Three Ducal Ministers
The Three Ducal Ministers (Chinese: 三公; pinyin: Sāngōng), also translated as the Three Dukes, Three Excellencies, or the Three Lords, was the collective name for the three highest officials in ancient China.
Each minister was responsible for different areas of government, but the boundaries were often blurred. Together, the Three Ducal Ministers were the emperor's closest advisors. Toward the end of the dynasty, the positions were often sold to men of wealth to raise state revenue. The Three Ducal Ministers were abolished by Cao Cao in 208 and replaced with the position of Imperial Chancellor.
Starting in the Zhou dynasty, the top three were:
- Grand Preceptor (simplified Chinese: 太师; traditional Chinese: 太師; pinyin: Tàishī);
- Grand Tutor (Chinese: 太傅; pinyin: Tàifù);
- Grand Protector (Chinese: 太保; pinyin: Tàibǎo).
During the Western Han dynasty, the three positions were:
- Imperial Chancellor (Chinese: 丞相; pinyin: Chéngxiàng)
- Imperial Secretary (Chinese: 御史大夫; pinyin: Yùshǐ Dàfū);
- Grand Marshal (Chinese: 太尉; pinyin: Tàiwèi).
In the Eastern Han dynasty the names of the Three Ducal Ministers were changed to:
- Minister of War (Chinese: 大司馬; pinyin: Dà Sīmǎ);
- Minister of the Masses (Chinese: 司徒; pinyin: Sītú);
- Minister of Works (Chinese: 司空; pinyin: Sīkōng).
During the Han dynasty civil service officials were classified according to twenty grades (reduced to sixteen after 32 BC), expressed by the official's annual salary in terms of so many dàn (石) or Chinese bushels of grain. This extended from the ten-thousand-bushel rank at the top to the one-hundred-bushel at the bottom. Under this system, the Three Ducal Ministers all held the highest rank of ten-thousand-bushel.
- Wang, p. 150.
- "Official Titles of the Han dynasty: A Tentative List Compiled for The Han Dynasty History Project" (PDF). University of Washington. p. 31. Retrieved March 21, 2013.
- Wang, 137.
- de Crespigny, Rafe (2007), A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD), Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0.
- Wang, Yü-Ch'üan (June 1949). "An Outline of The Central Government of The Former Han Dynasty". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. Harvard-Yenching Institute. 12 (1/2): 134–187. doi:10.2307/2718206. JSTOR 2718206.