Taxonomy of the Orchidaceae
The taxonomy of the Orchidaceae (orchid family) has evolved slowly during the last 250 years, starting with Carl Linnaeus who in 1753 recognized eight genera. De Jussieu recognized the Orchidaceae as a separate family in his Genera Plantarum (Jussieu) in 1789. Olof Swartz recognized 25 genera in 1800. Louis Claude Richard provided us in 1817 with the descriptive terminology of the orchids. The next step was taken in 1830-1840 by John Lindley, who recognized four subfamilies. He is generally recognized as the father of orchid taxonomy. The next important step was taken by George Bentham with a new classification, recognizing subtribes for the first time. This classification was first presented in a paper that Bentham read to the Royal Society in 1881. Then it was published in 1883 in the final volume of Genera Plantarum (Bentham & Hooker). The next great contributors were Pfitzer (1887), Schlechter (1926), Mansfeld (1937), Dressler and Dodson (1960), Garay (1960, 1972), Vermeulen (1966), again Dressler (1981). and Burns-Balogh and Funk (1986). Dressler's 1993 book had considerable influence on later work.
Genera Orchidacearum was published in 6 volumes over 15 years, from 1999 to 2014. It covers all of the orchids, including a description of each genus. It reflects the considerable progress in orchid taxonomy that had been made since Dressler published his classification in 1993. In the 1990s, orchid taxonomy began to be influenced by molecular phylogenetics based on DNA sequences. The first molecular phylogenetic study to include a substantial sample of orchids was published in 1999. The first classification that was based on cladistic analysis of DNA data was published by Chase et alii in 2003.
An update to that classification was published by Chase et alii in 2015. This classification takes a different approach from Genera Orchidacearum, by consolidating many of the tribes and subtribes, and by recognizing very widely circumscribed genera. As of 2015, Orchidaceae was not yet covered in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, tho most of the vascular plant families had been covered by that time.
The number of genera recognized in the family has varied from one classification to another. In Genera Orchidacearum, many genera were consolidated, reducing their number to 765, smaller than in any previous modern classification. In 2015, Chase et alii merged even more genera, reducing their number to 736.
Useful resources include the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Wikispecies (Orchidaceae) closely follows this source with modifications as they become accepted. The Plant List also has lists of genera and species, but no other taxonomic information.
The following taxonomy follows largely the classification system of Robert Louis Dressler, an orchid specialist and adjunct curator at the Florida Museum of Natural History. This classification, published in 1981 in the book The Orchids: Natural History and Classification, was widely accepted by botanists and growers before the publication of Genera Orchidacearum. The initial scheme of 1981 was modified in 1986, twice in 1990, and then again in 1993. This comprehensive classification relies heavily on morphology, especially a few key characters, such as anther configuration and pollinarium structure. Consequently, many of the taxa are not monophyletic.
Cladistic analyses, especially those based on molecular data, provide a firmer basis for classification than intuition, and the certainty (or uncertainty) of conclusions can be quantified by measures of statistical support. While our understanding of orchid phylogeny has greatly improved in recent years, the elucidation of orchid relationships is still ongoing.
When Dressler published his classification in 1993, the relationships of orchids to other monocots was still unknown. Some of the first molecular phylogenetic studies of monocots resolved the Orchidaceae as sister to the astelioid clade of the order Asparagales, but this result never had strong statistical support. It is now known that Orchidaceae is the most basal clade in Asparagales, with the astelioid clade diverging next.
According to cladistic analyses based on morphological character states or on nucleotide sequences, the orchid family is a monophyletic group. The subfamilies recognized by Dressler, however, were not all monophyletic. Dressler's delimitation of subfamilies was contradicted by subsequent studies of mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear DNA sequences. In 2003, a new phylogenetic classification divided Orchidaceae into five subfamilies: Apostasioideae, Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae, and Epidendroideae. These five subfamilies were all strongly supported as monophyletic groups in subsequent studies.
In 2003, the position of Vanilloideae remained equivocal. The subfamilies Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae clearly formed a monophyletic group and Dressler believed that their closest relative was Vanilloideae. In 2006, a study based on the plastid genes rbcL and atpB found the closest relative of this pair to be Cypripedioideae, rather than Vanilloideae. This result had only weak maximum parsimony jackknife support, but in a phylogenomic study in 2015, it received strong maximum likelihood bootstrap support.
Since 2006, phylogenies of two of the subfamilies, Vanilloideae and Epidendroideae have been published. Phylogenies of several tribes and subtribes have also been published. Compared to previous classifications, more of the tribes and subtribes of Dressler were monophyletic, but not all of them were supported by subsequent studies.
In the classification that was published in 2015, the authors expressed doubt about their division of the tribes Orchideae and Vandeae into subtribes. The placement of the genera Pachites, Holothrix, and Hederorkis is especially problematical. The monophyly of the subtribe Cranichidinae is also in doubt. These authors singled out the tribe Podochileae, as well as the subtribes Oncidiinae, Goodyerinae, and Angraecinae as being in special need of phylogenetic study. The basal epidendroids, especially the tribe Gastrodieae, remain poorly sampled in phylogenetic studies.
The orchid family (Orchidaceae) is subdivided into five subfamilies, and then into tribes and subtribes. Groups of closely related genera are sometimes referred to informally as alliances. An alliance is a group of taxa, at any taxonomic rank, but usually at the rank of genus or species, that are thought to be closely related. Alliances are designated provisionally and are not recognized in the ICNAFP.
The subtribes are formally divided into genera. Some of the genera are divided into subgenera, and some of the subgenera are divided into sections. All of the genera contain at least one species. A special nomenclature is used to name hybrids between different species.
About 150 species and about a dozen new genera were described each year from 2000 to 2015.
According to Dressler, there are 5 subfamilies, 22 tribes, 70 subtribes, and about 850 genera of orchids. When he published his classification, only about 20,000 species of orchids were known. Several thousand have been described since then.
A distinction between monandrous flowers and others is especially important in the classification of orchids. A monandrous flower is one that has only a single stamen. The flowers are monandrous in the subfamilies Vanilloideae, Orchidoideae, and Epidendroideae. Like many others before him, Dressler believed that the monandrous orchids form a monophyletic group. It is now known that monandry arose twice in the orchids, once in Vanilloideae, and again in the common ancestor of Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae. The other subfamilies, Apostasioideae and Cypripedioideae, have either three stamens or two stamens and a staminode.
The following subfamilies are recognized:
- Subfamily Apostasioideae: monophyletic - the most basal of the orchids: 3 fertile anthers or two fertile anthers and a filamentous staminode.
- Subfamily Cypripedioideae: monophyletic - 2 fertile diandrous anthers, a shield-shaped staminode and a saccate (= pouch-like) lip.
- Subfamily Orchidoideae: monophyletic - single, fertile monandrous, basitonic anther.
- (Subfamily Spiranthoideae): now accepted as nested within a more broadly defined Orchidoideae as the sub-tribe Spiranthinae of the tribe Cranichideae.
- Subfamily Epidendroideae: monophyletic - includes almost 80% of the orchid species; orchids with an incumbent to suberect ( = ascending towards the edges) anther.
- (Subfamily Higher Epidendroideae (formerly Vandoideae): specialised clade within a more broadly defined Epidendroideae
- Subfamily Vanilloideae: monophyletic - an ancient clade now recognized as a distinct subfamily. their phylogenetic position had long been controversial.
The subfamily Apostasioideae belongs to the orchid family (Orchidaceae). All well-sampled molecular phylogenetic studies have produced strong bootstrap support for its position as sister to a clade consisting of the other orchid subfamilies. Bootstraping is a method of resampling for quantifying the statistical support for nodes in a phylogenetic tree (= a treelike diagram showing the evolutionary diversification of organisms).
The apostasioid orchids are the most primitive orchids, with only two genera. Neuwiedia has 3 fertile, abaxial (= facing away from the stem) anthers, while Apostasia has two fertile abaxial anthers and a filamentous staminode (= a sterile stamen). Plants with mealy or paste-like pollen, which ordinarily are not aggregated into pellets, called pollinia, with two or three fertile long anthers, leaves with sheathing bases, elongated staminode and labellum similar to the petals.
These primitive features make them, according to some authorities, not true orchids but rather ancestors of modern orchids. However, more recent studies indicate that many of their differences with the other orchids were not inherited from a common ancestor with orchids, but arose within the stem group of apostasioid orchids.
This is the largest subfamily, comprising more than 10,000 species in about 90 to 100 genera. Most are tropical epiphytes (usually with pseudobulbs), but some are terrestrials and even a few are myco-heterotrophs. All show a unique development of the single anther: it is incumbent, meaning that it forms a right angle with the column axis or pointed backward in many genera. Most have hard pollinia, i.e. a mass of waxy pollen or of coherent pollen grains; pollinia with caudicle and viscidium or without; stigma entire or 3-lobed; rostellum present; 1-locular ovary; leaves: distichous or spiraling
Over 500 species.
- Ancistrochilus Rolfe
- Anthogonium Wall. ex Lindl.
- Cephalantheropsis Guillaumin
- Eriodes Rolfe, included Neotainiopsis Bennet & Raizada, Tainiopsis Schltr.
- Hancockia Rolfe
- Hexalectris Raf.
- Ipsea Lindl.
- Mischobulbum Schltr., included Mischobulbon Schltr. (orth. var.)
- Nephelaphyllum Blume
- Pachystoma Blume, included Apaturia Lindl., Pachychilus Blume and Pachystylis Blume
- Alliance Arundina
- Alliance Calopogon
- Alliance Calanthe
- Acanthephippium Blume, included Acanthophippium Blume (orth. var.)
- Bletia Ruiz & Pav., included Anthogyas Raf., Bletiana Raf., Crybe Lindl., Gyas Salisb., Regnellia Barb. Rodr., Thiebautia Colla
- Bletilla Rchb.f., included Jimensia Raf., Polytoma Lour. ex Gomes
- Calanthe R.Br., included Alismorkis Thouars, Amblyglottis Blume, Aulostylis Schltr., Calanthidum Pfitzer, Centrosia A.Rich., Centrosis Thouars, Cytheris Lindl., Ghiesbreghtia A.Rich. & Galeotti, Limatodes Blume, Paracalanthe Kudô, Preptanthe Rchb.f., Styloglossum Breda, Sylvalismis Thouars
- Phaius Lour., included Cyanorchis Thouars, Gastorchis Thouars, Gastrorchis Schltr., Hecabe Raf., Pachyne Salisb., Pesomeria Lindl., Tankervillia Link
- Spathoglottis Blume, included Paxtonia Lindl.
- Alliance Coelia
- Alliance Chysis
- Alliance Plocoglottis
- Alliance Tainia
Over 400 species
Cosmopolitan; largest tribe of this subfamily, with over 8,000 species
Subtribe Laeliinae: over 1400 species, mostly tropical American epiphytes, in 43 genera. It contains more than 25% (136) of all hybrid genera.
- Alliance Isochilus
- Alliance Cattleya
- Brassavola R.Br., included Eudisanthema Neck. ex Post & Kuntze, Lysimnia Raf., Tulexis Raf.
- Broughtonia R.Br., included Cattleyopsis Lem., Laeliopsis Lindl. & Paxton
- Cattleya Lindl., included Maelenia Dumort.
- Encyclia Hook., included Amblostoma Scheidw., Dinema Lindl., Hormidium (Lindl.) Heynh., Sulpitia Raf.
- Laelia Lindl., included Amalia Rchb.
- Myrmecophila Rolfe
- Rhyncholaelia Schltr.
- Schomburgkia Lindl.
- Sophronitis Lindl., included Lophoglottis Raf., Sophronia Lindl.
- Guarianthe Dressler & W.E. Higgins (2003)
- Alliance Barkeria
- Alliance Epidendrum
- Epidendrum Jacq., included Amphiglottis Salisb., Anacheilium Hoffmanns., Anocheil' Hoffmanns. ex Rchb., Auliza Small, Coilostylis Raf., Didothion Raf., Diothonea Lindl., Dothilophis Raf., Doxosma Raf., Epicladium Small, Epidanthus L.O.Williams, Epidendropsis Garay & Dunst., Exophya Raf., Hemiscleria Lindl., Kalopternix Garay & Dunst., Lanium (Lindl.) Benth., Larnandra Raf., Microepidendrum Brieger (nom. inval.), Minicolumna Brieger (nom. inval.), Nanodes Lindl., Neolehmannia Kraenzl., Neowilliamsia Garay, Nyctosma Raf., Phadrosanthus Neck. ex Raf., Physinga Lindl., Pleuranthium Benth., Prosthechea Knowles & Westc., Pseudepidendrum Rchb.f., Seraphyta Fisch. & C.A.Mey., Spathiger Small, Stenoglossum Kunth, Tritelandra Raf.
- Alliance Leptotes
- Alliance Neocogniauxia
- Alliance hybrids
- Brassocattleya hort.
- Brassoepidendrum hort.
- Brassolaeliocattleya hort.
- Cattleytonia hort.
- Epicattleya hort.
- Epilaeliocattleya hort.
- Hawkinsara hort.
- Laeliocatonia hort.
- Laeliocattleya hort. ex Rolfe
- Otaara hort.
- Potinara hort.
- Schombocattleya hort.
- Sophrocattleya hort.
- Sophrolaelia hort.
- Sophrolaeliocattleya hort.
- Subtribe Pleurothallidinae
These species have single leaves, non-pseudobulbous ramicauls, articulated ovary, deciduous from the pedicel.
- Genera: Acianthera, Acostaea, Anathallis, Barbosella, Barbrodria, Brachionidium, Chamelophyton, Condylago, Draconanthes, Dracula, Dresslerella, Dryadella, Echinosepala, Frondaria, Jostia, Lepanthes, Lepanthopsis, Luerella, Masdevallia, Myoxanthus, Octomeria, Ophidion, Pabstiella, Phloeophila, Platystele, Pleurothallis, Porroglossum, Restrepia, Restrepiella, Salpistele, Scaphosepalum, Specklinia, Stelis, Teagueia, Trichosalpinx, Trisetella, Zootrophion
- Subtribe Gastrodiinae
- Subtribe Nervilliinae
- Genus: Nervilia
- Subtribe Rhizanthellinae (sometimes in Diurideae)
Over 900 species
About 100 species
- Subtribe Limodorinae
- Subtribe Listerinae
- Genus: Listera
- Subtribe Bulbophyllinae (according to Garay & al. 1994)
- Genus: Acrochaene Lindl., Bulbophyllum Thouars, Chaseella Summerhays, Cirrhopetalum Lindl., Codonosiphon Schl., Drymoda Lindl., Epicrianthes Blume, Ferruminaria Garay, Hamer & Siegerist, Hapalochilus (Schlechter) Senghas, Ione Lindl., Mastigion Garay, Hamer & Siegerist , Monomeria Lindl., Monosepalum Schle, Osyricera Blume, Pedilochilus Schl., Rhytionanthos Garay, Hamer & Siegerist, Saccoglossum Schl., Sunipia Lindl., Synarmosepalum Garay, Hamer & Siegerist, Tapeinoglossum Schl., Trias Lindl., Vesicisepalum Garay, Hamer & Siegerist
- Subtribe Dendrobiinae
- Subtribe Eriinae
- Subtribe Podochilinae
- Subtribe Thelasiinae
Formerly placed in the subfamily Spiranthoideae
- Genus: Xerorchis
Subfamily Higher Epidendroideae
Formerly called Vandoideae, this is the second largest subfamily with over 300 genera in more than 5,000 species. They are mostly epiphytes, but include some terrestrials and myco-heterotrophs, all occurring in most tropical areas. The main stem grows in a single direction. Many of the species develop pseudobulbs (i.e. a bulge at the base of a stem), that are normally shorter and sturdier than those in the epidendroids. The striking characteristics of the vandoids are a cellular pollinium stalk (= stipe), superposed pollinia and the unique development of the incumbent anther, that bends early in development.
About 1,800 species in 100 to 130 genera. Species are either terrestrial or epiphytic, and range throughout global tropical regions. All species have, as a unique feature, a sympodial growth habit and two pollinia.
- Subtribe Acriopsidinae: less than 50 species.
- Genus: Acriopsis
- Subtribe Catasetinae: about 150 species; epiphytes occurring in the Western Hemisphere.
- Subtribe Cyrtopodiinae: over 400 species, usually terrestrial; Asia, Africa, and tropical America.
- Alliance Bromheadia
- Genus: Bromheadia
- Alliance Eulophia
- Genus: Eulophia
- Alliance Cyrtopodium
- Alliance Cymbidium
- Alliance Dipodium
- Genus: Dipodium
- Alliance hybrids
- Alliance Bromheadia
- Subtribe Oncidiinae: Largest subtribe with nearly 1,000 species within about 56 to 78 genera, found in tropical America, the Caribbean and Florida. Most are epiphytes, but a few are terrestrials. They usually have short and stout pseudobulbs.
- Alliance Oncidium: largest alliance; includes the majority of genera in cultivation.
- Alliance Trichocentrum
- Genus: Trichocentrum
- Alliance Comparettia
- Alliance Trichophilia
- Alliance Lockhartia
- Genus: Lockhartia
- Alliance hybrids: over 107 hybrid genera.
- Subtribe Pachyphyllinae: less than 50 species.
- Genus: Pachyphyllum
- Subtribe Thecostelinae: less than 50 species.
- Genus: Thecostele
Over 1,700 species in more than 130 genera; occurs in tropical Asia, Pacific Islands, tropical America, Australia, and Africa.
- Subtribe Aerangidinae: about 300 species in 36 genera; tropical Africa and Madagascar.
- Subtribe Aeridinae (formerly Sarcanthinae): more than 1,000 species in 103 genera, including about 200 hybrid species; occurs mostly in Asia with a few in Africa.
- Alliance Phalaenopsis
- Alliance Vanda
- Alliance Trichoglottis
- Subtribe Angraecinae: about 400 species in 19 genera, tropical Africa and Madagascar.
- Subtribe Polystachyinae (formerly part of the Epidendreae): about 220 species in four genera: Hederorkis,Imerinaea,.Neobenthamia and Polystachya They all show four pollinia. The lip often has mealy hairs called pseudopollen on the upper surface.
70 to 80 genera with about 1,000 species; most grow in tropical America as terrestrials or epiphytes, a few are myco-heterotrophs. Most show pseudobulbs, but a few have reedlike stems or thick underground stems. Blooms have four pollinia.
- Subtribe Bifrenariinae: thin and pleated leaves.
- Subtribe Corallorhizinae: all myco-heterotrophs
- Subtribe Dichaeinae
- Genus: Dichaea
- Subtribe Lycastinae: thin and pleated leaves.
- Subtribe Maxillariinae: largest subtribe with nearly half of the tribe species. The leathery leaves are conduplicate, i.e. folded together lengthwise.
- Subtribe: Ornithocephalinae
- Subtribe Stanhopeinae: about 200 species; epiphytes found in the Western Hemisphere.
- Subtribe Coeliopsidinae
- Subtribe Telipogoninae
- Subtribe Zygopetilinae: about 150 species. Most exhibited hybrids are to be found in this subtribe.
- Alliance Warrea
- Alliance Zygopetalum
- Alliance Bollea
- Alliance Vargasiella
- Genus: Vargasiella
- Alliance hybrids: of the 43 hybrids in this tribe, only Angulocaste is displayed frequently.
- Genera: Aitkenara, Bateostylis, Bollopetalum, Chondrobollea, Cochella, Cochlecaste, Cochlenia, Cochlepetalum, Downsara, Durutyara, Hamelwellsara, Huntleanthes, Kanzerara, Keferanthes, Lancebirkara, Otocolax, Otonisia, Palmerara, Rotorara, Zygocaste, Zygolum, Zygonisia, Zygostylis
- Genus: Diceratostele
- Genus: Codonorchis
The former subfamily Spiranthoideae is now embedded in the clade Orchidoideae as the tribe Cranichideae (Dressler, 1993). It includes 95 genera and about 1100 species. Species of this polyphyletic tribe occur in all continents (except Antarctica), but mainly in North and South America and tropical Asia. All subtribes are monophyletic.
- Subtribe Cranichidinae: occurring in the Neotropics
- Subtribe Prescottiinae: occurs in the Neotropics
- Subtribe Galeottiellinae
- Genus: Galeottiella
- Subtribe Goodyerinae: 37 genera, about 630 species in Africa, the Americas and Asia.
- Genera: Aenhenrya, Anoectochilus, Aspidogyne, Chamaegastrodia, Cheirostylis, Cystorchis, Danhatchia, Dassinia, Erythrodes, Eurycentrum, Gonatostylis, Goodyera, Halleorchis, Herpysma, Hetaeria, Hylophila, Kreodanthus, Kuhlhasseltia, Lepidogyne, Lageophila, Ludisia, Macodes, Meliorchis (extinct), Microchilus, Myrmechis, Odontochilus, Orchipedum, Papuaea, Platylepis, Platythelys, Rhamphorhynchus, Rhomboda, Stephanothelys, Vrydagzynea, Zeuxine
- Subtribe Manniellinae: tropical Africa
- Genus: Manniella
- Subtribe Pterostylidinae
- Genus: Pterostylis
- Subtribe Spiranthinae: about 30 genera; largely terrestrial; widespread, but absent in sub-Saharan Africa; fascicled roots, dorsal erect anther, inconspicuous staminodia, resupinate flowers.
- Genera: Aracamunia, Aulosepalum, Beloglottis, Brachystele, Buchtienia, Coccineorchis, Cotylolabium, Cybebus, Degranvillea, Deiregyne, Dichromanthus, Discyphus, Eltroplectris, Eurystyles, Funkiella, Hapalorchis, Helonoma, Kionophyton, Lankesterella, Lyroglossa, Mesadenella, Mesadenus, Microthelys, Odontorrhynchus, Pelexia, Physogyne, Pseudogoodyera, Pteroglossa, Sacoila, Sarcoglottis, Sauroglossum, Schiedeella, Skeptrostachys, Spiranthes, Stalkya, Svenkoeltzia, Thelyschista, Veyretia, Wallnoeferia
- Subtribe Stenorrhynchidinae
- Genera: Stenorrhynchos
- Subtribe Cyclopogoninae
- Genera: Cyclopogon
- Subtribe Pachyplectroninae: endemic to New Caledonia
- Genera: Pachyplectron
- Subtribe Brownleeinae
- Genus: Brownleea
- Subtribe Coryciinae
- Subtribe Disinae
- Subtribe Huttonaeinae
- Genus: Huttonaea
- Subtribe Satyriinae
About 550 species in 39 genera; mainly Australasia.
- Subtribe Caladeniinae
- Subtribe Chloraeinae: From South America and New Caledonia (Megastylis)
- Subtribe Cryptostylidinae
- Subtribe Diuridinae
- Subtribe Drakaeinae
- Subtribe Megastylidinae
- Subtribe Prasophyllinae
- Subtribe Pterostylidinae
- Subtribe Thelymitrinae
This is the largest tribe, containing more than 1,700 species.
- Subtribe Orchidinae
- Genera: Aceratorchis, Amerorchis, Amitostigma, Anacamptis, Androcorys, Bartholina, Benthamia, Bonatea, Brachycorythis, Centrostigma, Chamorchis, Chondradenia, Cynorchis, Dactylorhiza, Diphylax, Diplomeris, Dracomonticola, Galearis, Gennaria, Gymnadenia, Habenaria, Hemipilia, Herminium, Himantoglossum, Holothrix, Megalorchis, Neobolusia, Neotinea, Neottianthe, Oligophyton, Ophrys, Orchis, Pecteilis, Peristylus, Physoceras, Platanthera, Platycoryne, Ponerorchis, Porolabium, Pseudorchis, Roeperocharis, Schizochilus, Serapias, Smithorchis, Stenoglottis, Steveniella, Symphyosepalum, Thulinia, Traunsteinera, Tylostigma, Veyretella
- Genera: Clematepistephium, Cyrtosia, Dictyophyllaria, Epistephium, Eriaxis, Erythrorchis, Galeola, Lecanorchis, Pseudovanilla, Vanilla
These two tribes have recently been assigned to a specific subfamily:
Tribe Triphoreae: A primitive tribe consisting of three genera and twenty species has been assigned to Epidendroideae.
Tribe Wullschlaegelieae:only one genus with two species. The tribe has been lost and the genus has now been assigned to sub-family Epidendroideae, tribe Calypsoeae.
- Genus: Wullschlaegelia
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- Peter F. Stevens (2001 onwards). "Orchidaceae" At: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. At: Missouri Botanical Garden Website. (see External links below)
- Kenneth M. Cameron. 2006. "A comparison and combination of plastid atpB and rbcL gene sequences for inferring phylogenetic relationships within Orchidaceae". pages 447-464. In: J. Travis Columbus, Elizabeth A. Friar, J. Mark Porter, Linda M. Prince, and Michael G. Simpson (editors). Aliso 22(Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution). 735 pages. Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. printed by Allen Press: USA.
- Thomas J. Givnish, Daniel Spalink, Mercedes Ames, Stephanie P. Lyon, Steven J. Hunter, Alejandro Zuluaga, William J.D. Iles, Mark A. Clements, Mary T.K. Arroyo, James Leebens-Mack, Lorena Endara, Ricardo Kriebel, Kurt M. Neubig, W. Mark Whitten, Norris H. Williams, and Kenneth M. Cameron. 2015. "Orchid phylogenomics and multiple drivers of their extraordinary diversification". Proceedings of the Royal Society, series B (biological sciences) 282(1814):pages??. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.1553.
- Kenneth M. Cameron. 2011. "Vanilloid Orchids: Systematics and Evolution". pages 1-14. In: Eric Odoux and Michel Grisoni (editors). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles. CRC Press: Boca Raton FL, USA.
- Kenneth M. Cameron. 2009. "On the value of nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences for reconstructing the phylogeny of vanilloid orchids (Vanilloideae, Orchidaceae)". Annals of Botany 104(3):377-385. doi:10.1093/aob/mcp024.
- John V. Freudenstein and Mark W. Chase. 2015. "Phylogenetic relationships in Epidendroideae (Orchidaceae), one of the great flowering plant radiations: progressive specialization and diversification". Annals of Botany 115(4):665-681. doi:10.1093/aob/mcu253.
- WCSP (2012). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; WCSP Online.
- Chase, M. W. 2005. Classification of Orchidaceae in the age of DNA data. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 22(1): 2-7.
- History of the taxonomy of orchids
- Orchid Tree: a phylogeny of epiphytes (mostly) on the Tree of Life
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|Wikispecies has information related to: Orchidaceae|
- page 939 In: volume 2 Of: Species Plantarum first edition (1753) At: Titles by Carl von Linné (1707-1778) At: Authors At: Biodiversity Heritage Library
- Orchideae page 64 At: View Book At: Antonii Laurentii de Jussieu Genera plantarum At: Jussieu, Antoine Laurent de, 1748-1836 At: Authors At: BHL
- View Book At: De Orchideis Europaeis annotationes At: Titles by Louis Claude Richard At: authors At: BHL
- View Book At: The Genera and Species of Orchidaceous Plants At: Titles At: BHL
- page 288 In: volume 18 Of: The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany At: titles At: BHL
- orchids, page 460 At: View Book At: Genera Plantarum (Bentham & Hooker, 1883) volume 3, part 2 At: titles At: BHL
- Afhandling om Orchidernes Slägter och deras Systematiska indelning At: GDZ
- The Orchids: Natural History and Classification (1981)
- rbcL phylogeny of Orchidaceae (1999)
- DNA data and Orchidaceae Systematics: A new Phylogenetic Classification by Mark W. Chase, Kenneth M.Cameron, Russell L. Barrett, John V. Freudenstein (2003)
- An updated classification of Orchidaceae (2015) At: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society At: Wiley Online Library
- Orchidaceae At: angiosperms At: Browse At: The Plant List
- APG III
- genus list At Orchidaceae At Asparagales At Trees At: APweb At: Missouri Botanical Garden
- Useful links
- Taxonomy (in Portuguese)
- Native Orchids of Provence (France) French & English