Timeline of Iranian history

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Millennia: 1st BC · 1st–2nd · 3rd

Centuries: 7th BC · 6th BC · 5th BC · 4th BC · 3rd BC · 2nd BC · 1st BC

7th century BC

Year Date Event
625 BC Cyaxares the Great declared himself King of the Medes.

6th century BC

Year Date Event
550 BC The Achaemenid Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great.
539 BC Cyrus captured Babylon, freed thousands of slaves and issued a declaration of human rights which would later be inscribed into the Cyrus Cylinder.
525 BC Persia conquers Egypt.

1st century BC

Centuries: 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th

9th century

Year Date Event
821 Tahir ibn Husayn, an Iranian general under the Abbasid Caliphate, declared the establishment of the independent Tahirid Dynasty .
867 Ya'qub-i Laith Saffari founded the Saffarid dynasty.

10th century

Year Date Event
928 Mardavij founded the Ziyarid dynasty.
934 The Shi'ite Buyid dynasty was founded.

11th century

Year Date Event
1010 The poet Ferdowsi finished writing the epic poem Shahnameh, a touchstone of the modern Persian language.

12th century

Year Date Event
1189 Third Crusade: Teutonic Knights destroyed several cities of the Middle East. As a result of the conflict, the safety of both Christian and Muslim unarmed pilgrims is guaranteed throughout the Levant.

13th century

Year Date Event
1219 The Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia begins after two diplomatic missions to Khwarezm sent by Genghis Khan are massacred. In 1220 and 1221, Bukhara, Samarkand, Herat, Tus and Nishapur were razed, and the whole populations were slaughtered. Shah Muhammad II of Khwarezm flees; he dies on an island off the Caspian coast.

16th century

Year Date Event
1501 Ismail I established himself in Tabriz and declared himself the king (shah) of Iran.
1514 23 August Battle of Chaldiran: The Ottoman Empire inflicted a severe defeat on a numerically inferior Persian force, opening the northwestern Iranian Plateau to their occupation.
7 September The Ottoman sultan entered Tabriz.
A mutiny in the Ottoman army forced the sultan to withdraw.
1524 23 May Ismail died. He was succeeded by his son Tahmasp I.
1590 21 May The Treaty of Istanbul (1590) was signed between Iran and the Ottoman Empire, under which Iran ceded the Caucasus and western Iranian territories, for several years.

17th century

Year Date Event
1609 November Battle of DimDim: The Persian army laid siege to a Kurdish fortress on the banks of Lake Urmia.
1610 Battle of DimDim: The fortress was taken, and its occupants were massacred.
1629 19 January Abbas I of Persia died. His grandson Safi of Persia succeeded him.
1639 The Treaty of Zuhab was signed between Persia and the Ottoman Empire, decisively partitioning the Caucasus between the two (with the greater part remaining Iranian,) and establishing what remains the border between Iran, Turkey, and Iraq.
1642 Safi died. He was succeeded by Abbas II of Persia.
1666 Abbas died. He was succeeded by Suleiman I of Persia.

18th century

Year Date Event
1709 21 April Mirwais Khan Hotak, the leader of the Ghilzai clan and mayor of Kandahar, killed the Persian-appointed governor George XI of Kartli and declared himself King of Persia.
1722 July Russo-Persian War (1722-1723): A Russian military expedition sailed to prevent the territories in disintegrating neighboring Safavid Iran fall into Ottoman hands.
1723 12 September Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1723): The envoy of the shah signed a peace treaty ceding the cities of Derbent and Baku and the provinces of Shirvan, Guilan, Mazandaran and Astrabad to the Russian Empire.
1746 4 September The Treaty of Kerden was signed between the Ottoman Empire and Iran, reaffirming the border drawn in the Treaty of Zuhab and allowing Iranian pilgrims to visit Mecca.
1795 11 September Battle of Krtsanisi: The Persian army demolished the armed forces of Kartl-Kakheti, captured Tbilisi, and reconquered eastern Georgia, which comprised the territories of the Kartli-Kakheti.
1796 April Persian Expedition of 1796: The tsarina of Russia launched a military expedition to punish Persia for its incursion into the Russian protectorate of Kartl-Kakheti.

19th century

Year Date Event
1804 Russo-Persian War (1804-1813): Russian forces attacked the Persian settlement Ganja.
1813 24 October Russo-Persian War (1804-1813): According to the Treaty of Gulistan, the Persian Empire ceded all its North Caucasian and swaths of its Transcaucasian territories to Russia, comprising modern-day Dagestan, eastern Georgia, and most of the contemporary Republic of Azerbaijan.
1826 16 July Russo-Persian War (1826-1828): The Persian army invaded the recently Russian-annexed territories in order to reclaim the lost regions.
1828 21 February Russo-Persian War (1826-1828) Facing the possibility of a Russian conquest of Tehran and with Tabriz already occupied, Persia signed the Treaty of Turkmenchay; decisive and final cession of the last Caucasian territories of Iran comprising modern-day Armenia, the remainder of the Azerbaijan Republic that was still in Iranian hands, and Igdir (modern-day Turkey).
1881 21 September Persia officially recognized Russia's annexation of Turkmenistan in the Treaty of Akhal.

20th century

Year Date Event
1941 21 August Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran: Three Soviet armies invaded Iran from the north.
17 September Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran: The Soviet and British armed forces met in Tehran.
1945 November The Soviet Union established the Azerbaijan People's Government in Iranian Azerbaijan.
1946 22 January The Soviet-backed Kurdish Republic of Mahabad declared its independence from Iran.
2 March Iran crisis: British troops withdrew from Iran. The Soviet Union violated its prior agreement and remained.
9 May Iran crisis: The Soviet Union withdrew from Iran.
11 December Iran regained control over the territory of the Azerbaijan People's Government.
15 December Iran conquered Mahabad.
1979 11 February Iranian Revolution: The Iranian collapsed in a popular revolution.
1 April A referendum passed which made Iran an Islamic republic.
1980 22 September Iraq launched a full-scale invasion of Iran. The Iran–Iraq War would last until August 1988. The tactics used by both sides were similar to those used during World War I,[1] including large-scale trench warfare with barbed wire stretched across trenches, manned machine-gun posts, bayonet charges, human wave attacks across a no-man's land, and extensive use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas by the Iraqi government against Iranian troops, civilians, and Iraqi Kurds.
1988 20 August The Iran–Iraq War ends in a stalemate. The Iran–Iraq War was the deadliest conventional war ever fought between regular armies of developing countries.[2]

21st century

Year Date Event
2001 8 June Iranian presidential election, 2001: President Mohammad Khatami was reelected with vast majority.
2005 24 June Iranian presidential election, 2005: Ahmadinejad defeated the more liberal Rafsanjani.
2009 12 June Iranian presidential election, 2009: Ahmadinejad reelected for a second time after defeated Mousavi.
13 June 2009–10 Iranian election protests: Protests all over Iran over election results.

See also

Further reading


  1. Abrahamian, Ervand (2008). A History of Modern Iran (3rd print ed.). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521528917.
  2. Fürtig, Henner (2012). "Den Spieß umgedreht: iranische Gegenoffensive im Ersten Golfkrieg" [Turning of the Tables: the Iranian counter-offensive during the first Gulf War]. Damals (in German). No. 5. pp. 10–13.
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