Timeline of Armenian history

This is a timeline of Armenian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Armenia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Armenia. See also the list of Armenian kings.

This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.
Millennia: 3rd BC · 2nd BC–1st BC · 1st–2nd · 3rd

Centuries: 24th BC · 23rd BC · 22nd BC · 21st BC

24th century BC

Year Date Event
2400 BC The Book of Genesis identifies the land of Ararat as the resting place of Noah's Ark after the "great deluge" described there. The Indo-Europeans were people who presumably spread from the Caucasus, settling on lands along the way. Armenian is one of the Indo-European language branches.

23rd century BC

Year Date Event
2300 BC Hayk creates the Armenian nation in the Ararat region. (Akkadians mention Armani in 2300 BC)

21st century BC

Centuries: 20th BC · 19th BC · 18th BC · 17th BC · 16th BC · 15th BC · 14th BC · 13th BC · 12th BC · 11th BC · 10th BC · 9th BC · 8th BC · 7th BC · 6th BC · 5th BC · 4th BC · 3rd BC · 2nd BC · 1st BC

20th century BC

Year Date Event
2000 BC Trialeti culture

17th century BC

Year Date Event
1700 BC Aram, Armenian patriarch in the History of Armenia (Moses of Chorene)
See also: Mitanni

15th century BC

Year Date Event
1450 BC Artatama I (Thutmose III of Egypt, mentions the people of Ermenen in 1446 BC)

14th century BC

Year Date Event
1400 Artashumara
1384 Artatama II

12th century BC

Year Date Event
1200 BC Armenian Nairi tribes (Նաիրի: Armenian girls names)

9th century BC

Year Date Event
883 BC Foundation of the Kingdom of Urartu with Aramé.
834 BC Reign of Sarduri I who constructs Tushpa (Van). (to 828 BC)
810 BC Reign of Menuas who conquers the Araratian fields. (to 785 BC)

8th century BC

Year Date Event
785 BC Reign of Argishtis I who creates the first Armenian Empire. (to 763 BC)
782 BC Construction of the fortress of Erebuni (modern Yerevan).

6th century BC

Year Date Event
585 BC Conquest of Urartu by the Medes.
512 BC Armenia is annexed to Persia by Darius I. Urartu is officially called Armenia for the first time in the Behistun inscription.

5th century BC

Year Date Event
401 BC The Armenian Orontid Kingdom is founded by King Yervand I within the Achaemenid Empire.

4th century BC

Year Date Event
331 BC Alexander the Great attacks Persia and defeats Darius III, but never conquers Armenia. As a result, Armenia regains its independence from Persia.

2nd century BC

Year Date Event
190 BC Artaxias I reclaims Armenian sovereignty from the Seleucids by establishing the Artaxiad Dynasty with Artaxata as the capital.

1st century BC

Year Date Event
95 BC Accession of power by Tigranes the Great.
93 BC Invasion of Cappadocia
88 BC Conquest of Atropatene, Gordyene, and Osrhoene
83 BC Conquest of Syria, Phoenicia, and Cilicia
69 BC Tigranes' army is defeated at the Battle of Tigranocerta against Lucullus' Roman army.
68 BC Lucullus is beaten off from Artaxata.
67 BC Lucullus is recalled to Rome.
66 BC Pompey invades Armenia, but returns to Roman land after being offered a generous sum of money by Tigranes.
55 BC Death of Tigranes the Great. Artavasdes II continues to rule Armenia.
Reign of Artavasdes. (to 34 BC)

Centuries: 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th

1st century

Year Date Event
1 End of the Artaxiad Dynasty in Armenia. Arsacid dynasty of Parthia (Iran) incorporates Armenia.
53 Tiridates I reaffirms Armenian independence by founding the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia
58 Roman general Corbulo invades Armenia with the assistance of the Iberians and Commagenians.
66 Tiridates is crowned in Rome by Nero, after he and Corbulo came to an agreement.
72 War against the Alans

3rd century

Year Date Event
228 Tiridates II repels Sassanid invasion.
287 Beginning of the reign of Tiridates III.

4th century

Year Date Event
301 Armenia becomes the first official Christian state in the world, King Tiridates III proclaims Christianity as the official state religion of Armenia. Zoroastrianism starts to decline gradually.
330 End of Tiridates III's reign.
387 Division of Armenia into Western and Eastern parts per the Peace of Acisilene between the Sassanid Persians and Byzantines.
392 Armenia regains its might by the coronation of King Vramshapuh in 392.

5th century

Year Date Event
406 Mesrop Mashtots invents the Armenian alphabet.
428 End of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia. Marzpanate Armenia era as part of the Sassanid empire begins.
451 The Battle of Avarayr, led by Vartan Mamikonian, secures the Christian religion in Armenia.

7th century

Year Date Event
639 The first Arab invasion under the leadership of Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah devastates the region of Taron.
642 Arabs storm the city of Dvin killing 12,000 its inhabitants and taking 35,000 into slavery.
645 Theodorus Rshtuni and other Armenian nakharars accepted Muslim rule over Armenia.
650 Armenia becomes the main battleground of the Khazar–Arab Wars & Byzantine–Arab Wars which leaves the lands depopulated. (to 750)

9th century

Year Date Event
861 Ashot I Bagratuni is recognized as prince of princes by the Baghdad court, followed by a war against local Muslim emirs. (to 862)
885 Ashot wins and is thus recognized King of the Armenians by Baghdad in 885.
886 Formal recognition of Armenian sovereignty by Constantinople.
891 King Ashot I dies and is succeeded by his son Smbat I, in 892.

10th century

Year Date Event
961 King Ashot III (953-977) transfers the capital from Kars to Ani, which came to be considered the "City of a 1001 Churches" which rivaled other metropolises like Baghdad and Constantinople.

11th century

Year Date Event
1016 Seljuk Turks first appear in the region.
1045 Armenia falls to Byzantine troops, and an exodus from the Armenian lands begins.
1064 Byzantine Ani, once the capital of Bagratid Armenia, is conquered and destroyed by the Seljuk Turks.
1071 After the Battle of Manzikert, Seljuk dominance is established over Anatolia and a large number of Turkish tribes migrate to the region.
1072 The Seljuks sell Ani to the Shaddadid, a Kurdish tribe ruling a territory coinciding with modern-day Armenia.
1078 Establishment of the Armenian Principality of Cilicia, led by the Rubenid Dynasty.
1095 The First Crusade is launched by Pope Urban I.

12th century

Year Date Event
1187 Debut of Leon II's reign as prince.
1194 After the decline of the Seljuk dominance in the region, Eastern Anatolia is ruled by a slew of Turkish emirates and tribes, such as the Ahlatshahs, Mengujekids, Saltukids and the Artuqids. (to 1241)
1198 Leon II "the Magnificent" managed to secure his crown, becoming the first King of Armenian Cilicia.

13th century

Year Date Event
1219 Death of Leon II.
1241 Mongol Invasion of Anatolia, much of the sedentary population of Armenia is slaughtered. (to 1244)
1256 Turco-Mongol rule continues in Eastern Anatolia under the Ilkhanate rulers and their Turkish and Kurdish vassals. (to 1335)

14th century

Year Date Event
1335 The decline of Mongol power leads Armenia to be dominated once again by Anatolian Turkoman tribes such as the Chobanids. (to 1400)
1375 Fall of the Armenian kingdom of Cilicia to the Mameluks of Egypt and their Ramadanid vassals.
1400 Tamerlane's devastating invasion of Georgia, Armenia and Central Anatolia leads to the slaughter of large portions of the population of Armenia and the enslavement of over 60,000 people from Anatolia and the Caucasus.

15th century

Year Date Event
1405 After Tamerlane's death, Anatolia becomes a battleground between the rival tribal confederations of the Ak Koyunlu and the Kara Koyunlu.
1461 Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople established by then the Ottoman Emperor, Mehmed II.
1478 Armenian migration to Bruges, Belgium.

16th century

Year Date Event
1502 The fanatical Shi'ite Safavid Dynasty is established in Persia, that conquers Armenia.
1512 Printing of first Armenian books.
1514 The ferocious Ottoman Safavid wars rage in the Armenian Highlands for the first time, the Ottomans temporarily gain Western Armenia.
1519 Decree of King Sigismund I that Armenians in Poland by governed under code of laws by Mkhitar Gosh.
The first Jelali revolts; clashes between Sunnite Turks and Kurds and Shi'ite Qizilbash cause friction in Eastern Anatolia. (to 1528)
1520 Large portions of Armenia are conquered by Selim I.
1532 The second series of Ottoman-Persian wars rage in Armenia (to 1555). Armenia is split in two between the two powers per the Peace of Amasya.
1567 Establishment of Armenian printing press in Constantinople.
1598 Continuation of the devastating Jelali revolts in Anatolia. (to 1611)

17th century

Year Date Event
1603 Shah Abbas of Persia invades Ottoman Armenia (to 1618) and reestablishes full control over Eastern Armenia and large parts of Western Armenia as part of his empire.
1605 When forced to abandon the siege of Kars, Shah Abbas orders the complete destruction of many Armenian towns and villages and deports over 300,000 Armenians to Persia, of which only half survive. To cement his control in the region he establishes the Khanate of Erevan and the Khanate of Nakhichevan as vassal states.
1623 The final Ottoman-Safavid War rages in Armenia. (to 1639)
1648 Major earthquake in Van.

18th century

Year Date Event
1712 Sayat Nova, renowned Armenian poet troubadour. (to 1795)
1722 David Bek leads the national liberation movement in 1722, but passes away in 1728.
1747 The Persians establish the Karabakh Khanate.
1759 Arrival of Hovsep Emin in Armenia
1778 Establishment of Nor Nakhichevan

19th century

Year Date Event
1809 Khachatur Abovian, novelist poet, playwright (to 1848)
1810 Zeitountsi revolts (to 1818)
1811 Mkhitarist order of Vienna founded
1813 Treaty of Gulistan. All of Eastern Armenia remains under Persian rule, except for the Armenians in Karabakh, which had already de facto become part of the Russian Empire.
1824 Founding of Nersessian Academy in Tiflis
1826 Nickolas Balian, architect in Constantinople (to 1858)
1827 Occupation of Yerevan by Russian forces
1828 Treaty of Turkmanchay. Eastern Armenia is forcefully ceded by Persia to Russia per the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828), strengthening Russian control of Transcaucasus.
1836 The Russian government enacts the Polozhenie, a statute greatly restricting the power of the Armenian Church.[1]
1894-1896 Hamidian Massacres: An estimated 80,000–300,000 are killed.

20th century

Year Date Event
1909 Adana Massacre: An estimated 15,000–30,000 are killed.
1915 Armenian Genocide: An estimated 1,500,000 are killed. (to 1923)
1918 3 March The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk gives Kars, Ardahan and Batum regions to the Ottoman Empire.
22 May Battle of Sardarapat
28 May The Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians declares the Democratic Republic of Armenia
4 June Treaty of Batum
30 October Armistice of Mudros, the Ottoman Empire agreeing to leave the Transcaucasus. The Democratic Republic of Armenia assumes control of Western Armenia, now that the Ottomans are forced to leave.

Soviet rule

Year Date Event
1965 24 April 1965 Yerevan demonstrations

Independence (1991-)

Year Date Event
1991 21 September Armenian independence referendum
17 October First-ever Armenian presidential election, Levon Ter-Petrosyan elected President with overwhelming popular support
1992 9 May Capture of Shusha
1995 5 July Armenian constitutional referendum
1999 27 October Armenian parliament shooting

21st century

Year Date Event
2004 12 April Robert Kocharyan's government dispersed massive, peaceful protest using excessive force.[2]
2008 19 February Armenian presidential election, 2008
2012 6 May Armenian parliamentary election, 2012
2013 18 February Armenian presidential election, 2013
2015 12 January 2015 Gyumri massacre

See also


  1. Suny, Ronald Grigor; "Eastern Armenians under Tsarist Rule" in Armenian People, p. 115
  2. "Armenia Events of 2004". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 10 April 2013.

Further reading

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