Covers of the 1987 republication. Art by Yoshitaka Amano.
|Media type||Print (hardcover and paperback)|
Teito Monogatari (帝都物語 lit., The Tale of the Imperial Capital) is an epic historical dark fantasy/science fiction work; the debut novel of natural history researcher and polymath Hiroshi Aramata. It began circulation in a literary magazine owned by Kadokawa Shoten in 1983, and was published in 10 volumes over the course of 1985–1987. The novel is a romanticized retelling of the 20th-century history of Tokyo from an occultist perspective.
Widely regarded as the first novel to popularize onmyōdō and fūsui mythology in modern Japanese fiction, the work was a major success in its native country. It won the 1987 Nihon SF Taisho Award, sold over 5 million copies in Japan alone, inspired several adaptations as well as a long running literary franchise and started a new wave of occult fiction. Likewise its influence can still be felt to this day.
The work is a re-imagining of the 20th century of Tokyo as influenced by the supernatural. The story contains numerous references to Japanese and Chinese folklore, though the prime myth which functions as a centerpiece is the legend of Taira no Masakado, a 10th-century warlord and ferocious onryo who was placated into a guardian kami through centuries of worship.
The plot primarily describes the cryptohistorical exploits of Yasunori Katō, a mysterious former lieutenant of the Imperial Japanese Army who is himself a vengeful oni; a descendant of the people who rebelled against the Japanese Empire in ancient times. With an incredible knowledge of the supernatural and allies in China, Korea and Taiwan; Katō dedicates his existence to crippling Tokyo, the seat of power of the modern Japanese Empire. His ruinous ambitions bring him into conflict with some of 20th century Japan's greatest minds including industrialist Eiichi Shibusawa, onmyoji Abe no Seimei's descendant Yasumasa Hirai, authors/ scholars Koda Rohan and Izumi Kyoka; physicist Torahiko Terada, and author Yukio Mishima. The resulting conflict, involving science, magic and politics; spans 90 years of Japan's history.
The story begins near the end of the Meiji period and ranges through the rest of the century. It reinvents major events such as the Great Kantō earthquake, the founding of Japan's first subway, the February 26 Incident, the firebombing raids, the signing of the 1960 US Security Pact, the ritual suicide of Yukio Mishima. The narrative finally reaches its climax in 1998, the 73rd year of a fictional Shōwa period.
List of characters
The historical characters who play primary or supporting roles in the story include:
- Taira no Masakado
- Tachibana no Hayanari
- Tōyama Kagemoto
- Hirata Atsutane
- Hijikata Toshizō
- Ichimura Tetsunosuke
- Enomoto Takeaki
- Edward and Henry Schnell
- Prince Sawara
- Sugawara no Michizane
- Thomas Blakiston
- Kōda Rohan
- Satō Nobuhiro
- Joseph Needham
- Mori Ōgai
- Torahiko Terada
- Hantaro Nagaoka
- Karl Haushofer
- Shoma Morita
- Makoto Nishimura
- Shibusawa Eiichi
- Kyōka Izumi
- Akiko Yosano
- Masatoshi Ōkōchi
- Noritsugu Hayakawa
- Wajiro Kon
- Goto Shinpei
- Korekiyo Takahashi
- Kanji Nakajima
- Ikki Kita
- Kanji Ishiwara
- Hideki Tojo
- Ōtani Kōzui
- Franklin D. Roosevelt
- Shūmei Ōkawa
- Masahiko Amakasu
- Hisaya Morishige
- Yukio Mishima
- George Gurdjieff
- Fusako Shigenobu
- Kadokawa Gen'yoshi
- Haruki Kadokawa
The tenth volume of the novel, published in 1987, was originally intended to be the final volume. However, when the novel was republished in 1987-1989, additional eleventh and twelfth volumes were also written to supplement more of the story around 1945, the end of World War II. When the novel was republished in 1995, volumes 11 and 12 were inserted in the chronologically appropriate spot between volumes 5 and 6.
- Vol. 1: Great Spirit of Tokyo (神霊篇)
- Vol. 2: Supernatural Babylon (魔都（バビロン）篇)
- Vol. 3: The Great earthquake (大震災（カタストロフ）篇)
- Vol. 4: Movement of the Dragon (龍動篇)
- Vol. 5: Advent of the Devil (魔王篇)
- Vol. 6: Great War in the Capital (戦争（ウォーズ）篇)
- Vol. 7: Greater East Asia (大東亜篇)
- Vol. 8: The Phoenix (不死鳥篇)
- Vol. 9: Rampant Evil (The Demon's Journey of 100 Nights) (百鬼夜行篇)
- Vol. 10: Shrine of the Future (未来宮篇)
- Vol. 11: Power of the Mourning Spirit (喪神篇)
- Vol. 12: Resurrection (復活篇)
List of publications
- 10 volumes, 1985–1987, cover art by Suehiro Maruo
- 12 volumes, 1987–1989, cover art by Yoshitaka Amano
- 6 volumes, 1995, cover art by Shou Tajima (this is the edition currently in print)
Concept and creation
The novel originally served as a minor side project for Hiroshi Aramata who, at the time, was focused on gathering materials for an upcoming natural history book he planned to publish. He was asked by the editor in chief of Kadokawa Shoten, Hiroshi Morinaga, to produce a fantasy themed work for their periodical Monthly King Novel. At that time, Aramata had never written a fictional novel before. The initial idea for the story came from the legend of Taira no Masakado. Aramata was fascinated by the legacy of his spirit and its superstitious impact on modern Japan.
While participating in the creation of Heibonsha World Encyclopedia, Hiroshi Aramata was inspired by discussions with anthropologist Komatsu Kazuhiko about sources of the strange and the mysterious in Japanese folklore. These discussions inspired Aramata to share this knowledge with general readers in the form of fiction. Around the same time, Aramata also read Murayama Shinichi's non fiction history of onmyodo Nihon Onmyodoshi Sosetsu. Thus, Aramata began work on a fantasy romance that would meld lesser known topics of Eastern occult and folklore with modern Japanese history.
Teito Monogatari is widely credited as the beginning of the "onmyōdō/occult" boom, which grew to extreme prominence in Japanese popular culture during the late 80s and 90s. The work was influential in establishing new motifs in occult Japanese fiction such as shikigami, kodoku magic, shijie, gohō dōji and Kimon Tonkou magic; many of which are taken for granted today. It also sparked a surge of mainstream interest in feng shui across Japan. Baku Yumemakura, widely regarded author of the bestselling Onmyoji novel and manga series, has often cited Teito Monogatari as a significant inspiration and credits it with the beginning of the Abe no Seimei boom in popular media. Other similarly themed franchises which emerged in the wake of the novel's success include Clamp's Tokyo Babylon manga series, and Natsuhiko Kyogoku's Kyōgokudō (京極堂) series.
Professor of Human Geography Paul Waley cites Teito Monogatari as a catalyst for educating a generation of Japanese readers about Tokyo's former status as an Imperial Capital. Dr. Noriko T. Reider, associate professor of Japanese Studies at Miami University, describes Teito Monogatari as an "exemplary work of fiction" and credits it with raising "the oni's status and popularity greatly in modern times". In 2009 Higashi Masao, a notable authority in the field of Japanese weird fiction, wrote an article entitled "The Impact of Teito Monogatari" where he discussed the novel's influence on contemporary Japanese supernatural fiction. Akira Okawada, a specialist in Japanese science fiction literature, wrote a similar article in 2010 discussing the work's influence on that respective genre.
In her essay "Oni and Japanese Identity", Dr. Noriko T. Reider argues that the work is a heterotopic inversion of classical oni mythology heavily influenced by the supernatural configuration brought about by World War II. She describes the novel as a "...heterotopic site where...contemporary representations of oni reflect past representations, where oni of the past are not simply superimposed upon the present but both act as extensions of each other in an odd continuum". The character of Yasunori Kato is intended as a homage to classic heroes from Japanese folklore such as Minamoto no Raiko (an imperial soldier related to oni) and Abe no Seimei. Whereas those heroes were ardent defenders and valuable servants of the Empire though, Kato is presented as its worst possible enemy. This inversion is also reflected in the character of Taira no Masakado, whom at the beginning is demonized by the narrator and the Japanese government as a national rebel and a threat. However, the story unfolds with him in the role of Tokyo's benevolent guardian deity worshiped by the various protectors of the city. The negative association becomes a positive one. Another example is found in the novel's fictional version of Emperor Hirohito. In pre-war Japanese culture, the Emperor was regarded as a divine figure incapable of human failing. In Teito Monogatari however, the Showa Emperor is presented as a frail figure who prolongs his life by unwittingly ingesting a nostrum made from human organs. This practice of cannibalism effectively puts him on the level of oni, a major paradox since the Emperor's divine status and the status of oni are incompatible with each other. If even the Emperor of Japan has the potential to become an oni, then when is an oni not an oni?
Spin-offs and Prequels
- The Sim-Feng Shui (シム・フースイ Shimu-Fūsui) series: Published 1993-2001. A multi-volume series starring Tatsuto Kuroda, the grandson of the feng shui expert Shigemaru Kuroda from Teito Monogatari, as he struggles against various spiritual disturbances across Japan. The fourth volume of this series was made into an independent tokusatsu film titled Tokyo Dragon (東京龍 Tōkyō Doragon), released in 1997.
- Teito Monogatari Gaiden Karakuri Dōji (帝都物語外伝 機関童子): Published 1995. A spin-off of the main story, set in 1998. The film Teito Monogatari Gaiden (帝都物語外伝) (1995) is loosely based on it.
- Teito Gendan (帝都幻談): Republished 2007–2011. A prequel to the original novel, set during the Edo period. Illustrations by Shigeru Mizuki, with an introduction by Natsuhiko Kyogoku.
- Shin Teito Monogatari (新帝都物語): Published 2001, republished in 2009. A follow-up to Teito Gendan, set during the Bakumatsu.
- Teito Monogatari Iroku (帝都物語異録): Published 2001. The "secret origins" of Yasunori Katō. This collection features the writings of a multitude of Japanese authors.
- The Great Yokai War (妖怪大戦争 Yōkai Daisensō): A 2005 fantasy film by Takashi Miike. Yasunori Katō leads an army of twisted yōkai on an invasion of Tokyo. Was made in cooperation with Hiroshi Aramata (who wrote the novel), Shigeru Mizuki and Natsuhiko Kyogoku.
A humorous stage adaptation of the novel was performed by the Tokyo Grand Guignol Theater in the mid-1980s. It is most notable for introducing the talents of its star Kyūsaku Shimada, the actor who would become most associated with the image of the protagonist Yasunori Kato in future film adaptations.
- Teito Monogatari (帝都物語 aka, BABYLON TOKYO), illustrated by Kamui Fujiwara, published by Kadokawa Shoten in 1987 and republished in 1999. A visual adaptation of books 1-4. (ISBN 978-4049260038)
- Teito Monogatari: TOKIO WARS (帝都物語 ワイド版), illustrated by Yōsuke Takahashi, published by Dragon Comics in 1989 and republished by Kadokawa Shoten in 2008. A visual adaptation of "Advent of the Devil" (book 5) and "Great War in the Capital" (book 6, formerly book 11). (ISBN 978-4776794141)
- Teito Monogatari (帝都物語), illustrated by Takashi Kawaguchi, published by Shogakukan in Big Comic Spirits in 1987. It is currently unavailable in book form.
In 1987, a cinematic adaptation of the same name, adapting the first four volumes of the novel, was produced by Exe Studios and distributed by Toho Studios. Released theatrically across Japan on January 1988, the film received positive critical reception and was a commercial success becoming one of the top ten highest grossing domestic movies of that year. The movie was eventually distributed to Western markets under the title Tokyo: The Last Megalopolis
The success of this adaptation prompted the production of a sequel Teito Taisen (帝都大戦) (1989), loosely based on the 11th book "Great War in the Capital".
In 1991, the first cinematic adaptation was remade into a four-part OVA anime of the same name produced by Madhouse. The anime was adapted to the US by Streamline Pictures under the title Doomed Megalopolis in 1995. Although the plot of the anime loosely parallels the original story, the production is renowned for being much darker and more provocative than its source material or any other adaptation preceding it.
- Yami Fuku Natsu: Teito Monogatari Futatabi (闇吹く夏 帝都物語ふたたび): A survival horror title published in 1999 by Bee Factory, Inc. Although marketed under the title Teito Monogatari, it is actually an adaptation of the Sim-Feng Shui series.
- Musubi no Yama Hiroku: Another classic historical fantasy novel with a similar premise by renowned science fiction author Ryō Hanmura.
- The Sea of Fertility: Yukio Mishima's character arc in Teito Monogatari is modeled off this classic tetralogy.
- 文芸雑誌小說初出総覧:1981-2005. Pg. 92.
- Clute, John & Grant, John. The Encyclopedia of Fantasy St. Martin's Griffin, 1999. page 515. (ISBN 0312198698)
- Reider, Noriko T. Japanese Demon Lore: Oni from Ancient Times to the Present. Utah State University Press, 2010. (ISBN 0874217938)
- Kazuhiko, Komatsu. "Seimei jinja" 28-61
- "日本SF大賞" (in Japanese). Science Fiction Writers of Japan. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- Kadokawa Shoten Press Release for SHIN TEITO MONOGATARI
- Harper, Jim. Flowers from Hell: The Modern Japanese Horror Film. Noir Publishing. (ISBN 0953656470)
- Aramata, Hiroshi (1989), Birds of the World: as painted by 19th century artists, Crown Publishers, ISBN 0-517-57374-1
- Fuji TV "Odessa of stairs" <2013.02>
- Hayashi, Makoto et. al.; "Onmyodo in Japanese History"; Japanese Journal of Religious Studies
- Reider, Noriko T. Japanese Demon Lore: Oni from Ancient Times to the Present. Utah State University Press, 2010. 117. (ISBN 0874217938)
- Japanese Review of TEITO MONOGATARI (1988). Retrieved on 2012-8-07.
- Shūkyō Kenkyūkai, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, Volume 74, Issues 324-327, Pg. 273, University of Michigan, 2000
- Rechio, Devin T. "Constructing Abe no Seimei: Integrating Genre and Disparate Narratives in Yumemakura Baku's Onmyoji". University of Massachusetts-Amherst. Masters Theses. May 2014
- Waley, Paul. Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo. Routledge, January 6, 2003. page 245. (ISBN 070071409X)
- Reider, Noriko T. "Oni and Japanese Identity". Utah State University Press, 2010.
- Masao, Higashi. "A Mammoth Story which Leads Reality: The Impact of TEITO MONOGATARI", KWAI Magazine, vol. 23
- Okawada, Akira. "The Comprehensive Tokyo Related Science Fiction", S-F Magazine, September 2010, Hayakawa Shoubo
- "Tokyo Grand Guignol". Usumaru Furuya Unofficial Website. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
- John A. Lent. The Asian Film Industry, pg. 41, Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd, February 22, 1990