Symbolic ethnicity

Not to be confused with Ethnosymbolism.
In the culture of the U.S., the celebration of Saint Patrick's Day, by many Americans, not just of Irish descent, is an example of symbolic ethnicity.[1][2][3][4]

Symbolic ethnicity is a sociological term that describes a nostalgic allegiance to, love for, and pride in a cultural tradition that can be felt and lived without having to be incorporated to the person's everyday behavior;[5] as such, a symbolic ethnic identity usually is composed of images from mass communications media.[4] In the U.S., symbolic ethnicity is an important component of American cultural identity, assumed as "a voluntary, personally chosen identity marker, rather than the totally ascribed characteristic" determined by physical appearance.[6] As a sociological phenomenon, symbolic ethnicity is attributed to Americans of European ancestry, most of whom either are influenced by or assimilated to the White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) community, who initially dominated U.S. politics since the establishment of the country.[4]


The term symbolic ethnicity was introduced in the article "Symbolic Ethnicity: The Future of Ethnic Groups and Cultures in America" (1979), by Herbert J. Gans, in the journal Ethnic and Racial Studies.[7][8]


The development of symbolic ethnicity, as a sociological phenomenon, is attributed to ethnic European immigrants, because "Black, Hispanic, Asian and Indian Americans do not have the option of a symbolic ethnicity, at present, in the United States"; a socio-economic circumstance "in which ethnicity does not matter for white Americans, [yet] it does matter for non-whites."[4]

As such, symbolic ethnicity is the process of social identity whereby the person's "ethnic identity is solely associated with iconic elements of the culture" from which he or she originated. Gans's investigations concentrated on the latter generations of Roman Catholic and Jewish Americans who had "begun to re-associate themselves with their ethnic culture", noting that "the ethnic associations were mainly symbolic, and that the traditional community interactions were lost." Those Catholic and Jewish Americans identified "their ethnic race in a personal perspective, as opposed to a communal" perspective, which actions produced an "outward ethnic identity that uses superficial symbols and icons to label and categorize a certain race." That is to say, people identify their ethnicity by way of images from the mass communications media, as accepted through past associations derived from social and historical judgements.[9]

In (E)race: Symbolic Ethnicity and the Asian Image (1993), Stephen Lee describes symbolic ethnicity:

From unrelenting integration of outside influences, self-definition becomes less associated with the community as a collective, and becomes more associated with personal ethnicity as self. As the definition of ethnicity becomes increasingly personal, the need to reassert the community associations decreases. Ethnicity then becomes a symbolic identity more than a lifestyle. The definition of ethnicity, as formed by cinema, follows this symbolic pattern. In fact, in most cinema that deal with ethnic integration, ethnic lifestyle is inseparable from its symbolic codes. Ethnic lifestyle is not an associative or collective means of existence, but a symbolic code — an icon.[9]

In the book Identity and Belonging: Rethinking Race and Ethnicity in Canadian Society (2006), by B. Singh Bolaria and Sean P. Hier, symbolic ethnicity is defined by, with, and in the actions of "individuals who identify as Irish, for example, on occasions such as Saint Patrick's Day, on family holidays, or for vacations. They do not usually belong to Irish-American organizations, live in Irish neighborhoods, work in Irish jobs, or marry other Irish people."[4] Therefore, the symbolic identity of "being Irish" is:

. . . [an] ethnicity that is individualistic in nature and without real social cost for the individual. These symbolic identifications are essentially leisure-time activities, rooted in a nuclear family traditions and reinforced by the voluntary enjoyable aspects of being ethnic.[4]

See also


  1. Alba, Richard D. (1992). Ethnic Identity: The Transformation of White America (New ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 306. ISBN 9780300052213. Symbolic ethnicity is concerned with the symbols of ethnic cultures rather than with the cultures themselves, and this seems true also of the cultural commitments of ethnic identity: the cultural stuff of ethnicity continues to wither, and thus ethnic identity tend to latch onto a few symbolic commitments (such as St. Patrick's Day among the Irish).
  2. Uba, Laura (2002). It Looks At You: The Returned Gaze of Cinema. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 117. ISBN 9780791489079. While symbolic expressions of Irish ethnicity, such as St. Patrick's Day...
  3. Jiobu, Robert M. (1988). Process, Praxis, and Transcendence. SUNY Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 9781438407906.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 B. Singh Bolaria, Sean P. Hier (2006). "Optional Ethnicity for Whites Only? by Marcy. C. Waters". Identity and Belonging: Rethinking Race and Ethnicity in Canadian Society. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press. ISBN 9781551303123. External link in |chapter= (help)
  5. Winter, J. Alan (March 1996). "Symbolic ethnicity or religion among Jews in the United States: a test of Gansian hypothesis". Review of Religious Research, Vol. 37, No.3. Connecticut College. JSTOR 3512276.
  6. Ammerman, Nancy T. (2007). Everyday Religion: Observing Modern Religious Lives. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 56. ISBN 9780195305401.
  7. Gans, Herbert J. (January 1979). "Symbolic ethnicity: the future of ethnic groups and cultures in America" (PDF). Ethnic and Racial Studies. 2 (1).
  8. "Symbolic ethnicity and symbolic religiosity: Towards a comparison of ethnic and religious acculturation". Taylor & Francis. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
  9. 1 2 Lee, Stephen (December 1993). "(E)race: Symbolic Ethnicity and the Asian Image" (PDF). University of British Columbia. Retrieved 1 December 2012.

Further reading

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