The New School

This article is about the university in New York. For other uses, see New School (disambiguation).
The New School
Former names
The New School For Social Research (1919-1997)
New School University (1997-2005)
Motto To the Living Spirit
Type Private, Non-Profit; Doctoral, Research-Intensive[1]
Established 1919
Endowment $300 million[2]
President David E. Van Zandt
Provost Tim Marshall
Academic staff
Students 10,186[4]
Undergraduates 6,836
Postgraduates 3,138
Other students
2,857[5] (continuing education)
Location New York City, U.S.
40°44′08.08″N 73°59′49.08″W / 40.7355778°N 73.9969667°W / 40.7355778; -73.9969667
Campus Urban
Colors White, Black, and Parsons Red               
Athletics Unaffiliated, compete against NCAA Division III schools
Nickname Narwhals
Mascot Gnarls the Narwhal
Affiliations AACU

The New School is a private research university in Lower Manhattan, New York City, located mostly in Greenwich Village. From its founding in 1919 by progressive New York educators, and for most of its history, the university was known as The New School for Social Research. Between 1997 and 2005 it was known as New School University. The university and each of its colleges were renamed in 2005.

The university was set up as the University in Exile in 1933 as a graduate division to serve as an academic haven for scholars escaping from Nazi Germany among other adversarial regimes in Europe.[6] The University in Exile in 1934 was chartered by New York State and its name was changed to the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science. In 2005, it was renamed the New School for Social Research. The New School has launched or housed a range of institutions such as the international research institute World Policy Institute, the Vera List Center for Art and Politics, the India China Institute, the Observatory on Latin America, and the Center for New York City Affairs. Parsons School of Design is the New School's art school.

Approximately 9,300 students are enrolled in postgraduate and undergraduate degree programs, organized into seven schools which teach a variety of disciplines, including social sciences, liberal arts, humanities, architecture, fine arts, design, music, drama, finance, psychology, and public policy.[7]



The New School for Social Research was founded by a group of university professors and intellectuals in 1919 as a modern, progressive, free school where adult students could "seek an unbiased understanding of the existing order, its genesis, growth and present working."[8] Founders included economist and literary scholar Alvin Johnson, historian Charles A. Beard, economists Thorstein Veblen and James Harvey Robinson, and philosophers Horace M. Kallen and John Dewey. Several founders were former professors at Columbia University.

In October 1917, after Columbia University imposed a loyalty oath to the United States upon the entire faculty and student body, it fired several professors. Charles A. Beard, Professor of Political Science, resigned his professorship at Columbia in protest. His colleague James Harvey Robinson resigned in 1919 to join the faculty at the New School.

The New School plan was to offer the rigorousness of postgraduate education without degree matriculation or degree prerequisites. It was theoretically open to anyone, as the adult division today called Schools of Public Engagement remains.[9] The first classes at the New School took the form of lectures followed by discussions, for larger groups, or as smaller conferences, for "those equipped for specific research." In the first semester, 100 courses, mostly in economics and politics, were offered by an ad hoc faculty that included Thomas Sewall Adams, Charles A. Beard, Horace M. Kallen, Harold Laski, Wesley Clair Mitchell, Thorstein Veblen, James Harvey Robinson, Graham Wallas, Charles B. Davenport, Elsie Clews Parsons, and Roscoe Pound.[10] John Cage later pioneered the subject of Experimental Composition at the school.[11]


The New School uses To the Living Spirit as its motto. In 1937, Thomas Mann remarked that a plaque bearing the inscription 'be the Living Spirit' had been torn down by the Nazis from a building at the University of Heidelberg. He suggested that the University in Exile adopt that inscription as its motto, to indicate that the 'living spirit,' mortally threatened in Europe, would have a home in this country. Alvin Johnson adopted that idea, and the motto continues to guide the division in its present-day endeavors[12]

University in Exile

The Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science was founded in 1933 as the University in Exile, to be a haven for scholars who had been dismissed from teaching positions by the Italian fascists or had to flee Nazi Germany.[6][13] The University in Exile was initially founded by the director of the New School, Alvin Johnson, through the generous financial contributions of Hiram Halle and the Rockefeller Foundation. It was renamed the "New School for Social Research" in 2005. The University in Exile and its subsequent incarnations have been the intellectual heart of the New School. Notable scholars associated with the University in Exile include psychologists Erich Fromm, Max Wertheimer and Aron Gurwitsch, political philosophers Hannah Arendt and Leo Strauss, and philosopher Hans Jonas.

Following the collapse of totalitarian regimes in Europe, the University in Exile was renamed the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science.

In 2005 the Graduate Faculty was again renamed, this time taking the original name of the university, The New School for Social Research.

École libre des hautes études

The New School played a similar role with the founding of the École Libre des Hautes Études after the Nazi invasion of France. Receiving a charter from de Gaulle's Free French government in exile, the École attracted refugee scholars who taught in French, including philosopher Jacques Maritain, anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss, and linguist Roman Jakobson. The École Libre gradually evolved into one of the leading institutions of research in Paris, the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, with which the New School maintains close ties.

Dramatic Workshop / School of Drama

Between 1940 and 1949, the New School was host to the "Dramatic Workshop," a theatre workshop and predecessor of School of Drama that was founded by German emigrant theatre director Erwin Piscator. Important acting teachers during this period were Stella Adler and Elia Kazan. Among the famous students of the Dramatic Workshop were Beatrice Arthur, Harry Belafonte, Marlon Brando, Tony Curtis, Ben Gazzara, Michael V. Gazzo, Rod Steiger, Elaine Stritch, Shelley Winters and Tennessee Williams.[14]

I attended The New School for Social Research for only a year, but what a year it was. The school and New York itself had become a sanctuary for hundreds of extraordinary European Jews who had fled Germany and other countries before and during World War II, and they were enriching the city's intellectual life with an intensity that has probably never been equaled anywhere during a comparable period of time.
Marlon Brando, actor[15]

Philosophical tradition

The New School for Social Research continues the Graduate Faculty's tradition of synthesizing leftist American intellectual thought and critical European philosophy. True to its origin and its firm roots within the University in Exile, The New School for Social Research, particularly its Department of Philosophy, is in the minority in the United States in offering students thorough training in the modern continental European philosophical tradition known as "Continental philosophy." Thus, it stresses the teachings of Parmenides, Aristotle, Leibniz, Spinoza, Hume, Kant, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Marx, Nietzsche, Husserl, Heidegger, Arendt, Freud, Benjamin, Wittgenstein, Foucault, Derrida, Deleuze, et al.[16] The thought of the Critical Theory of the Frankfurt School: Max Horkheimer, Walter Benjamin, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, Jürgen Habermas, et al. holds an especially strong influence on all divisions of the school. After the death of Hannah Arendt in 1975, the philosophy department revolved around Reiner Schürmann and Ágnes Heller.


The New School is divided into autonomous colleges called "divisions." Each one is led by a dean and has its own scholarships, standards of admission, and acceptance rates.

Major colleges
Division Founded Schools or Divisions
The New School for Social Research 1937
College of Performing Arts 2015 Includes:
Mannes School of Music (founded 1916)
School of Jazz (founded 1986)
School of Drama (founded 2005)
Eugene Lang College of Liberal Arts 1978
Parsons School of Design 1896
The New School for Public Engagement 2011 Includes:
Bachelor's Program for Adults and Transfer Students
Milano School of International Affairs, Management, and Urban Policy (founded 1964)
School of Media Studies
Creative Writing Program
School of Languages
Former divisions
Division Founded Present school
The New School for General Studies 1919–2011 Now part of The New School for Public Engagement
Milano School of International Affairs, Management, and Urban Policy 1964–2011
The Actors Studio Drama School 1994–2005
Mannes School of Music 1916-2015 Now part of College of Performing Arts
School of Jazz 1986-2015
School of Drama 2005-2015

2005 rebranding

In June 2005, the university was rebranded with a new logo and all schools were officially renamed to include "The New School" within their formal names.[17][18]

Some faculty, students, and alumni expressed concern over the rebranding of the university, and especially the dramatic redesign of the logo from a six-sided shield against a green background to a spray-painted graffiti mark reading simply, in capital letters, "THE NEW SCHOOL" with, in smaller letters beneath, "A UNIVERSITY." They claimed that the university's new identity campaign, while maintaining a slick urban edge, did little to suggest academic rigor or collegiate legacy.[18][19]

2015 rebranding

In 2015 the New School rebranded using elements designed by Paula Scher of Pentagram using a bespoke font called "Neue".[20]

In addition to the new logo, the school announced that it was combining Mannes, Jazz, and Drama into a College of Performing Arts[21] in fall 2015, relocating most of the performing arts to Arnhold Hall at 55 West 13th St., where the School of Jazz had occupied two floors since 1986.



Unlike most U.S. universities, The New School has a "student-directed curriculum", which does not require its undergraduates to take general education courses. Instead, students are encouraged to explore before focusing on a major, selecting topics that are of interest to them. Although all "New Schoolers" are required to complete rigorous core training—usually of a literary, conservatory, or artistic nature—students are expected to be the primary designer of their own individualized and eclectic education.

The New School's curriculum is highly experimental and avant-garde, offering classes such as: "Heterodox Identities," "Games 101," "NYC: Graphic Gotham," "Punk & Noise," "Masculinity in Asia," "Queer Culture," and "Play and Toil in the Digital Sweatshop."[22] The New School also offers a course titled "Social Media: The Power to Speak the Truth." The course explores the transformative history of the Internet and provides a working knowledge of the tools it offers for journalism and public action.

The university offers 81 degree/diploma programs and majors, with a student-to-faculty ratio of 9:1.[23] This small class size allows The New School to teach most of its classes in the seminar style—especially at Eugene Lang College, which consistently ranks at the top of The Princeton Review's "class discussions encouraged" national listing.[24]

The New School Institutes and Research Centers

There are several important institutes and research centers at The New School which are focused on various study fields. Their work is concentrated in the following areas:

Enrollment demographics

Thirty Three percent of New School students are international,[25] with 112 foreign countries being represented at the university. U.S. students come from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 43% of them are people of color, and 5% of American students identify as more than one race.[23] Of the entire student population, 63% receive financial aid, and 17% study abroad before graduating.

Rankings and lists

U.S. News & World Report ranks The New School as best in the nation for small class sizes and for international student enrollment.[25][26][27][28]


Union Square, the location often referred to as New School's geographic "nucleus".
The New School University Center at 14th Street and Fifth Avenue, a LEED Gold building completed in 2014
The New School's building on West 12th Street

The New School's campus is composed of many buildings, most of which are minutes from Union Square.

The university's Parsons division also has affiliations with schools that operate independently but embrace Parsons' philosophy and teaching methodology, including Parsons Paris (France), India School of Design and Innovation (Mumbai, India), Parsons Shanghai (China), La Escuela de Diseño at Altos de Chavón, La Romana, Dominican Republic and Kanazawa International Design Institute, Kanazawa (Japan).

The New School opened the 16-story University Center at 65 5th Avenue in January 2014.[29][30] The tower, which was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill's Roger Duffy, is the biggest capital project the university has ever undertaken. The building, added classrooms, new residences, and event facilities to the downtown New York City campus.[31] in addition to a library, and lecture hall.[32] While the 65 Fifth Avenue plans were initially controversial among students and Village residents (spurring in 2009 a major student occupation was held at The New School's previous building on that site), plans for the University Center were adjusted in response to community concerns and have since been well received. In a review of the University Center's final design, The New York Times architecture critic Nicolai Ouroussoff called the building "a celebration of the cosmopolitan city."

Historical significance

Several of the university buildings are certified by New York City as historical landmarks. Prominent among these is the egg-shaped Tishman Auditorium, considered by many to be the first building to employ modern architecture. It was designed by architect Joseph Urban, along with the entirety of The New School's historic 66 West 12th Street building. Thousands of writer's forums, author visits, political debates, award ceremonies, academic lectures, performances, and public hearings are held for both the academic community and general public throughout the year in Tishman.

Newer buildings have garnered a multitude of awards. Among these is The Sheila Johnson Design Center, which attracted media attention for its revolutionary design. In 2009, it won the SCUP's Excellence in Architecture Renovation/Adaptive Reuse Award.[33] In addition to being a Parsons core academic building, the Center also serves as a public art gallery.[34] The New School Welcome Center, located on 13th Street and Fifth Avenue, won the American Institute of Architects, New York Chapter's Interiors Merit Award in 2010.[35]

Residence halls

The university operates four residence halls:

Former residence halls:


The New School owns several libraries throughout New York City and is a member of the Research Library Association of South Manhattan. In 2009, its libraries counted a total of 1,906,046 holdings.[40][41]

Art collection

In 1931 the New School commissioned two mural cycles: José Clemente Orozco's "A Call for Revolution" and "Universal Brotherhood" and Thomas Hart Benton's epic America Today. The New School Art Collection[42] was established in 1960 with a grant from the Albert A. List Foundation. The collection, now grown to approximately 1,800 postwar and contemporary works of art, includes examples in almost all media. Parts of it are exhibited throughout the campus. Notable artists such as Andy Warhol, Kara Walker, Richard Serra, and Sol LeWitt all have pieces displayed in New School's academic buildings.[43]


Academic journals

The New School publishes the following journals:

Other university publications

Student life

Student government

There are several student government and leadership councils at The New School. Among them are:

The University Student Senate is composed of students from every division. Its composition is Parsons - 5, Lang - 3, New School for Public Engagement - 3, New School Social Research - 2, Jazz - 1, and Mannes - 1. The USS acts as the connection between students and administration, serving the needs and concerns of the students. The duties of the USS include giving a political statement regarding macro issues within the school (gender neutral bathrooms, divestment, etc.), as well as micro issues. Additionally, the USS provide a cap of $5,000 funding for initiatives that serves the entire New School.

Student organizations

The New School houses over 50 recognized student organizations, most of which are geared towards artistic endeavors or civic engagement.[44] Notable among these are The Theatre Collective, which stages numerous dramatic productions throughout the year, Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), Debate Team, ReNew School (sustainability and environmental advocacy group) Moxie (feminist alliance), the New Urban Grilling Society (NUGS), and The Radical Student Union (RSU).

Student-run media


A noted student newspaper, The New School Free Press, also known as NSFP is widely distributed throughout the campus. Hard print copies are available in most academic buildings, while an online edition is available as well.[45] Students at Eugene Lang College publishes Release, a student-run literary magazine.

WNSR radio

WNSR, a student-run, faculty-advised online-only radio station, also operates at the university. Programming is currently delivered in the form of streamable mp3s and, in the near future, subscribable podcasts. It is a station for all divisions of The New School.[46]

Athletics and recreation

Current Athletics and Recreation Director Diane Yee joined The New School in August 2012. On October 25, 2012 a school-wide election was held to select a mascot, where The New School Narwhals were born. On January 25, 2013 the athletics logo was launched, designed by Parsons’ student Matthew Wolff (G '14).[47]

The department began in December 2008 under its original name Recreation and Intramural sports. The initial director, Michael McQuarrie, held the position for four years. He built a relationship with the McBurney YMCA where intramurals continue to be held on Wednesday night's and created the ongoing New School Olympics and charitable 5K Turkey Trot.

The Narwhals feature several intercollegiate teams: basketball (2009), cross country (2010), cycling (2013), soccer (2013), tennis (2014), ultimate Frisbee (2014). The New School Narwhals are an independent school, unaffiliated with the NCAA, but regularly compete against NCAA Division III schools.

Basketball – competes regularly against Cooper Union, Culinary Institute of America, Pratt Institute, and Vaughn College

Cross Country – competes in CUNYAC and HVIAC conference invitationals as an unaffiliated school

Cycling – a member of the Eastern Collegiate Cycling Conference

Soccer – competes against Cooper Union, Culinary Institute of America, St. Joseph’s College, and Vaughn College

In addition to sports, the recreation department offers a myriad of free fitness classes to its community including boxing, dance, HIIT, Pilates, tai chi, yoga, and Zumba. Personal training is also offered at an affordable rate ranging from $16.50-$40/session.

Outdoor Adventure trips are offered several times/week and what started to be wilderness in nature (camping, hiking, rafting) has expanded to include excursions such as archery, biking, horseback riding, skiing/snowboarding, surfing, rock climbing and trapeze.

Yee has increased programming to include a second charitable race that takes place annually in April called the 5K Rabbit Run. She has also started the Urban Hunt (a scavenger hunt around campus and the Village) and Club New (a dance party for first-year students the weekend before first day of classes). Her biggest accomplishment is creating Narwhal Nation. The students now have a sense of community and a way to bring all seven schools together.


Activist culture and social change

Historically, The New School has been associated with leftist politics, campus activism, civic engagement, and social change.[51] It is a "Periclean University", or member Project Pericles, meaning that it teaches "education for social responsibility and participatory citizenship as an essential part of their educational programs, in the classroom, on the campus, and in the community."[52] The New School is one of nine American universities to be inducted into Ashoka's "Changemaker" consortium for social entrepreneurship.[53]

In 2010, NYC Service awarded New School special recognition in The College Challenge, a volunteer initiative, for the "widest array of [civic] service events both on and off campus."[54] Miriam Weinstein also cites the Eugene Lang division in her book, Making a Difference Colleges: Distinctive Colleges to Make a Better World.[55]

Kerrey presidency and opposition

Former U.S. Senator Bob Kerrey became president of The New School in 2000. Kerrey drew praise and criticism for his streamlining of the university, as well as censure for his support of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, generally opposed by the university's faculty.[56]

In 2004, Kerrey appointed Arjun Appadurai as provost. Appadurai resigned as provost in early 2006, but retained a tenured faculty position. He was succeeded by Joseph Westphal, yet on December 8, 2008 Kerrey announced that Westphal was stepping down to accept a position in President Barack Obama's Department of Defense transition team. Kerrey then took the highly unorthodox step of appointing himself to the provost position while remaining president. This decision was strongly criticised by faculty and other members of the university community as a power-grab involving potential conflicts of interest. This was seen as a threat to scholarly integrity since the role of provost in overseeing the academic functions of a university has traditionally been insulated from fundraising and other responsibilities of a college president. After a series of rifts including protests involving student occupations of university buildings, Kerrey later appointed Tim Marshall, Dean of Parsons School of Design, as Interim Provost through June 2011. Marshall has since been reappointed in this role.

On December 10, 2008, 74 of the New School's senior professors gave a vote of no confidence for the New School's former president, Bob Kerrey. By December 15, 98% of the university's full-time faculty had voted no confidence.[57]

On December 17, over 100 students barricaded themselves in at a dining hall on the campus while hundreds more waited on the streets outside. They considered the current school administration opaque and harmful. Their chief demand, among others, was that Bob Kerrey resign.[58] The students soon enlarged their occupied area, blocking security and police from entering the building. At 3 AM the next morning, the students left the building after Kerrey agreed to some of their demands (the most important elements on their first list of demands were not agreed to), including increased study space and amnesty from any actions performed during the protest. He did not, however, concede to resignation.[59] In total, the occupation lasted 30 hours.

In January 2009, a student organization called The New School In Exile issued a public threat to shut down the university on April 1, unless the President and Chief Operating Officer were removed. They subsequently stole an entire edition of the student newspaper, after the paper published an article revealing their plans and names, and defaced the university's presidential residence.

On April 10, 2009, students, mostly from New School but also from other New York colleges, reoccupied the building at 65 Fifth Avenue, this time holding the entire building for about six hours. Once again, the students demanded the resignation of Bob Kerrey. The New York Police Department arrested the occupiers; the New School students involved were then suspended.[60][61]

On May 7, 2009, Kerrey announced he would fulfill his presidency at the University through the end of his term and expressed his intent to leave office in June 2011.[62] However, he ended up resigning a semester early, on January 1, 2011.[63]

On August 26, 2010, a letter was sent out stating that the board of trustees had approved the appointment of Dr. David E. Van Zandt, who succeeded Bob Kerrey and become the 8th president of the New School.[64]

Environmental sustainability

Currently, The Princeton Review gives the university a sustainability rating of 94 out of 99.[65] In 2010, the organization also named The New School one of America's "286 Green Colleges."[66] The New School has a student-led environment and sustainability group, called Renew School, as well as full-time employees devoted to the school's sustainability. The university signed the Presidents' Climate Commitment and PlaNYC. The institution's sustainability website outlines many goals and projects for the future which will hopefully help The New School receive a good rating in the 2010 College Sustainability Report Card.[67][68]

Labor movement

In 2003, adjunct faculty in several divisions of the New School began to form a labor union chapter under the auspices of the United Auto Workers. Though the university at first tried to contest the unionization, after several rulings against it by regional and national panels of the National Labor Relations Board the university recognized the local chapter, ACT-UAW, as the bargaining agent for the faculty. As a result of a near strike in November 2005 on the part of the adjunct faculty, the ACT-UAW union negotiated its first contract which included the acknowledgment of previously unrecognized part-time faculty at Mannes College The New School for Music.

The McCain protests

John McCain's speech at the graduation ceremony of 2006 generated a large amount of media attention, due to vocal student opposition in print,[69] radio,[70] and television[71] media, and the speech of Jean Rohe, a graduating senior who spoke before McCain and directly confronted the controversy, saying that the senator "does not reflect the values upon which the university was founded."[72]

Media activism

Students for Snowden

On April 27, 2015, a group of students installed a large-format poster featuring the statement "Thank You Snowden" in the New School University Center on Fifth Avenue. The action was a response to the current revisions of Section 215 of the Patriot Act, as well as other bills that ensure continued and far-reaching mass surveillance by the American government.[73]


In 2007, New School trustee and long-time Clinton fundraiser Norman Hsu was arrested after being found to fleeing from the authorities after a felony theft conviction.[74] In 2008, he was convicted and sentenced to three years prison for defrauding millions of dollars of investors' money in an intricate Ponzi scheme. In response, the Hillary Clinton campaign returned $850,000 of his campaign contributions.[75]

Leo Hindery, a New School trustee, had donated nearly $270,000 to the John Edwards campaign by late 2007. Other politically involved New School trustees include Howard Gittis, who was a "bundler" for the John McCain campaign, and George Haywood, who was part of Senator Barack Obama's inner fund-raising circle.[76] Fred P. Hochberg, former Dean of Milano The New School for Management and Urban Policy, was a fundraiser for Hillary Clinton and liaison to the gay community.[77]

The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States held its eleventh public hearing on May 18–19, 2004, at The New School. The two-day hearing examined the response of local and federal emergency response departments on September 11, 2001, and considered how to improve these critical functions in the event of future terrorist attacks. The Commission heard from the current and former top-level officials in the fire, police, and emergency management departments of New York City, of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, and of Arlington County in Virginia. Secretary of Homeland Security Thomas J. Ridge and former New York City Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani also testified. Two staff statements were presented during the course of the hearing. "At this hearing, the Commission turns its attention to the day of September 11, 2001. We will focus on what confronted civilians and first responders during the attacks, how they made decisions under adverse conditions, and what first responders communicated to civilians and to each other," said Commission Chair Thomas H. Kean. “The Commission also will explore the state of the emergency preparedness and response today,” said Commission Vice Chair Lee H. Hamilton. "We will examine what steps have been taken since 9-11 to improve our preparedness against terrorist attacks and other emergencies, and whether we need national standards of preparedness."[78]

Appearances in media

Noted alumni, faculty, and current students

According to the university's "Quick Facts" page, New School has a living alumni pool of over 56,000 and graduates live in 112 different countries.[23]

Jack Kerouac attended the New School in the fall of 1949 under a G.I. benefits scheme for returned service men and women (he lasted through only 10 days of boot camp),[82] which included a stipend and book allowance.

See also



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