallaecians and Lusitanians. During one of his victories, his men hailed him as Imperator in the field, which was a vital consideration in being eligible for a triumph back in Rome.
59 BC Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus make an agreement by which they establish the First Triumvirate.
56 BC The agreement establishing the First Triumvirate is renewed.
53 BC Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives dies in Parthia.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus is granted Hispania as a Proconsulular Province.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus delivers the rule of the two Roman provinces of Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior to his lieutenants Marcus Terentius Varro and Marcus Petreius, respectively.
Marcus Petreius commands two Roman legions in Lusitania, between the frontier areas of the Lusitanians and the Vettones (at the edge of Roman effective control).
50 BC Open hostility between Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, the first favouring the Populares and the second the Optimates in their struggle for power.
Julius Caesar is asked by the Roman Senate to give up his troops, but he refuses.
49 BC Julius Caesar goes into Hispania and defeats the legions of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus' legates, Marcus Terentius Varro, Marcus Petreius and Lucius Afranius, leaving Gaius Cassius Longinus as legate and facing growing difficulties in maintaining local populations obedient to Rome.
1 January The Roman Senate receives a proposal from Julius Caesar that he and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus should lay down their commands simultaneously. The Senate rejects Julius Caesar's final peace proposal and declares him a Public Enemy.
10 January Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, pronouncing the famous phrase Alea iacta est ("The die has been cast"). Beginning of the Roman Civil War.
48 BC Julius Caesar is elected Dictator, but only serves the office for 11 days.
Julius Caesar is named Consul for a period of five years.
Gaius Cassius Longinus, Caesar's legate in Hispania, leads a campaign against the city of Medobrega and other regions of northern Lusitania, where he installs military garrisons that face a lot of local resistance.
29 September Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus is assassinated.
46 BC Julius Caesar proceeds to North Africa where he defeats the remnants of Pompey's Senatorial supporters (the Optimates) under Marcus Porcius Cato Uticencis.
Julius Caesar is again elected Dictator and introduces the Julian Calendar.
Pompey's sons Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompeius, together with Titus Labienus, Caesar's former propraetorian legate (legatus propraetore) and second in command in the Gallic War, escaped to Hispania, where they continued to resist Caesar's dominance of the Roman world.
November, Julius Caesar arrives in Hispania with eight legions and 8,000 cavalry of his own. Caesar's arrival was completely unexpected by the enemy, and the surprise gave him an early advantage.
Gaius Octavianus and Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa join Julius Caesar in Hispania, where the Civil War continues.
45 BC Battle of Munda, in southern Hispania, where, in his last victory, Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompeius.
Sextus Pompeius, departing from his garrison at Corduba (in Baetica), roams Hispania Ulterior fighting against its governor (appointed by Julius Caesar), before fleeing for Sicily. End of the Roman Civil War.
Julius Caesar, before going back to Rome, leaves his legate governors with the mission of pacifying Hispania and punish the local tribes for their disloyalty. Once again resistance grows and the Romans will have to deal with small local uprising in the years to come.
Julius Caesar adopts Gaius Octavianus who becomes Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus.
Julius Caesar returns to Rome victorious and is Named Pater Patriae and Dictator (3rd time) by the Roman Senate.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus is deified by the Roman Senate through the request of Julius Caesar.
44 BC Julius Caesar is appointed dictator in perpetuity (dictator perpetuo).
Ides of March: Julius Caesar, dictator of Rome, is assassinated by a group of Roman senators. Beginning of the end of Roman Republic period and establishment of Roman Empire.
February Julius Caesar refuses the diadem offered by Marcus Antonius, thus demonstrating that he did not intend to assume the throne as King of Rome.
42 BC Julius Caesar is formally deified as "the Divine Julius" (Divus Julius).
39 BC Several Roman governor of Hispania Ulterior celebrate Roman triumphs in Rome for their victories in submitting the rebellious local tribes and nations. (to 29 BC)
28 BC Augustus' military campaigns pacificate all Hispania under Roman rule. (to 24 BC)
Foundation of the Roman cities of Asturica Augusta (Astorga) and Bracara Augusta (Braga), to the north, and, to the south, Emerita Augusta (Mérida) (settled with the emeriti of the 5th and 10th legions). (to 24 BC)
27 BC The Roman general and politician Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa divides all Hispania into 3 parts, Lusitania, Baetica and Tarraconensis.
The emperor Augustus returns to Hispania and makes a new administrative division, creating the province of Hispania Ulterior Lusitania, whose capital was to be Emerita Augusta (currently Mérida). Originally Lusitania included the territories of Asturias and Gallaecia, but these were later ceded to the jurisdiction of Provincia Tarraconensis and the former remained as Provincia Lusitania et Vettones.
16 January Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus becomes Roman Emperor as Caesar Augustus. Definitive end of the Roman Republic and establishment of the Roman Empire.
23 BC The emperor Augustus establishes the Principate and the Pax Romana.

Centuries: 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th · 21st

1st millennium

3rd century

Year Date Event
211 The Emperor Caracalla makes a new administrative division which lasts only a short time. He splits Hispania Citerior again into two parts, creating the new provinces Hispania Nova Citerior and Asturiae-Calleciae (the later under governor Cerealis).
4 February The brothers Caracalla and Geta become Co-Emperors.
December Caracalla kills his brother Geta and becomes sole Emperor.
217 8 April Macrinus and Diadumenian become Co-Emperors.
218 8 June Elagabalus becomes Roman Emperor.
222 11 March Alexander Severus becomes Roman Emperor.
235 Roman Imperial Crisis of the Third Century, from 235 until 284 great confusion in the Imperial seat.
238 The unified province Tarraconensis or Hispania Citerior is reestablished. Asturias and Gallaecia are again part of it.
284 20 November Diocletian becomes Roman Emperor. Beginning of the Dominate period. Under Emperor Diocletian, Lusitania kept its borders and was ruled by a Praeses, later by a Consularis; finally, it was united with the other provinces to form the Diocesis Hispaniarum ("Diocese of Hispania").
286 21 July Maximian becomes Co-Emperor with Diocletian.
300 Braga becomes an Episcopal Diocese.

4th century

Year Date Event
303 Emperor Diocletian orders the persecution of Christians.
305 Diocletian and Maximian abdicated. Constantius and Galerius becomes Augusti. Maximinus is appointed Caesar in the east and Severus in the west. Partition of the Roman Empire. Multiplication of Emperors.
318 Excommunication of Arius.
325 The Ecumenical Council of Nicaea.
366 Damasus, son of Antonius and Laurentia, born in the Conventus Bracarensis of Gallaecia (near the modern city of Guimarães), is the reigning Pope under the name Damasus I. (to 383)
385 Paulus Orosius, historian, theologian and disciple of St. Augustine, is probably born in Braga.
388 Paternus becomes bishop of the Episcopal see of Braga.

5th century

Year Date Event
409 Invasion of the NW of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Gallaecia) by the Germanic Suevi (Quadi and Marcomanni) under king Hermerico, accompanied by the Buri. The Suevic Kingdom eventually received official recognition (Foedus) from the Romans for their settlement there in Gallaecia. It was the first kingdom separated from the Roman Empire that minted coins.
Invasion of the Iberian peninsula by the Germanic Vandals (Silingi and Hasdingi) and the Sarmatian Alans.
410 Rome is sacked by the Visigoths under King Alaric I.
411 A treaty with Western Roman Emperor Flavius Augustus Honorius grants Lusitania to the Alans, Gallaecia to the Suevi and Hasdingi, and Baetica to the Silingi.
414 Paulus Orosius, clergyman of Braga, visits St. Augustine in Hippo Regius.
415 Baquiário, priest of Braga, writes his work De fide, where he retracts from Priscillianism heresy.
Beginning of the invasion of the Iberian peninsula by the Germanic Visigoths led by King Theodorid, expanding from Aquitaine and under request by the Romans.
417 Balconius becomes bishop of Braga.
419 The Hasdingi Vandals attack the Suevi, these resist with Roman aid.
426 The Alan king Attaces is killed in battle against the Visigoths, and this branch of the Alans subsequently appealed to the Vandal king Gunderic to accept the Alan crown.
427 Hydatius is ordained bishop of Aquae Flaviae (modern Chaves). Hydatius was the author of a chronicle of his own times that provides us with our best evidence for the history of Hispania in the 5th century.
428 The Alans defeat the Suevi and the Romans at the Battle of Mérida.
429 The Vandals and the Alans move to North Africa, where they establish a kingdom. The Buri vanish into the Suevi kingdom.
438 Hermerico, the first Suevi king of Gallaecia, ratified the peace with the Galaicos people and, tired of fighting, abdicated in favor of his son Requila.
448 Suevi king Requila dies leaving a state in expansion to his son Requiario who imposed his Catholic faith on the Suevi population.
451 Thorismund becomes King of the Visigoths.
453 Theodoric II becomes King of the Visigoths.
454 The Ibero-Roman population ask for the help of King Theodoric II of the Visigoths against Suevi incursions.
455 The Bishop of Rome assumes control over all of Western Christianity, proclaiming himself Pope, under the name of Leo I.
456 King Theodoric II of the Visigoths defeats the Suevi at the Battle of Orbigo and sacks their capital city Braga.
Suevi king Requiario is executed and some candidates for the throne appear, grouped in two factions, those who follow Frantán and those who follow Aguiulfo (dependent of the Visigoths). A division marked for the river Minius is noticed, probably a consequence of the two tribes, Quadi and Marcomanni, who constituted the Suevi nation.
457 Maldras becomes king of all the Suevi.
459 After the death of King Maldras of the Suevi, a new division appears between Frumario and Remismundo.
462 Hydatius, Bishop of Aquae Flaviae (modern Chaves), is imprisoned by the Visigoths.
463 Remismundo unites the Suevi and becomes king.
466 Euric becomes king of the Visigoths.
468 The Roman city of Conimbriga, near modern Coimbra, is sacked by the Suevi.
Lusídio, Roman governor of Lisbon, delivers the city to the Suevi.
469 Teodemundo becomes King of the Suevi.
470 Hydatius, Bishop of Aquae Flaviae, dies.
King Euric of the Visigoths conquers southern Gallaecia and Lusitania to the Suevi.
475 King Euric (who unified the various quarreling factions of the Visigoths) forces the Roman government to grant the Visigothic kingdom full independence. At his death, the Visigoths were the most powerful of the successor states to the Western Roman Empire.
476 4 September Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when the chieftain of the Germanic Heruli, Odoacer, proclaims himself King of Italy. Conventional date for the fall of the Western Roman Empire, and widely considered the end of ancient history and beginning of the Middle Ages.
484 Alaric II becomes king of the Visigoths.

6th century

Year Date Event
501 Council (Ecumenical Synod) of Braga.
507 At the Battle of Vouillé the Franks wrested control of Aquitaine from the Visigoths. King Alaric II, the conqueror of all Hispania, was killed in battle, and after a temporary retreat to Narbonne, Visigoth nobles spirited his heir, the child-king Amalaric to safety across the Pyrenees and into Iberia.
Gesalec becomes king of the Visigoths.
511 The Visigoths and Ostrogoths were reunited under Theodoric the Great, ruling from Ravenna, acting as regent for Amalaric. The center of Visigothic rule shifted first to Barcelona, then inland and south to Toledo. (to 526)
526 Amalaric becomes king of the Visigoths.
527 Council (Ecumenical Synod) of Toledo.
531 Theudis becomes king of the Visigoths.
537 Profuturus becomes bishop of Braga.
548 Theudigisel becomes king of the Visigoths.
549 Agila becomes king of the Visigoths.
550 Karriarico becomes King of the Suevi.
Saint Martin of Dumes arrives in Suevish Gallaecia. Born in Pannonia, he was the foremost Iberian scholar of his time. He was given the church of Dume, where he built a monastery.
554 Athanagild becomes king of the Visigoths.
558 Saint Martin, Abbot of Dumes becomes Bishop of Dume.
559 Teodomiro becomes King of the Suevi.
561 Council (Ecumenical Synod) of Braga.
562 Saint Martin of Dumes becomes Bishop of Braga.
567 Liuva I becomes king of the Visigoths.
568 Liuvigild becomes king of the Visigoths.
569 Council (Ecumenical Synod) of Lugo.
570 Miro becomes King of the Suevi.
King Liuvigild of the Visigoths begins military actions with the explicit purpose of conquering all of Hispania.
572 Council (Ecumenical Synod) of Braga.
583 Eborico (also called Eurico) becomes King of the Suevi.
584 Andeca becomes King of the Suevi.
The Visigothic King Liuvigild invades the Suevic kingdom and finally defeates it.
585 Andeca, the last king of the Suevi, helds out for a year before surrendering in to the Visigothic King Liuvigild. With his surrender, this branch of the Suevi vanished into the Visigothic kingdom.
586 Reccared becomes king of the Visigoths.
587 Reccared, the Visigothic king at Toledo, having been converted to Catholicism puts an end to dissension on the question of Arianism and launched a movement to unify the various religious doctrines that existed in Hispania.
589 Pantardus becomes bishop of Braga.

7th century

Year Date Event
601 Liuva II becomes king of the Visigoths.
604 Witteric becomes king of the Visigoths.
610 Gundemar becomes king of the Visigoths.
612 Sisebur becomes king of the Visigoths.
621 Suintila becomes king of the Visigoths.
624 The Visigoths, through the conquest of the last Byzantine domains and the Basque Country, control all of the Iberian peninsula.
631 Sisenand becomes king of the Visigoths.
633 Julian becomes bishop of Braga.
636 Chintila becomes king of the Visigoths.
640 Tulga becomes king of the Visigoths.
641 Chindasuinth becomes king of the Visigoths.
649 Reccasuinth becomes king of the Visigoths.
653 Potamius becomes bishop of Braga.
656 St. Fructuosus of Dumes becomes bishop of Braga.
663 Council (Ecumenical Synod) of Braga.
672 Wamba becomes king of the Visigoths.
675 Leodegisius becomes bishop of Braga.
Council (Ecumenical Synod) of Braga.
680 Erwig becomes king of the Visigoths.
681 Liuva becomes bishop of Braga.
688 Faustinus becomes bishop of Braga.
693 Félix becomes bishop of Braga. Félix of Braga was the last bishop of Braga to reside there until 1070, due to the Moorish invasion. His successors establishid themselves in Lugo (Galicia).

8th century

Year Date Event
701 Wittiza becomes king of the Visigoths.
710 Roderic becomes king of the Visigoths.
711 15 March Muslim Umayyads (Moors: mainly Berber with some Arabs, faithful to the Emir of Damascus and under the Berber Tariq ibn-Ziyad, invade and eventually conquer the Iberian Peninsula (Visigothic King Roderic is killed while opposing the invasion), except for the northernmost part – the Asturias. Resistance to Moorish occupation (Reconquista) starts from this stronghold.
713 Musa ibn Nusayr, governor of North Africa, conquers Medina-Sidonia, Seville and Mértola.
714 Abd al-Aziz, Musa ibn Nusayr's son, conquers Évora, Santarém and Coimbra. (to 715)
715 Abd al-Aziz is left in charge and makes his capital the city of Seville, where he marries Egilona, widow of Visigothic King Roderic. The Umayyad Caliph Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik, a paranoid ruler, will have Abd el-Aziz assassinated and sends Musa ibn Nusayr into exile in his native Yemen village to live out his days as a beggar.
716 Lisbon is captured by the Moors.
717 Córdoba becomes the capital of Muslim holdings in the Al-Andalus.
718 Pelayo establishes the Kingdom of Asturias. This is considered to be the beginning of the Reconquista.
722 A powerful Moorish force sent to conquer Asturias once and for all is defeated by king Pelayo at the Battle of Covadonga. Today, this is regarded as the first significant Christian victory of the Reconquista.
737 King Pelayo of Asturias dies.
Favila, son of Pelayo, becomes King of Asturias.
739 Alfonso, son of Peter of Cantabria, duke of Cantabria, and married to Ormesinda, daughter of Pelayo of Asturias, becomes King of Asturias.
The Moors are driven out of Galicia by Alfonso I of Asturias.
740 Berber revolts against Arab Umayyad overlords.
755 Abd ar-Rahman I of the Umayyad dynasty flees to Iberia to escape the Abbasids and would be responsible for creating "the Golden Caliphate".
756 The Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman I defeats Yusuf al-Fihri and becomes Commander of al-Andalus Muslims, proclaiming himself Emir of Córdoba.
757 Fruela I becomes King of Asturias.
763 Abd ar-Rahman I suppresses an Abbasid inspired revolt.
768 Aurelio becomes King of Asturias.
A Berber reformer rebels in central Iberia and occupies Mérida and other towns to the north of the Tagus. The rebellion is suppressed after nine years. (to 777)
774 Silo becomes King of Asturias. In this period this is a lot of unrest in Galicia towards the rule of Asturias.
783 Mauregato the Usurper becomes King of Asturias. He was an illegitimate son of Alfonso I of Asturias, supposedly by a Moorish woman.
788 Death of Abd ar-Rahman I, founder of the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba. His successor is Hisham I.
Bermudo I becomes King of Asturias.
791 Alfonso II becomes King of Asturias in Oviedo and conquers a number of Moorish strongholds and settles the lands south of the Douro River.
A Muslim force raids into Galicia.
794 Asturians defeat the Muslims at the Battle of Lutos.
796 Al-Hakam I, becomes Umayyad Emir of Córdoba.
798 In a raid on Muslim lands, Alfonso II of Asturias enters Lisbon but cannot occupy it.
800 10-year Rebellion against the Muslims breaks out in the fringes of Al-Andalus (Lisbon, Mérida, Toledo). Each rebellion is bloodily suppressed by the central Islamic authorities.

9th century

Year Date Event
809 A Umayyad prince defeats and executes Tumlus, a Muslim rebel who had seized power in Lisbon some years before.
813 The grave of James the Apostle is discovered near Santiago de Compostela, in Galicia, beginning the cult of St. James that would unite Iberian Christians of many different petty kingdoms.
822 Abd-ar-rahman II becomes Umayyad Emir of Córdova.
825 Moors attempt to invade Christian territory from Coimbra and Viseu but are driven back.
839 Alfonso II of Asturias commands a military force in the region of Viseu.
842 Ramiro I becomes King of Asturias.
844 Vikings raid the Galician estuaries, are defeated by Ramiro I of Asturias, attack Lisbon, Beja and the Algarve, and sack Seville.
Battle of Clavijo, legendary battle between Christians led by Ramiro I of Asturias and Muslims, where St. James is said to have helped the Christian Army.
850 Ordoño I of Asturias becomes King of Asturias in Oviedo. Beginning of Christian repopulation. Rise of the county of Castile.
852 Muhammad I becomes Umayyad Emir of Córdova.
859 Ordoño I of Asturias defeats Musa ibn Musa at Albelda.
866 Alfonso III the Great, son of Ordoño I of Asturias, becomes King of Asturias. He initiates the repopulation of Porto, Coimbra, Viseu and Lamego.
868 Establishment of the 1st County of Portugal, a fiefdom of the Kingdom of Asturias, by count Vímara Peres, after the reconquest from the Moors of the region between the Minho and Douro Rivers. Count Vímara Peres founded the fortified city that bears his own name Vimaranis, later Guimaranis, present day Guimarães, considered "The Cradle City" of Portugal.
871 The city of Coimbra is reconquered from the Moors. Hermenegildo Gutiérrez is made Count of Coimbra.
873 Vímara Peres dies and his son Lucídio Vimaranes becomes Count of Portugal. After his death the county passes to the hand of count Diogo Fernandes.
878 The region of Coimbra (today, Central Portugal) is incorporated in the Kingdom of Asturias by the Count Hermenegildo Gutiérrez.
886 Al-Mundhir becomes Umayyad Emir of Córdoba.
888 Abdallah ibn Muhammad becomes Umayyad Emir of Córdoba.

10th century

Year Date Event
909 Alfonso III of Asturias is deposed by his sons yet also proclaimed Emperor.
910 Alfonso III of Asturias dies and his kingdom is divided among his sons into the dependent kingdoms of Astúrias, León and Galicia.
Ordoño II becomes King of Galicia with the support of the Count of Portugal.
911 Count Hermenegildo Guterres of Coimbra, dies and his son Arias Mendes becomes Count of Coimbra.
912 Abd al-Rahman III becomes the Umayyad Emir of Córdoba.
913 An expedition commanded by Ordoño II, then vassal king of Galicia, into Muslim territory takes Évora from the Muslims.
914 Ordoño II of Galicia, becomes King of León, after the death of his brother García I of León.
The capital city of the Kingdom of Asturias is moved from Oviedo to León, from now on Kingdom of León.
916 Ordoño II of León is defeated by the Emir Abd al-Rahman III in Valdejunquera.
918 Battle of Talavera where Muslims under Abd al-Rahman III defeat the Christians.
Pope John X recognizes the orthodoxy and legitimacy of the Visigothic Liturgy maintained in the Mozarabic rite.
924 Fruela II becomes King of León.
925 Sancho Ordonhes, son of Ordoño II of León, becomes vassal king of Galicia until 929.
Alfonso IV becomes King of León.
Ramiro II, son of Ordoño II of León, was the first to bear the title King of Portuguese Land.
926 Ramiro II takes residency in the city of Viseu.
Mendo I Gonçalves, son of Count Gonzalo Betotez of Galicia) marries Mumadona Dias (daughter of count Diogo Fernandes and Onega) and becomes Count of Portugal.
The Umayyad Emir Abd al-Rahman III, faced with the threat of invasion by the Fatimids, proclaims himself Caliph of Córdoba. Under the reign of Abd al-Rahman III Muslim Al-Andalus reaches its greatest height before its slow decline over the next four centuries.
928 Gonçalo Moniz, grandson of Count Arias Mendes of Coimbra, becomes Count of Coimbra.
929 Abd al-Rahman III proclaims himself Caliph in Córdoba and transforms the Emirate of Córdoba into an independent caliphate no longer under even theoretical control from Baghdad.
930 Ramiro II leaves his residency in Viseu.
931 Ramiro II becomes King of León.
938 First document where the word Portugal is written in its present form.
946 The county of Castile becomes independent.
950 Countess Mumadona Dias of Portugal divides amongst her sons her the vast domains, upon the death of her husband Count Mendo I Gonçalves.
Gonçalo I Mendes, son of Mumadona Dias and Mendo I Gonçalves, becomes Count of Portugal.
Ordoño III becomes King of León.
953 Big Moorish incursion in Galicia.
955 Ordoño III of León attacks Lisbon.
956 Sancho I becomes King of León.
958 Sancho I of León is deposed.
Ordoño IV becomes King of León.
959 Countess Mumadona Dias donates vast estates to the Monastery of St. Mamede in Guimarães.
960 Sancho I of León is reinstated as King of León.
961 Al-Hakam II becomes Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba.
962 Count Gonçalo I Mendes of Portugal rebels against Sancho I of León.
966 Count Gonçalo Moniz of Coimbra rebels against Sancho I of León.
Vikings raid Galicia and kill the bishop of Santiago de Compostela in battle, but his successor St. Rudesind rallies the local forces and kills the Viking King Gundered.
967 Ramiro III becomes King of León.
968 Countess Mumadona Dias dies.
971 Another minor Viking raid in Galicia.
976 Caliph Al-Hakam II dies, and Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir takes over in the name of his protégé Hisham II, becoming a military dictator usurping caliphal powers and launching a big number of offensive campaigns against the Christians.
981 Count Gonçalo Moniz of Coimbra dies.
982 Bermudo II becomes King of León, having been acclaimed by the Counts of Galicia and anointed in Santiago de Compostela.
987 Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir lays waste to the now Christian Coimbra.
Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir seizes the castles north of the Douro River, and arrives at the city of Santiago de Compostela. The city had been evacuated and Al-Mansur burns it to the ground and destroys the Church of Santiago.
Count Gonçalo I Mendes takes the personal title Magnus Dux Portucalensium (Grand-Duke of Portucale) and rebels against King Bermudo II of León, being defeated.
999 Alfonso V becomes King of León.
Mendo II Gonçalves, son (or grandson?) of Gonçalo I Mendes and Tuta, becomes Count of Portugal.

2nd millennium

11th century

Year Date Event
1002 Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir dies in the village of Salem.
1003 Moors lay waste to the city of León.
1008 Vikings raid Galicia, killing Count Mendo II Gonçalves of Portugal.
Alvito Nunes, of a collateral line but also descent of Vímara Peres, married to Countess Tudadomna, becomes Count of Portugal.
Hisham II, Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba, is deposed in a popular uprising led by Muhammad II al-Mahdi.
Mohammed II al-Mahdi becomes Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba.
1009 Sulaiman al-Mustain becomes Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba, after deposing Mohammed II.
The Taifa (independent Moorish kingdom) of Badajoz becomes independent of the Caliph of Córdoba and governs the territory between Coimbra and North Alentejo.
1010 Hisham II is restored as Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba by slave troops of the Caliphate under al-Wahdid.
1012 Sulaiman al-Mustain is restored as Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba by the Berber armies.
1013 Caliphate of Córdoba begins to break up. Berber troops take Córdoba with much plundering and destruction and kill the deposed Hisham II. Many Taifas (independent Moorish kingdoms) begin to spring up.
1016 Norman invaders ascend the Minho river and destroy Tuy in Galicia.
1017 Nuno I Alvites, son of Alvito Nunes and Tudadomna, becomes Count of Portugal. He marries Ilduara Mendes, daughter of Mendo II Gonçalves and Tuta.
1018 The Taifa of the Algarve becomes independent.
1021 Abd-ar-Rahman IV becomes Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba.
1022 Abd-ar-Rahman V becomes Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba.
The Taifa (independent Moorish kingdom) of Lisbon emerges. It will be annexed by the Taifa of Badajoz.
1023 Muhammad III becomes Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba.
1025 Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abbad, Abbadid Emir of Seville, captures two castles at Alafões to the north-west of Viseu.
1027 Hisham III becomes Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba.
1028 Mendo III Nunes, son of Nuno I Alvites and Ilduara Mendes, becomes Count of Portugal.
Alfonso V, king of Asturias and León, lays siege to Viseu but is killed by a bolt from the walls.
Bermudo III, becomes King of León.
1031 Sancho III of Navarre declares war on Bermudo III of León. Navarre, sometimes assisted by Galician rebels and Normans, ravages the lands around Lugo in Galicia.
The Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba falls.
1033 The Taifa (independent Moorish kingdom) of Mértola becomes independent.
1034 The Leonese destroy a raiding force under Ismail ibn Abbad of Seville. Ismail ibn Abbad flees to Lisbon.
Gonçalo Trastemires – a Portuguese frontiersman – captures Montemor castle on the Mondego river.
Sancho the Great of Navarre had incorporated Aragon, Sobrarbe, Barcelona, as well as Asturias, León and Castile, and he proclaims himself Rex Hispaniarum ("King of all Spains").
1035 Sancho III of Navarre, Aragon and Castile dies and distributes his lands among his three sons; Castile and Aragon become kingdoms.
Bermudo III of León defeats the Moors in César, in the Aveiro region.
1037 Ferdinand of Castile, son of Sancho III of Navarre, acquires the Kingdom of León in the Battle of Tamarón. The first Castilian king, Ferdinand I, defeats and kills his father-in-law, Bermudo III of León, thus inheriting his kingdom.
1039 Ferdinand I of Castille-León proclaims himself Emperor of all Hispania.
1040 The Taifa of Silves becomes independent.
1044 Abbad III al-Mu'tamid, son of the Abbadid Emir of Seville Abbad II al-Mu'tadid, retakes Mértola, since 1033 an independent Taifa.
1050 Count Mendo III Nunes of Portugal is killed in battle sometime during this period.
Nuno II Mendes, son of Count Mendo III Nunes, becomes Count of Portugal.
1051 The Taifa of the Algarve is annexed by the Taifa of Seville.
1056 The Almoravides (al-Murabitun) Dynasty begins its rise to power. Taking the name "those who line up in defence of the faith", this is a group of fundamentalist Berber Muslims who would rule North Africa and Islamic Iberia until 1147.
1057 Ferdinand I of Castille-León conquers Lamego to the Moors.
1058 Emir Al-Muzaffar al-Aftas (Abu Bekr Muhammad al-Mudaffar – Modafar I of Badajoz, Aftid dynasty) pays the Christians to leave Badajoz, but not before Viseu being conquered by Ferdinand I of Castile-León.
1060 Council (Ecumenical Synod) of Santiago de Compostela. (to 1063)
1063 Ferdinand I of Castile-León divides his kingdom among his sons. Galicia is allotted to his son Garcia.
The Taifa of Silves is annexed by the Taifa of Seville.
1064 Ferdinand I of León-Castile besieges Muslim Coimbra from 20 January until 9 July . The Muslim governor who surrendered is allowed to leave with his family, but 5,000 inhabitants are taken captive, and all Muslims are forced out of Portuguese territory across the Mondego river.
The Mozarabic (Christian) general Sisnando Davides, who led the siege of Coimbra, becomes Count of Coimbra.
The Hispanic calendar is adopted.
1065 Independence of the Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal is proclaimed under the rule of Garcia II of Galicia.
1070 Count Nuno II Mendes of Portugal rises against King Garcia II of Galicia.
1071 Garcia II of Galicia became the first to use the title King of Portugal, when he defeated, in the Battle of Pedroso (near Braga), Count Nuno II Mendes, last count of Portugal of the Vímara Peres House.
1072 Loss of independence of the Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal, forcibly reannexed by Garcia's brother king Alfonso VI of Castile. From that time on Galicia remained part of the Kingdoms of Castile and León, although under differing degrees of self-government. Even if it did not last for very long, the Kingdom set the stage for future Portuguese independence under Henry, Count of Portugal.
1077 Alfonso VI of Castile and León proclaimes himself Emperor of all Spains.
1080 Coimbra is again a Diocese.
Count Sisnando Davides of Coimbra takes part in the invasion of Granada.
1085 The Order of Cluny is established in Portugal. (to 1096)
1086 Several Muslim Emirs (namely Abbad III al-Mu'tamid) ask the Almoravids leader Yusuf ibn Tashfin for help against Alfonso VI of Castile. In this year Yusuf ibn Tashfin passed the straits to Algeciras and inflicted a severe defeat on the Christians at the Battle of az-Zallaqah (North of Badajoz). He was debarred from following up his victory by trouble in North Africa which he had to settle in person.
Raymond of Burgundy, son of William I, Count of Burgundy, comes to Iberia for the 1st time to fight against the Moors, bringing with him his younger cousin Henry of Burgundy, grandson of Robert I, Duke of Burgundy.
1090 Almoravid Yusuf ibn Tashfin return to Iberia and conquers all the Taifas.
Raymond of Burgundy and Henry of Burgundy come to Iberia for the 2nd time.
1091 Count Sisnando Davides of Coimbra dies.
Alfonso VI of Castile gives her daughter Urraca of Castile in marriage to Raymond of Burgundy together with the fiefdom of Galicia.
The Taifa of Mértola falls to the Almoravids.
1093 Raymond of Burgundy and Henry of Burgundy sign a treaty whereby Henry promises to recognize Raymond as king upon the death of Alfonso VI of Castile, receiving in exchange the Kingdom of Toledo or of Portugal.
1094 Alfonso VI of Castile grants Raymond of Burgundy the government of Portugal and Coimbra.
Henry of Burgundy marries Alfonso VI of Castile's illegitimate daughter Teresa of León.
Almoravid Sir ibn Abi Bakr takes Badajoz and Lisbon. Fall of the Taifa of Badajoz.
1095 Establishment of the 2nd County of Portugal (Condado Portucalense), by Count Henry of Burgundy.
The Almoravids take Santarém.
1097 Yusuf ibn Tashfin assumes the title of Amir al Muslimin (Prince of the Muslims).

12th century

Year Date Event
1102 Diego Gemírez, Bishop of Santiago de Compostela, uses force to carry off the relics of St. Victor and St. Fructuosus of Dumes from Braga – recently reinstated as a Metropolitan See.
1103 In the absence of Henry, Count of Portugal in Rome or Jerusalem, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, aided by Soeiro Mendes, governs Portugal.
1105 The Almohads, founded by Ibn Tumart, began as a religious movement to rid Islam of impurities. Most specifically, the Almohades were opposed to anthropomorphisms which had slipped into Iberian Islam. Ibn Tumart's successor, Abd al-Mu'min, turned the movement against non-Muslims, specifically Jews and Christians. Sweeping across North Africa and into Muslim Iberia, the Almohads initiate riots and persecutions of both Muslims and non-Muslims. In some towns Jews and Christians are given the choice of conversion, exile, or death.
1107 Count Raymond of Burgundy dies. The Kingdom of Galicia passes on to his son Alfonso Raimúndez.
1109 1 July Alfonso VI of Castile and León dies. Urraca of Castile, Count Raymond of Burgundy's widow, is his only surviving legitimate child and marries King Alfonso I of Aragon.
25 July Afonso Henriques, son of Henry, Count of Portugal, is born in the city of Guimarães.
1110 Henry, Count of Portugal unsuccessfully besieges King Alfonso I of Aragon in Penafiel.
Urraca of Castile distances herself from her husband Alfonso I of Aragon accusing him of being abusive and infertile.
Henry, Count of Portugal makes common party with Alfonso I of Aragon against Urraca of Castile.
1111 Almoravids led by Sir ibn Abi Bakr occupy Lisbon and Santarém in the west . These cities were occupied by the Almoravids in 1094–95 this suggests a fluctuating border in Portugal.
Conference of Palencia, where Urraca of Castile divides her estates with Henry, Count of Portugal and his wife and her sister Theresa.
Urraca of Castile makes peace with her husband Alfonso I of Aragon, even though they remain separated.
Henry, Count of Portugal, believing Urraca of Castile has betrayed him, besieges her and her husband Alfonso I of Aragon in Sahagún, aided by Urraca's son Alfonso Raimúndez.
Henry, Count of Portugal grants city rights and privileges to Coimbra and captures Santarém from the Moors.
Alfonso Raimúndez, Raymond of Burgundy and Urraca of Castile's son, is proclaimed King of Castile and León as Alfonso VII. This is not recognized.
1112 Henry, Count of Portugal dies. His son Afonso Henriques inherits the County of Portugal, but, being too young, it's his mother, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, that governs the county after her husband's death with the title of Regina (Queen). Santarém recaptured by the Moors.
1114 The marriage between Urraca of Castile and Alfonso I of Aragon is annulled.
The Taifa of Beja and Évora becomes independent.
1116 The armies of Theresa, Countess of Portugal battle against the armies of Urraca of Castile.
1117 Almoravids under Emir Ali ibn Yusuf himself take Coimbra, but abandon the city after a few days.
1120 Afonso Henriques takes sides with the Bishop of Braga against his mother Theresa, Countess of Portugal and her lover, the Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia
The armies of Theresa, Countess of Portugal battle against the armies of Urraca of Castile.
1121 Alfonso Raimúndez comes into Portugal in a mission of sovereignty with his mother Urraca of Castile. Their armies capture Theresa, Countess of Portugal at Lanhoso, that accepts to go free and hold the County of Portugal as a fief of the Kingdom of León.
1122 Afonso Henriques, aged 14, makes himself a Knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora.
1126 Urraca of Castile dies. Her son Alfonso Raimúndez finally becomes King Alfonso VII of Castile and León.
1127 Theresa, Countess of Portugal donates Vimieiro to the Order of Cluny
The Kingdom of León invades Portugal and besieges Guimarães. The Portuguese Knight Egas Moniz de Ribadouro manages to make King Alfonso VII of Castile and León accept promises' of Portuguese fielty.
1128 Theresa, Countess of Portugal donates Soure to the Knights Templar.
24 July Count Afonso Henriques defeats his mother, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, in the Battle of São Mamede (near Guimarães) and becomes sole ruler (Dux – Duke) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles.
1129 6 April Afonso Henriques proclaims himself Prince of Portugal.
1130 Prince Afonso Henriques invades Galicia.
Prince Afonso Henriques' mother, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, dies in Galicia.
The Knights Hospitaller install themselves in Portugal.
1135 Prince Afonso Henriques conquers Leiria from the Moors.
King Alfonso VII of Castile and León is proclaimed Imperator totius Hispaniae.
1137 Battle of Arcos de Valdevez
Peace treaty of Tui, whereby Prince Afonso Henriques acknowledges himself as vassal to King Alfonso VII of Castile and León, through the possession of Astorga.
Prince Afonso I of Portugal tries and fails to conquer Lisbon from the Moors.
The Moors retake Leiria.
1139 King Afonso I of Portugal assembles the first assembly of the estates-general of Portugal at Lamego, where he was given the Crown from the Bishop of Braga, to confirm the independence.
King Afonso I of Portugal retakes Leiria from the Moors.
25 July Independence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León declared after the Battle of Ourique against the Almoravids led by Ali ibn Yusuf: Prince Afonso Henriques becomes Afonso I, King of Portugal.
1140 The Knights Hospitaller receive lands and privileges from King Afonso I of Portugal.
Portuguese victory in the Battle of Valdevez against Leonese and Castilian forces.
King Afonso I of Portugal tries and fails to conquer Lisbon from the Moors.
The Moors retake Leiria.
1142 King Afonso I of Portugal retakes Leiria from the Moors and the town receives its foral (compilation of feudal rights) to stimulate the colonisation of the area.
1143 Treaty of Zamora: Alfonso VII of León and Castille recognizes the Kingdom of Portugal in the presence of King Afonso I of Portugal, witnessed by the papal representative, the Cardinal Guido de Vico, at the Cathedral of Zamora. Both kings promise durable peace between their kingdoms.
King Afonso I of Portugal declares himself vassal to Pope Innocent II, placing the Kingdom of Portugal and himself under the protection of Saint Peter and the Holy See.
1144 The Muridun ("Disciples") under Abul-Qasim Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Qasi rebel in the Algarve. Ibn al-Mundhir takes Silves in his name and the governor of Beja, Sidray ibn Wazir, also supports him. Ibn al-Mundhir and Sidray ibn Wazir kill the garrison of Monchique castle, and 70 men take Mértola by surprise (12 Aug). Soon after the Andalusian governor of Niebla, Yusuf ibn Ahmad al-Bitruji declares for the Muridun. The Almoravid Yahya ibn Ali ibn Ghaniya drives the Muridun back from Seville, and subsequently Sidray ibn Wazir splits off from the other Muridun.
The Taifa of Mértola and of Silves again become independent.
The Order of Cistercians installs itself in Portugal, at Tarouca.
1145 The Taifa of Badajoz again becomes independent and conquers the Taifa of Mértola.
1146 The Taifa of Mértola gains independence from Badajoz.
King Afonso I of Portugal marries Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Amadeus III, Count of Savoy and Maurienne.
1147 The towns of Almada and Palmela, just south of Lisbon, are taken from the Moors.
King Afonso I of Portugal orders the construction of the church and monastery of Church of São Vicente de Fora (St. Vincent outside the Walls), in Lisbon, in honour of St. Vincent the Deacon.
15 March King Afonso I of Portugal takes Santarém in a surprise attack.
19 May A fleet of almost 200 ships of crusaders (Second Crusade) leaves from Dartmouth in England, consisting of Flemish, Frisian, Norman, English, Scottish, and some German crusaders. The fleet was commanded by Arnold III of Aerschot (nephew of Godfrey of Louvain) Christian of Ghistelles, Henry Glanville (constable of Suffolk), Simon of Dover, Andrew of London, and Saher of Archelle.
16 June The crusaders fleet arrives at the northern city of Porto, and are convinced by the bishop, Pedro II Pitões, to continue to Lisbon.
1 July The Siege of Lisbon begins, after the armies of King Afonso I of Portugal were joined by the crusaders.
21 October The Moorish rulers of Lisbon agree to surrender to King Afonso I of Portugal, basically due to the hunger that was felt inside the city walls. The terms of surrender indicated that the Muslim garrison of the city would be allowed to flee.
25 October The city of Lisbon opens its doors to the Christian armies. As soon as the Christians enter the city the terms of surrender were broken. Many Muslims were killed, and the city was thoroughly plundered before King Afonso I of Portugal finally was able to stop the onslaught.
1148 Some of the crusaders that had helped King Afonso I of Portugal conquer Lisbon settle in the newly captured city, and Gilbert of Hastings is elected bishop of the renovated Diocese of Lisbon, but most of the crusaders' fleet continues to the east.
1149 A new Berber dynasty, the Almohad, led by Emir Abd al-Mu'min al-Kumi conquers North Africa to the Almoravids and soon invades the Iberian Peninsula.
1150 The Taifas of Badajoz and of Beja and Évora are taken by the Almohads.
1151 King Afonso I of Portugal tries and fails to take Alcácer do Sal from the Moors.
The Taifa of Mértola is taken by the Almohads.
1152 The Cistercians build the Monastery of St. John in Tarouca.
1153 The Cistercians build the Monastery of Alcobaça.
1154 Sancho, son of King Afonso I of Portugal and future King of Portugal is born.
1155 The Taifa of Silves is taken by the Almohads.
1158 King Afonso I of Portugal conquers Alcácer do Sal from the Moors.
1159 The Castle of Cera (in Tomar) is donated to the Knights Templar.
Évora and Beja, in the southern province of Alentejo, are taken from the Moors.
1160 The city of Tomar is founded by Gualdim Pais.
1161 Évora, Beja and Alcácer do Sal are retaken by the Moors.
1162 King Afonso I of Portugal retakes Beja from the Moors.
1163 The Almohad Caliph Abd al-Mu'min al-Kumi dies and is succeeded by Abu Ya'qub Yusuf I.
1165 The Portuguese armies, led by Gerald the Fearless, retake Évora from the Moors.
Negotiations between Portugal and León result in the marriage of Princess Urraca of Portugal, King Afonso I's daughter, with King Ferdinand II of León.
1166 The Portuguese armies take Serpa and Moura (in Alentejo) from the Moors.
1168 Portuguese frontiersman Gerald the Fearless goes into the territory of Badajoz.
1169 King Afonso I of Portugal grants the Knights Templar one third of all they conquer to the Moors in Alentejo.
Gerald the Fearless seizes Badajoz from the Almohads.
King Afonso I of Portugal is wounded by a fall from his horse in Badajoz, and is captured by the competing forces of King Ferdinand II of León. As ransom King Afonso I was obliged to surrender almost all the conquests he had made in Galicia in the previous years as well as Badajoz, that the Leonese gave back to the Almohads as a vassal territory.
1170 The Almohads transfer their capital to Seville.
1174 The Crown of Aragon recognizes Portugal as independent.
1175 Beja recaptured by Almohads.
1179 Pope Alexander III, in the Papal bull Manifestis Probatum, recognizes Afonso I as King and Portugal as an independent country with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Leonese or Castilian attempts of annexation.
King Ferdinand II of León repudiates his wife, Urraca of Portugal, King Afonso I's daughter.
1184 The Portuguese defeat the Almohads at Santarém.
Yusuf I, Almohad Caliph, dies and is succeeded by Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur.
1185 Sancho I of Portugal becomes King of Portugal.
Sancho I of Portugal founds several new towns and villages and takes great care in populating remote areas in the northern Christian regions of Portugal, notably with Flemings and Burgundians. (to 1212)
6 December King Afonso I of Portugal dies.
1199 The Almohad Caliph Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur dies and is succeeded by Muhammad an-Nasir.

13th century

Year Date Event
1211 Afonso II of Portugal becomes king.
1212 Culmination of the Reconquista. Christians, amongst them the troops of King Afonso II of Portugal, defeat Almohads (Caliph Muhammad an-Nasir) at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. The Christians had 60–100,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry, and had troops from Western Europe, Castile, Navarre, Aragon, León and Portugal, Military Orders (Knights Templar, Knights Hospitaller, Santiago, Cavatrava), and urban Militias.
1213 Abu Ya'qub Yusuf II becomes Almohad Caliph.
1217 The town of Alcácer do Sal is conquered to the Moors.
1223 Sancho II of Portugal becomes king.
1236 Portugal captures most of the Algarve.
1246 Pope Innocent IV declares Sancho II an heretic and orders his removal of the throne.
1247 Afonso III of Portugal becomes king; Sancho II is exiled to Toledo.
1254 First official reunion of the Cortes, the kingdom's general assembly.
1255 The city of Lisbon becomes the capital-city of Portugal.
1272 Afonso III conquers Faro from the Moors, thus removing all Muslim communities from Portuguese soil and ending the Portuguese Reconquista.
1276 John XXI becomes the first and only Portuguese Pope (died 1277).
1279 Dinis of Portugal becomes king.
1290 1 March Creation of the Estudo Geral (General Study) in Coimbra, the first Portuguese University, with the Faculties of Arts, Canons, Laws and Medicine, and later confirmed by the Pope Nicholas IV.[7]
1297 Dinis signs the Treaty of Alcanizes with Ferdinand IV of Castile to define the borders between Portugal and Castile.

14th century

Year Date Event
1308 First Portuguese commercial treaty, signed with England.
The General Study is transferred to Coimbra.[7]
1319-1324 Civil War between D. Dinis and D. Afonso IV (Sotto Mayor Pizarro 1997, p. 190, Vol. I)
1325 Afonso IV of Portugal becomes king.
1341 Portugal raids the Canary Islands.
1355 Inês de Castro is killed by royal order; begins civil war between Afonso IV and his heir Pedro.
1357 Pedro I of Portugal becomes king; Inês de Castro is removed from her grave and crowned Queen of Portugal.
1367 Fernando I of Portugal becomes king.
1383 Civil war and political anarchy: 1383-1385 Crisis. (to 1385)
1385 April João I of Portugal acclaimed king by the Portuguese; Castilians do not accept this claim.
14 August Battle of Aljubarrota: João I defeats the Castilians and secures the throne.
1386 9 May Treaty of Windsor, an alliance between England and Portugal, the oldest Portuguese diplomatic agreement and the oldest diplomatic alliance in the world still in force.[8]
1394 Henry the Navigator, son of king João I of Portugal, is born.

15th century

Year Date Event
1415 João I conquers the city of Ceuta in northern Africa.
1419 Madeira Islands discovered by João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira.
1427 Azores Islands discovered by Diogo Silves.
1433 Duarte of Portugal becomes king.
1434 Gil Eanes crosses the Bojador Cape: exploration of the African coast begins.
1438 Afonso V of Portugal becomes king.
1444 Discovery and settling of Cape Verde islands. (to 1460)
1470 Discovery of São Tomé island.
1471 Discovery of Príncipe island.
1481 João II of Portugal becomes king.
1483 João II executes Fernando, the third Duke of Braganza, and Diogo, the Duke of Viseu, putting an end to high nobility conspiracies.
1484 Diogo Cão discovers the Congo river.
1491 Bartolomeu Dias becomes the first European to cross the Cape of Good Hope.
1494 The Treaty of Tordesilhas signed between Spain and Portugal, dividing the colonisable world in two halves.
1495 Manuel I of Portugal becomes king.
1498 Vasco da Gama reaches India through navigation around Africa.
1500 Diogo Dias discovered an island they named after St Lawrence after the saint on whose feast day they had first sighted the island later known as Madagascar.
Manuel I orders expulsion or conversion of the Portuguese Jews.
Gaspar Corte-Real made his first voyage to Newfoundland, formerly known as Terras Corte-Real.[9][10]
22 April Pedro Álvares Cabral discovers Brazil.

16th century

Year Date Event
1502 Miguel Corte-Real set out for New England in search of his brother, Gaspar.
João da Nova discovered Ascension Island.
Fernão de Noronha discovered the island which still bears his name.
1503 On his return from the East, Estêvão da Gama discovered Saint Helena Island.
1506 Tristão da Cunha discovered the island that bears his name. Portuguese sailors landed on Madagascar.
The Lisbon Massacre.
1509 The Gulf of Bengal crossed by Diogo Lopes de Sequeira. On the crossing he also reached Malacca.
1510 Conquest of Goa by Afonso de Albuquerque.
1511 Conquest of Malacca by Afonso de Albuquerque.
1512 António de Abreu reaches Timor island and the Banda Islands, Ambon Island and Seram. Francisco Serrão reaches the Maluku Islands.
1513 The first European trading ship to touch the coasts of China, under Jorge Álvares and Rafael Perestrello later in the same year.
1515 Afonso de Albuquerque captures the Kingdom of Hormuz.
1517 Fernão Pires de Andrade and Tomé Pires were chosen by Manuel I of Portugal to sail to China to formally open relations between the Portuguese Empire and the Ming Dynasty during the reign of the Zhengde Emperor.
1521 João III of Portugal becomes king.
António Correia captures Bahrain, which is under Portuguese rule until 1602.
1526 Jorge de Meneses reaches New Guinea for the first time.
1537 After moving back and forth between Lisbon and Coimbra in the last two centuries, the General Study is definitely established in the latter.[7]
1542 Portuguese explorers Fernão Mendes Pinto, Diogo Zeimoto and Cristovão Borralho are the first Europeans to land in Japan.
1557 Macau given to Portugal by the Emperor of China as a reward for services rendered against the pirates who infested the South China Sea.
Sebastião of Portugal becomes king.
1568 King Sebastião of Portugal comes of age and takes control of government.
1569 Plague epidemic in Portugal. 60,000 people die in Lisbon alone.
Nagasaki is opened to Portuguese traders.
1570 Luís de Camões returns to Lisbon from the Orient.
Goa, in Portuguese India, is attacked by a coalition of Indian forces, but these are defeated by Portuguese Vice-Roy Luís de Ataíde, Count of Atouguia.
1572 The first edition of the epic poem The Lusiads is published.[11]
1578 Portuguese troops utterly defeated in Africa, in the battle of Alcácer Quibir; king Sebastião disappears in the battle never to be seen again.
Cardinal Henrique I of Portugal becomes king.
1579 Cortes in Lisbon.
1580 Cortes in Almeirim.
King Cardinal Henrique I of Portugal dies.
Invasion of Portugal by a Spanish army commanded by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba.
Battle of Alcântara between Portuguese and Spanish forces.
The Fortress of St. Julian, in Lisbon, surrenders to the Spanish.
Anthony of Portugal, the Prior of Crato, is acclaimed King of Portugal in Santarém.
Death of Luís de Camões, Portugal's national poet.[12]
Beginning of the Cortes (General Assembly of the Kingdom) of Tomar.
1581 Philip II of Spain is acclaimed in the Cortes of Tomar as King Philip I of Portugal in a personal union of the Crowns. Portugal loses de facto independence to Spain.
Anthony of Portugal, the Prior of Crato, takes refuge in England.
The Azores refuse to recognize Philip I of Portugal as King.
1582 The Spanish Fleet of Santa Cruz defeats the Portuguese-French Fleet of Strozzi in the Azores.
Introduction of the Gregorian Calendar in Portugal.
1583 Cortes in Lisbon.
King Philip I of Portugal departs for Madrid and leaves the government of Portugal with Portuguese trustees.
The Azores are submitted.
Francis Drake attacks the Portuguese colony of Brazil.
1589 Anthony of Portugal, the Prior of Crato, attacks Lisbon with English aid, but with no success.
1595 Anthony of Portugal, the Prior of Crato, dies in Paris.
1598 Philip III of Spain becomes Philip II of Portugal.

17th century

Year Date Event
1621 Philip IV of Spain becomes Philip III of Portugal.
1640 1 December A small group of conspirators storms the Palace in Lisbon and deposes the Vicereine of Portugal, Margaret of Savoy. The Duke of Bragança, head of the senior family of the Portuguese nobility (and descended from a bastard of João I), accepts the throne as Dom João IV of Portugal, despite deep personal reluctance, by popular acclaim and at the urging of his wife. His entire reign will be dominated by the struggle to maintain independence from Spain. Francisco de Lucena, secretary to the governing council of Portugal for the past 36 years and thus the most experienced bureaucrat in the country, smoothly changes his loyalties and becomes chief minister of the restored monarchy.
1641 The Portuguese Inquisition attempts to derail the national restoration by giving its support to a counter-revolution mounted by a duke, a marquis, three earls and an archbishop. The plot fails, quelled by Francisco de Lucena, who has the ringleaders executed, but it initiates a 28-year-long war against Spain punctuated by frequent internal threats to the stability of the new regime. Meanwhile, the Dutch renew their attack on Angola and capture the most extensive Portuguese slaving grounds in Africa, including the Angolan port of Luanda. The Portuguese garrison flees upriver while trying to decide whether to declare continuing loyalty to the Habsburgs, accept Dutch rule or declare for João IV. They choose the House of Bragança and appeal to the Portuguese colony of Brazil for help in fending off African and Dutch attacks on their enclave. Salvador de Sá, leader of Rio de Janeiro, persuaded by the Jesuits in Brazil, also declares for King João and responds to the Angolan appeal.
1644 Elvas withstands a nine-day siege by Spanish troops.
1648 The Portuguese from Brazil under Salvador de Sá land in Angola, expel the Dutch and restore the African colony to Portugal.
1654 Anglo-Portuguese treaty between João IV and Oliver Cromwell signed at Westminster. João agrees to prevent the molestation of the traders of the English Protector; they are allowed to use their own bible and bury their dead according to Protestant rites on Catholic soil. The Portuguese in Brazil drive the Dutch out of the great plantation colonies of the north-east, re-establishing the territorial integrity of Portugal’s South American empire.
1656 Death of João IV after a reign of 15 years. His Queen now reigns as Regent for their son, Afonso VI of Portugal. She seeks an accommodation with Spain. Portugal loses control of Colombo in Portuguese Ceylon when it is captured by the Dutch.
1659 The Treaty of the Pyrenees ends Spain’s long war with France, and Spanish troops are freed once more to suppress the Portuguese ‘rebellion’. The Spaniards besiege Monção and are driven off by the Countess of Castelo Melhor.
1660 On the restoration of Charles II in Britain, the Queen-Regent re-negotiates the treaty of 1654. Portugal is allowed to recruit soldiers and horses in England for the fight against Spain; and to seek out 4,000 fighting men in Scotland and Ireland and charter 24 English ships to carry them. The expeditionary force is to be issued with English weapons on arrival in Portugal and guaranteed religious freedom of worship.
1661 Catarina da Bragança, sister of Afonso VI, marries Charles II of Great Britain on 31 May She brings to London a dowry of 2,000,000 gold pieces, the practice of drinking afternoon tea, and England is given colonial toe-holds in the Portuguese Empire at Tangier and Bombay. Servicing the wedding debt burdens the Portuguese exchequer for the next half-century, and this marriage with a Protestant monarch is deeply unpopular with that section of the Portuguese nobility which favours alliance with France.
1662 In a palace coup d’etat in Lisbon a restive younger faction of the nobility, supported by the young Afonso VI, overthrows the Queen Regent and installs the 26-year-old Count of Castelo Melhor as ‘dictator’ to prosecute the war with Spain. The adolescent king is married to a French princess and the young dictator models his government on the royal absolutism of the Bourbon dynasty. Opposition to this pro-French absolutism (from the King’s sister the Queen of England, and his younger brother Prince Pedro) is swept aside, and Castelo Melhor initiates the final, successful phase of the Portuguese war of restoration with the aid of the Franco-German Marshal Schomberg, who brilliantly commands an international mercenary army against the Spanish forces.
1665 17 June Portugal is victorious at the decisive Battle of Montes Claros, in which António Luís de Menezes defeats the Spanish army under the Prince of Parma; Spain ceases to make war, but peace will not be signed for another three years.
1667 Castelo Melhor and his Francophile party are overthrown in a new palace revolution. Prince Pedro, leader of the Anglophile party, becomes Regent for Afonso VI, who is declared incapable of governing and removed to the Azores. The French alliance is rejected, though Pedro shores up his political position by marrying his brother’s estranged Queen. Castelo Melhor flees into exile (ironically, to England).
1668 Peace treaty with Spain ends nearly 30 years of war. Portugal keeps all his possessions and territory with the exception of Ceuta in Morocco, which is ceded to Spain. Portugal remains economically weak, however, agriculturally undeveloped and dependent on British grain and trade goods generally, especially woven cloth. The Count of Ericeira, economic adviser to the Prince Regent, advocates the development of a native textile industry modelled on Flemish lines. ‘Factories’ are established at Covilhã with easy access to flocks of sheep and clean mountain water, but are highly unpopular with both town consumers and traditional weavers. Meanwhile, Portuguese attempts to develop a silk industry are fiercely resisted by the French, who wish to monopolize that market.
1683 Death of Afonso VI. Pedro II of Portugal becomes king.
1690 Suicide of Luís de Meneses, Count of Ericeira.
1692 Great drought disrupts Portuguese silk production.
1697 Discovery of gold in the interior of São Paulo province, Brazil.
1700 Brazil now producing 50,000 ounces of gold per year.

18th century

Year Date Event
1703 Sir John Methuen negotiates a Military Treaty with Portugal on 16 May, giving Britain an entry to Portugal at a time when the Bourbon dynastic alliance of France and Spain appears to threaten English access to the Continent. This is followed on 27 December by the commercial Methuen Treaty, signed to stimulate trade with Britain. This (which lasts until 1810) opens up new markets for Portuguese wine but helps to destroy the native textile industry by letting in British cloth at preferential rates. The fashion for Portuguese wine in Britain (which has banned the import of French wine due to the War of the Spanish Succession, which will last until 1714) makes the wine trade so profitable and competitive that over the next 40 years inferior wines, often adulterated and artificially coloured are passed off as the genuine article – giving 'port' a bad name.
1705 Brazil is now producing 600,000 ounces of gold per year. For the second time in its history, Portugal controls one of the greatest gold-producing sources in the world.
1706 João V of Portugal becomes king. He presides over a great flowering of Portuguese art and culture underpinned by the fabulous wealth provided by Brazilian gold. Social and economic reform are neglected for the next 40 years, and the pious King indulges in a penchant for fabulously expensive building. The Portuguese royal family is now the wealthiest in Europe and João V even considers moving his throne and court to Rio de Janeiro. The taxation of the Brazilian trade brings in an enormous personal revenue to the monarch and he is able to construct an absolutist regime similar to that of the French Kings, concentrating on pomp and ceremony at court. There is however no attention to the impoverished national agriculture, inadequate transport, neglected merchant navy and minimal industrial development of the country since corn and cloth can easily be exported, foreign ships can be hired and ‘every problem in Portugal can be solved by the King’s gift of a little basket of gold coins bearing his effigy’. Meanwhile, the Brazilian gold rush continues and civil war breaks out between the mining camps of Portuguese immigrants lately come to the north of the country and the Paulistas of southern Brazil who discovered the gold in the first place.
1717 Beginning of construction of the great palace-monastery of Mafra, which João V vowed on the birth of his heir, and which he intends as a rival to the Escorial. The elegance of the suites and courtyards are matched by the costliness of the furnishings in more than 1,000 rooms. The scale of the buildings and formal gardens is stupendous in relation to the impoverished countryside around it. However the roped gangs of forced labourers and the military regiment which controls them provides local employment throughout a generation, particularly in the servicing of the 7,000 carts and wagons and feeding of draught animals.
1732 Disaster at Elvas: lightning strikes the gunpowder magazine in the castle. The explosion and fire kill 1500 people and destroy 823 houses.
1735 Completion of the palace-monastery at Mafra.
1742 João V orders the construction in Rome of the Capela de São João Baptista for installation in the Igreja de São Roque to honour his patron saint and to requite the Pope, whom he has persuaded to confer a patriarchate on Lisbon. For its size, this is reckoned the most expensive building ever constructed. Designed by the papal architect Vanvitelli, and using the most costly materials available including ivory, agate, porphyry and lapis lazuli, the chapel is erected in the Vatican in order that the Pope may celebrate Mass in it before it is dismantled and shipped to Portugal.
1750 Death of João V. His son José I of Portugal becomes king. His powerful chief minister, Sebastião de Melo, Marquis of Pombal, embarks on a programme of reform to drag Portugal into the 18th century.
1752 Building of the Rococo palace of Queluz.
1755 The Great Earthquake of Portugal is the most shattering natural phenomenon of the Age of Enlightenment. Striking at 9.30 am on All Saints’ Day (1 November), it destroys much of Lisbon and many towns in parts of the Alentejo and Algarve (Faro, Lagos and Albufeira are devastated). In Lisbon, three major shocks within ten minutes, a host of rapidly spreading fires touched off by the candles of a hundred church altars, and a vast tidal wave (tsunami) that engulfs the seafront, leave 40,000 dead out of a total population of 270,000. The Alfama district of the old city is largely untouched owing to its situation on a rocky massif, as is Belém. The Customs House is flooded and the India House and the English Factory destroyed, so that no trade can legitimately be conducted. The King proves himself able in crisis management and his illegitimate half-brothers, the royal dukes, organize defence, security, the burying of the dead and the continuance of religious observance. The disaster is described by Voltaire in Candide. Rebuilding begins immediately under the vigorous direction of Pombal, who now consolidates his position as Portugal’s enlightened despot and leading statesman. It is decided to reconstruct Lisbon as the finest city in Europe, on the grid plan already adopted in the leading cities of Spanish America.
1759 13 January All members of the Távora family are executed for high-treason and attempted regicide by orders of the Marquis of Pombal.
1762 Spanish invasion of Portugal stopped with the help of Great Britain. (to 1763)
1777 Maria I of Portugal becomes Queen regnant. The King consort is her husband and uncle, Pedro III of Portugal. Pombal is dismissed.
1792 João assumes royal responsibilities due to the declining mental health of his mother, Maria I of Portugal.
1799 João officially becomes Prince Regent

19th century

Year Date Event
1807 Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, invades Portugal and the Portuguese Royal Family is transferred to the colony of Brazil, where it becomes the center of the Portuguese Empire.
1808 Insurrection against Napoleon's general, Junot and landing of Arthur Wellesley (later Duke of Wellington) to defeat the French at the Battle of Vimeiro. Beginning of the Peninsular War.
1815 The colony of Brazil is elevated to the status of kingdom. Portugal changes the official name from Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves to United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
1816 João VI of Portugal becomes king. Portugal is governed by a Regency council headed by Marshal Beresford, head of the Portuguese army in the Peninsular War.
1820 Liberal Revolution of 1820 against the British-led Regency of William Carr Beresford begins in Porto on 24 August. The Regency's troops decline to act against their countrymen and on 15 September declare for King, Cortes and Constitution. A provisional government is established on 1 October to oversee elections to the Cortes.
1821 The national assembly opens on 26 January and on 9 March adopts a liberal parliamentary constitution (ratified 1822), inspired by the recent liberal advances in Spain, notably the 1812 Constitution of Cadiz. Metropolitan Portugal demands the return of João VI to Lisbon. João VI advises his son, Pedro, to declare the independence of Brazil and become its emperor, to ensure its continued rule by the Bragança dynasty. João VI lands in Portugal on 4 July, but only after consenting to the restrictions on his power proposed by the Cortes and agreeing to accept the new constitution, to which he swears allegiance on 1 October. But his wife Queen Carlota Joaquina and younger son Dom Miguel refuse to do so and become the focus of a reactionary movement.
1822 Brazil declares independence. Pedro becomes Emperor Pedro I of Brazil. Military coup against the parliamentarians. Fearing a move by France against democratic Portugal, or a civil war, Brigadier Saldanha, a grandson of the Marquis of Pombal, raises a small army and expels the ‘constitutional extremists’ from Lisbon. He proposes instead a compromise constitution in which the powers of the crown will be partially restored to the King. (This is the first of Saldanha's seven coups d'état in his career).
1823 In May a 'Regency of Portugal' is established by the expelled traditionalists who had opposed the constitution at Valladolid, under the presidency of the Patriarch of Lisbon and becomes a centre for plotting to put Dom Miguel on the throne.
1824 At the end of April Miguel attempts a coup d'etat but is defeated with British aid and goes into exile in Vienna.
1826 Death of João VI, 10 March. The country is split between liberals and absolutists. Emperor Pedro I of Brazil becomes king Pedro IV of Portugal but abdicates in favour of his daughter Maria II of Portugal, naming his sister as Regent and inviting all parties swear to accept a new constitution, drawn up by Pedro on 23 April and somewhat less liberal than that of 1820, based upon the Brazilian constitution. Pedro’s constitution (the Charter of 1826) assigns authority to the crown to moderate between the legislative, executive and judicial powers of the state and proposes a House of Lords of 72 aristocrats and 19 bishops. Miguel (in Vienna) makes a show of agreement.
1827 In July Pedro names his brother Dom Miguel as Lieutenant and Regent of the Kingdom. Miguel leaves Vienna and visits Paris and London on his way to Portugal.
1828 Dom Miguel arrives in Lisbon in February and though he makes a show of abiding by the constitution, after various moves against the constitutional forces he usurps the throne and abolishes parliament and the constitution, re-instituting the mediaeval Cortes and claiming to be 'Absolute King' (proclaimed 4 July). Many of the liberal parliamentarians are imprisoned, executed or driven into exile. All Portuguese territories apart from Terceira in the Azores declare for Miguel, but he is recognized as King only by Mexico and the USA. Beginning of civil war, known as the Liberal Wars.
1831 Emperor Pedro I of Brazil abdicates in favour of his son Pedro II of Brazil and sets out to regain Portugal for his daughter.
1832 Pedro's expeditionary force of Portuguese exiles and foreign mercenaries gathers in Terceira, regains the Azores, then sails for Portugal. Pedro is supported by Britain and France and the Portuguese intelligentsia, including the politically ambitious soldiers Saldanha and Sá da Bandeira. 9 July: Pedro lands at Pampelido north of Porto, where he is closely besieged by some 13,000 Miguelites across the River Douro. His defending force, the city garrison being commanded by Sá da Bandeira, includes an international brigade with a British contingent under Charles Shaw and Colonel George Lloyd Hodges. The city suffers cholera, starvation and bombardment.
1833 Miguel's navy is defeated by Pedro's Admiral Charles Napier at the fourth Battle of Cape St Vincent. The Duke of Terceira defeats Miguel's army at Almada and occupies Lisbon.
1834 16 May The Duke of Terceira wins the Battle of Asseiceira. Miguel capitulates at EvoraMonte on 26 May. End of the civil war: Miguel is exiled to Genoa, where he renounces his capitulation. For many years he plots his return, but is never able to put it into effect. After six years of bitter and destructive war the country is once again bankrupt and beholden to foreign creditors, and the constitutional radicals turn their anger against the landowners and ecclesiastical institutions that had supported Miguel. The crown lands (a quarter of the national territory) are taken over by the state to help pay the national debt.
24 September Death of Dom Pedro. Maria II of Portugal becomes queen in her own right. Dissolution of the monasteries – over 300 monastic communities are abolished – however the sale of church and crown lands does not revitalise Portugal in the way that had been anticipated.
1835 Revolutionary fervour is rekindled by an urban uprising and a military coup d’etat. The national Guard sides with the insurgents and approved the call for Sá da Bandeira to lead the nation and bring back the constitution of 1822. Queen Maria is forced to swear allegiance to the 1822 constitution but the moderate leader, Saldanha, reaches an accommodation with Sá da Bandeira and a modest programme of modernisation can begin.
1839 An unsettled period of many short-lived governments ends temporarily with the stable coalition led by the Conde do Bonfim, which remains in power for two years.
1843 Queen Maria II marries Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, who rules with her as Dom Fernando II, the thirtieth King of Portugal. He commissions the German architect Baron Eschwege to begin the building of the Pena Palace at Sintra.
1846 The Revolution of Maria da Fonte, a ‘peasants’ revolt’ inaugurates the last phase of the Revolution, starting as an uprising of the peasants of the Minho, largely led by women (their movement is named after the semi-mythical ‘Maria da Fonte’) against land enclosures and new land taxes demanded by the Costa Cabral government to finance its grandiose public works. They make common cause with the clergy and call for the return of the exiled Miguel as their saviour. Martial law is declared but soldiers refuse to fire on their kin. Fall of the Costa Cabral government and substitution of a government of national reconciliation in Lisbon. Autumn: A revolutionary government is proclaimed in Porto with Sá da Bandeira at its head. He opens negotiations with Britain, whence Costa Cabral has fled into exile, and settles terms for his return to take responsibility for the national debt. Civil war between the supporters of Queen Maria and the radical constitutionalists. The Count of Bonfim, for the Porto junta, is defeated by Saldanha at the siege of Torres Vedras and exiled to Angola.
1847 Convention of Gramido brings the civil war to an end. Return of the political exiles from Angola.
1848 Costa Cabral returns as prime minister.
1851 Another coup d’etat by Saldanha. He ejects Costa Cabral, appoints himself prime minister and rules reasonably progressively from the house of lords for a full five-year term. Thus a proper parliamentary regime is finally established, with a two-party system and a bourgeois monarchy. Portugal enters its Age of Regeneration, with an old-fashioned cavalry officer in charge. The government embarks on an elaborate programme of public works to modernize the country, beginning with the establishment of a modern post office and a programme of road-building: in the entire country there is less than 200 km of all-weather road surface, and the government uses road taxes to finance 200 km of new road per year.
1853 Pedro V of Portugal becomes king.
1856 Opening of Portugal's first railway line (between Lisbon and Carregado).
1861 Luis I of Portugal becomes king.
1867 1 July After the legislation of 1852 regarding political crimes, the Penal and Prison Reform abolishes the death penalty for all civilian crimes.[13]
1869 The government of Sá da Bandeira formally abolishes slavery in all Portuguese territories.
1870 A financial crisis in the wake of European recession brings the fall of the government and yet another coup d’etat by the aged Duque de Saldanha.
1891 Republican insurrection in Porto. It is violently put down by the authorities, who afterwards institute a tight press censorship. Opponents of the government are accused of anarchism and exiled to the colonies.
1889 Carlos I of Portugal becomes king.

20th century

Year Date Event
1906 João Franco is appointed as Prime Minister of Portugal.
Big strike of the typographers.
Foundation of the Escola Superior Colonial (Superior Colonial School)
1907 João Franco establishes a Dictatorship within the framework of the Monarchy.
Student's strike at the University of Coimbra.
1908 Manuel II of Portugal, King Carlos's youngest son, becomes king.
The Portuguese Republican Party manages to elect all its candidates in the local elections of Lisbon.
28 January Failed Republican revolutionary attempt. The conspirators are arrested.
1 February 1 February, King Carlos I of Portugal and his son and heir, prince Luis Filipe, Duke of Braganza, are killed in the Regicide of Lisbon by Alfredo Costa and Manuel Buiça, republicans of the Carbonária (the Portuguese section of the Carbonari).
1909 King Manuel II of Portugal goes on a personal trip to Madrid, London and Paris.
The Portuguese Republican Party's Conference takes place in Setúbal, where the motion to accelerate the revolutionary movement to establish the Republic is approved.
In Lisbon a demonstration with more than 100,000 persons protests against the political and economical situation of the Monarchy.
1910 4 October Beginning of the Republican Revolution.
Beginning of the Republican Revolution. The Republic is proclaimed in Loures, just north of Lisbon.
5 October The last King of Portugal, Manuel II of Portugal, flees into exile. After Manuel, several lines of pretenders ensued.
The Portuguese Republic is officially proclaimed in Lisbon. End of the Monarchy.
The Republican Revolution, supported by popular uprising and virtually no resistance, is victorious and puts an end to the Monarchy.
The last King of Portugal, Manuel II of Portugal, and the Portuguese Royal Family embark in Ericeira for exile in England.
The Republic is officially proclaimed in Lisbon.
1917 Portugal joins the allied forces in World War I.
1918 The Monarchy of the North is proclaimed in Porto, and the restoration of the Portuguese monarchy lasts for about a month before being crushed by republican forces.
1921 The Portuguese Communist Party was founded from the ranks of the Portuguese Maximalist Federation as the Portuguese Section of the Communist International.
1925 Bernardino Machado is elected President of the Republic for the 2nd time.
1926 The 28 May 1926 military coup d'état ends the 1st Portuguese Republic.
27 May The General Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa arrives at Braga with the purpose of initiating a Coup d'état.
The Republican Government and Prime Minister António Maria da Silva, knowing of the forthcoming coup, try to organize resistance believing the uprising can be defeated.
28 May A Military coup d'état (henceforth known as the 28th May 1926 coup d'état) begins in Braga led by Gomes da Costa. Believing to have failed, Gomes da Costa announces his surrender.
29 May The Portuguese Communist Party interrupts its 2nd Congress due to the political and military situation.
The Confederação Geral do Trabalho (national trade union center) declares its neutrality in the military confrontations.
The Military Coup spreads to the rest of the country, by influence of Mendes Cabeçadas, Sinel de Cordes and Óscar Carmona, and establishes the Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship) against the democratic but unstable 1st Republic.
The Government of Prime Minister António Maria da Silva resigns.
30 May The General Gomes da Costa is acclaimed in Porto.
The President of the Republic, Bernardino Machado, resigns.
José Mendes Cabeçadas Júnior becomes Prime Minister and President of the Republic.
3 June António de Oliveira Salazar becomes Minister of Finance, he resigns 16 days after nomination.
The Congress of the Republic of Portugal (National Assembly) is dissolved by dictatorial decree.
All heads of Municipalities are substituted.
The Carbonária (the Portuguese section of the Carbonari) is banned.
All Political parties are banned.
17 June General Gomes da Costa provokes a military coup.
19 June General Gomes da Costa becomes Prime Minister.
22 June Censorship is instituted.
29 June General Gomes da Costa becomes President of the Republic.
9 July General Gomes da Costa is obliged to step down and goes into exile.
General António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona, of the conservative military wing, becomes Prime Minister.
15 September Failed military coup.
18 September Failed military coup.
29 November General António Óscar Carmona becomes President of the Republic.
16 December The Police of Information of Lisbon, a Political Police, is created.
1927 The Confederação Geral do Trabalho (national trade union center) is dissolved.
February Failed Republican revolutionary attempt against the Ditadura Nacional in Porto and Lisbon.
26 March The Police of Information of Porto, a Political Police, is created.
17 May Minimum School years are reduced from the 6th to the 4th grade; in all levels of non-university schooling students are divided by sex.
August Failed right wing military coup.
1 December Students demonstrate in Lisbon against the Ditadura Nacional.
1928 General António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona remains President of the Republic.
Acordo Missionário (Missionary Agreement) between the Catholic Church and the Portuguese Republic, giving special status to the action of the Catholic Church in Portugal's colonies.
Failed Republican revolutionary attempt against the Ditadura Nacional.
The Portuguese Communist Party's Main Office is closed.
February The Comissão de Propaganda da Ditadura (Commission for the Propaganda of the Dictatorship) is created.
17 March The Police of Information of Porto and Lisbon are fused.
18 April General José Vicente de Freitas becomes Prime Minister.
26 April António de Oliveira Salazar becomes Minister of Finance for the 2nd time.
1929 Catholic religious institutes are again permitted in Portugal.
The Portuguese Communist Party is reorganized under Bento Gonçalves. Adapting the Party to its new illegal status, the reorganization creates a net of clandestine cells to avoid the wave of detentions.
8 July Artur Ivens Ferraz becomes Prime Minister.
1930 The Acto Colonial (Colonial Act) is published, defining the status of Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cabinda, Cape Verde, Portuguese Guinea, São Tomé and Príncipe, Mozambique, Portuguese India, Portuguese Timor and Macau).
The fundamental principles of the new regime are present by António de Oliveira Salazar in the 4th anniversary of the 28 May Revolution.
21 January Domingos da Costa e Oliveira becomes Prime Minister.
1932 5 July António de Oliveira Salazar becomes Prime Minister.
1933 A new Constitution is approved in a false referendum, defining Portugal as a Corporative, Single Party and Multi-continental country (in Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania).
A fascist-leaning right-wing Dictatorial regime entitled Estado Novo is installed.
The Single Party União Nacional (National Union) is created.
The Estatuto do Trabalho Nacional (Code of National Labour) is published, prohibiting all free trade unions.
A Political Police, the PVDE (Polícia de Vigilância e de Defesa do Estado; State Defense and Vigilance Police) is created.
Censorship, particularly of the Mass media, is systematic and generalized.
1935 The Portuguese Communist Party's Secretary General Bento Gonçalves participates in the 7th Congress of the Comintern. Soon after returning to Portugal he is arrested by the Political Police PVDE.
1936 The concentration camp for political prisoners of Tarrafal is created in the colony of Portuguese Cape Verde, under direct control of the political police PVDE.
The political police PVDE focuses its action against Communism and the underground Portuguese Communist Party. During this pre-World War II period, several Italian Fascist and German Nazi advisors came to Portugal, to help the PVDE adopt a model similar to the Gestapo.
19 May Creation of the Mocidade Portuguesa (Portuguese Youth), a compulsory paramilitary youth organization similar to the Hitler Youth.
July Beginning of the Spanish Civil War; Portugal promptly supports Nationalist Spain under General Francisco Franco and sends military aid (the Battalion of the Viriatos) in their fight against the Spanish Republicans.
1937 December December, The female section of the Mocidade Portuguesa is created.
1939 The Iberian Neutrality Pact is put forward by Salazar to Francisco Franco.
1942 Salazar meets with Spanish dictator Francisco Franco.
The Portuguese Communist Party's Secretary General Bento Gonçalves dies in the concentration camp of Tarrafal.
1945 The Political Police PVDE is reorganized and renamed PIDE (Polícia Internacional de Defesa do Estado; International Police for the Defense of the State).
8 October The MUD (Movimento de Unidade Democrática – Movement of Democratic Unity) is created with official permission.
1948 January The MUD is banished.
1949 The President António Óscar Carmona meets with Spanish dictator Francisco Franco.
Spanish dictator Francisco Franco receives a Doctorate honoris causa by the University of Coimbra.
In the (forged) Presidential elections, General Norton de Matos, backed by the oppositionist illegal organization MUD tries and fail to win the Presidency of the Republic.
4 April Portugal is a founding member of NATO.
For the first time, a Portuguese citizen is awarded with the Nobel Prize: Egas Moniz, with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[14]
1951 António de Oliveira Salazar becomes Provisional President of the Republic due to the death of President António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona.
Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes becomes President of the Republic.
The Portuguese government overhauls the entire colonial system in an attempt to curb criticism on Portuguese Colonialism, all Portugal's colonies were renamed Portuguese Overseas Provinces.
1954 The Dadra and Nagar Haveli Portuguese enclave, dependent of Daman, is occupied by India.
1956 Amílcar Cabral founds the PAIGC (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde, African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde).
December The MPLA, Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola), is founded by Agostinho Neto.
1957 Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola (National Front for the Liberation of Angola), is founded as União das Populações do Norte de Angola (Union of the Populations of Northern Angola).
7 March First live event of the Portuguese National Television and the beginning of the regular broadcasting.[15] It was opened by the famous and former BBC war reporter, Fernando Pessa.[16]
1958 Américo Thomaz becomes President of the Republic.
1959 Pijiguiti Massacre – Portuguese soldiers open fire on protesting dockworkers in Bissau (Portuguese Guinea), killing 50.
1960 January A group of ten Portuguese Communist Party members escaped from the high-security prison in Peniche. Among the escapees was Álvaro Cunhal.
4 January Portugal is one of the founding member of the EFTA – European Free Trade Association.
1961 The Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar takes on himself the office of Minister of National Defense and reorganizes the Government to face the war in Africa.
4 February The Portuguese Colonial War starts in Portuguese Angola with the attacks to the Prison, Police headquarters and Radio central in Luanda.
15 March Attacks in northern Angola by the UPA (União do Povo Angolano; Union of the Angolan People), against Portuguese colonists and African populations, provoking hundreds of deaths.
12 December The Indian army conquers Portuguese Goa.
19 December The Indian army conquers Portuguese Daman and Diu.
1962 The PAIGC Guerrilla warfare against the Portuguese begins with an abortive attack on Praia.
24 March The Academic Crisis of '62 culminates in a huge student demonstration in Lisbon brutally repressed by the shock police, which caused hundreds of students to be seriously injured.
25 June The FRELIMO – Frente de Libertação de Moçambique (Mozambican Liberation Front) is founded in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania).
1963 The FLEC (Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda; Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda) is founded.
January Amílcar Cabral and PAIGC declare full-scale war against the Portuguese in Portuguese Guinea.
1964 The FRELIMO controls most of Northern Portuguese Mozambique.
February The first Party Congress of the PAIGC takes place at liberated Cassaca, in which both the political and military arms of the PAIGC were assessed and reorganised, with a regular army (The People's Army) to supplement the guerilla forces (The People's Guerillas).
1965 6th Congress of the Portuguese Communist Party, one of the most important congresses in the Party's history, after Álvaro Cunhal released the report The Path to Victory – The tasks of the Party in the National and Democratic Revolution, which became an important document in the anti-dictatorship struggle.
1966 The UNITA – União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (National Union for Total Independence of Angola) is founded by Jonas Savimbi.
6 August The Salazar Bridge is inaugurated in Lisbon above the Tagus river. It is the longest suspension bridge in Europe and a replica (made by the same engineers) of the Golden Gate bridge in San Francisco.
1967 By this time the PAIGC had carried out 147 attacks on Portuguese barracks and army encampments, and effectively controlled 2/3 of Portuguese Guinea.
1968 Reorganisation of the Government.
Portugal begins a new campaign against the guerillas in Portuguese Guinea with the arrival of the new governor of the colony, General António de Spínola.
25 September António de Oliveira Salazar leaves the Government due to health problems.
28 September Marcello das Neves Alves Caetano becomes Prime Minister.
1969 The Single Party União Nacional is renamed Acção Nacional Popular (National Popular Action).
The Political Police PIDE is renamed DGS (Direcção Geral de Segurança, Directorate-General of Security).
Beginning of the Primavera Marcelista (Marcelist Springtime), a timid and failed opening of the regime.
1970 Portugal invades Conakry, in the Republic of Guinea, 400 amphibious troops attacked the city and freed dozens of Portuguese Prisoners of war kept there by the PAIGC.
27 July Death of António de Oliveira Salazar.
1973 January Amílcar Cabral, leader of the PAIGC, is assassinated in Conakry by a disgruntled former associate under influence of the Portuguese Political Police DGS.
24 September Independence of Guinea-Bissau (Portuguese Guinea) is unilaterally declared.
November A United Nations' General Assembly vote recognizes the Independence of Guinea-Bissau, unprecedented as it denounced illegal Portuguese aggression and occupation and was prior to complete control and Portuguese recognition.
1974 The Carnation Revolution of the 25 April puts an end to five decades of dictatorship.
25 April The Carnation Revolution puts an end to the authoritarian regime of Estado Novo. Prime-minister Marcello Caetano exiled to Brazil
1975 Independence is granted to all Portuguese colonies in Africa and independence is promised to Portuguese Timor.
11 March A right-wing coup fails: A turn to the left in the revolution happens and major industries and big properties are nationalized by government
2 August A meeting takes place in Haga (near Stockholm in Sweden) where the Committee for Friendship and Solidarity with Democracy and Socialism in Portugal is created. This Committee supported democratic trends in Portugal and opposed pro-soviet communist tendencies. In the meeting were present Olof Palme, Harold Wilson, Helmut Schmidt, Bruno Kreisky, Joop den Uyl, Trygve Bratteli, Anker Jørgensen, Yitzhak Rabin, Hans Janitschek, Willy Brandt, James Callaghan, François Mitterrand, Bettino Craxi and Mário Soares.
25 November A coup removes far-left influence in politics
7 December East Timor (Portuguese Timor) is violently annexed by Indonesia
1976 2 April a new Constitution is approved. The Constitutional Assembly disestablishes itself.
25 April the Constitution of 1976 enters into force.
19 November Jaime Ornelas Camacho becomes the first President of the Regional Government of Madeira.
1980 4 December Prime minister Francisco Sá Carneiro and the Minister of Defence Amaro da Costa died in a plane crash, in strange circumstances.
1984 Carlos Lopes wins the first Olympic Gold Medal for Portugal in the Los Angeles '84 marathon
1986 1 January Portugal becomes a member of the European Economic Community, today's European Union'
1998 Lisbon organizes the World's Fair Expo '98.[17]
28 June In the first Portuguese abortation referendum, the proposal to allow the abortion until 10 weeks of pregnancy is rejected by 50,91% of the voters. This is the first referendum in the History of the Portuguese democracy.
8 October For the very first time, a Portuguese Language author is awarded with the Nobel Prize of Literature:[18] José Saramago.
8 November in the regionalisation referendum, a proposal to establish, in mainland Portugal, 8 administrative regions and to disestablish the 18 districts, is rejected in the polls: in the first question, the simple institution of the administrative regions is rejected by 60,67% of the voters; in the second question, the proposal to create 8 regions is rejected by 60,62% of the voters. This is the first referendum in the History of Portugal to have more than 1 question.
1999 20 December Macau, the last overseas Portuguese colony, is returned to China

3rd millennium

21st century

Year Date Event
2001 4 March Hintze Ribeiro bridge disaster: 70 people die in the collapse of an old bridge on the Douro river. Hours after the accident, Jorge Coelho, Minister of Transportation, resigns.
2002 1 January Portugal adopts the euro as currency.
2004 12 June – 4 July 2004 European Football Championship is held in Portugal.[19]
2005 31 December The 2006 Dakar Rally, the longest and, arguably, the hardest off-road rally in the world starts in Lisbon.[20]
2007 11 February In the second Portuguese abortation referendum, almost 9 years after the first, the proposal to allow the abortion until 10 weeks of pregnancy is now approved by 59,25% of the voters. The law is published in April.[21]
2010 17 May The law that allows the same-sex marriage is approved by the Portuguese President of the Republic, Cavaco Silva.[22]
In 2010, the official infant mortality rate was 2.53 per mil, the lowest ever recorded in Portugal (1.6‰ below the UE-27, 2010 average),[23][24] placing the country among the top-5 in the European Union in this particular value of Human Development.

See also


  1. 1 2 3 María Dolores Fernández-Posse, Antonio Gilman, Concepción Martin, Consideraciones Cronológicas sobre la Edad del Bronce en La Mancha (Complutum Extra, 1996), 6 (II), 111–137, ISSN 1131-6993
  2. 1 2 Javier Rodríguez-Corral, A Galicia Castrexa (Lóstrego, 2009), ISBN 978-84-936613-3-5
  3. 1 2 Herodotus of Halicarnassus, The Histories, I, 163; IV, 152
  4. Alberto J. Lorrio, Los Celtíberos (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 1997), ISBN 84-7908-335-2
  5. Michael Dietler, Carolina Lopez-Ruiz, Colonial Encounters in Ancient Iberia: Phoenician, Greek, and Indigenous relations (University Of Chicago Press, 2009), 80, ISBN 978-0-226-14847-2
  6. Alberto Álvarez Peña, Celtas en Asturies (Picu Urriellu, 1992), ISBN 84-932070-4-7
  7. 1 2 3 "The University of Coimbra". Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  8. "Tratado de paz, amizade e confederação entre D. João I e Eduardo II, rei de Inglaterra, denominado Tratado de Windsor" (in Portuguese). Portuguese National Archives Digital Collection. Archived from the original on March 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  9. Luís Jorge Semedo de Matos. "Terra Nova, viagens à" (in Portuguese). Instituto Camões. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  10. "Corte-Real, Gaspar, Portuguese explorer; b. c. 1450–55.". 1000–1700 (Volume I). Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. Retrieved 5 January 2013. The land discovered by Gaspar appears for the first time on the Cantino map (1502) as the “Terra del Rey de Portugall.” Other maps picturing it are those known as Kunstmann II and III (“Terra de Corte Real”).
  11. "Camões and the First Edition of "The Lusiads," 1572". University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth – Portuguese Literary & Cultural Studies. 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  12. "The Lusiads". World Digital Library. 1800–1882. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
  13. Collecção official de legislação portugueza – Anno de 1867 (PDF) (in Portuguese). Imprensa Nacional – Lisboa. 1 July 1867 (Law). p. 269. Retrieved 5 January 2013. Check date values in: |date=, |year= / |date= mismatch (help)
  14. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949 was divided equally between Walter Rudolf Hess (...) and Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  15. "RTP, Lisboa, Portugal - Television and Cable Broadcasting Stations on Waymarking.com". Waymarking.com. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  16. "A notoriedade alcançada enquanto repórter de guerra na emissora radiofónica britânica garantiu-lhe o passaporte para abrir a primeira emissão em directo da RTP" (in Portuguese). RTP. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  17. "Parque das Nações". Golisbon.com. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  18. "Press release – The Nobel Prize for Literature 1998 José Saramago". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  19. "Greece are crowned kings of Europe". UEFA.com. 5 July 2004. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  20. "The course – Dakar 2006". Dakar.com. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  21. "Law Nº 16/2007" (PDF). Diário da República (in Portuguese). 17 April 2007. p. 1.a série–N.º 75. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  22. "Law Nº9/2010" (PDF). Diário da República (in Portuguese). 31 May 2010. p. 1.ª série – N.º 105. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  23. "Infant mortality rates". Eurostat. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  24. "Demographic Statistics – 2010" (PDF). National Institute of Statistics (Portugal). 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2013. ...Between 2005 and 2010 (...) infant mortality fell from 3.5‰ to 2.5‰, the lowest value ever recorded in Portugal. Page 12

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