Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Adoor Gopalakrishnan|
|Produced by||Chitralekha Film Co-operative|
K. P. Kumaran
|Story by||Adoor Gopalakrishnan|
|Music by||M. B. Sreenivasan|
|Cinematography||Mankada Ravi Varma|
|Distributed by||Chitralekha Film Co-operative|
Swayamvaram (English: One's Own Choice) is a 1972 Indian Malayalam-language drama film co-written and directed by Adoor Gopalakrishnan, starring Madhu and Sharada in the lead roles. Notable smaller roles were played by Thikkurisi Sukumaran Nair, Adoor Bhavani, K. P. A. C. Lalitha, and Bharath Gopi. The film depicts the life of a couple—Vishwam (Madhu) and Sita (Sharada)—who have married against their parents' wishes and want to start a new life at a new place. The title is an allusion to the ancient Indian practice of a girl of marriageable age choosing a husband from among a list of suitors.
Swayamvaram marked several debuts—directorial of Gopalakrishnan, acting of the Malayalam star Bharath Gopi, and film producing of the Chitralekha Film Cooperative, an organisation cofounded by Gopalakrishnan himself. The film features an original score by M. B. Sreenivasan, camerawork by Mankada Ravi Varma, and film editing by Ramesan. Writer-director K. P. Kumaran co-scripted the film with Gopalakrishnan. It took seven years for Gopalakrishnan to get the project rolling when his initial proposal for a loan to make a film was turned down by the Film Finance Corporation (FFC). The FFC later partially financed the film when Chitralekha provided the rest.
The film received widespread critical acclaim. It pioneered the new wave cinema movement in Malayalam cinema and became one of the first Malayalam films to use synchronised sound and outdoor locales. The film also became the first Indian film to use sound as a leitmotif. It was shown at various film festivals around the world, and won four National Film Awards at the 20th National Film Awards in 1973, including Best Feature Film, Best Director for Gopalakrishnan, and Best Actress for Sharada.
A newly wed couple, Vishwam (Madhu) and Sita (Sharada), have married against the preference of their families, and left their hometown. Both want to start a new life at a new place. Initially, they stay in a decent hotel but soon due to financial reasons they move to another, ordinary hotel.
Vishwam, an educated, unemployed youth, is an aspiring writer and had some of his short stories published in the newspapers earlier. He dreams of having his novel, titled Nirvriti (Ecstasy), published in the newspaper. He meets one of the newspaper editors (Vaikom Chandrasekharan Nair), who agrees to read his novel but declines to publish it as Vishwam does not have many writings to his credit. Sita is offered a job as a sales girl but cannot accept it because she is unable to pay the required security deposit of ₹ 1,000. With several unsuccessful attempts to get a job, the increasing financial pressure forces them to shift to a slum. With an old lady named Janaki (Adoor Bhavani) and a prostitute named Kalyani (K. P. A. C. Lalitha) as their neighbours, things do not work as desired for the couple and they end up selling Sita's jewellery.
Vishwam takes a job as a zoology teacher in college but soon loses it. He then accepts a job as a clerk in a timber shop with a meager salary, replacing one of the dismissed employees (Bharath Gopi). Vishwam and Sita try to set up a happy home with their newborn baby, but soon their dreams fade as they struggle on precariously. When Vishwam falls ill, Sita tries for his betterment with all her capabilities but is unable to afford the medicines. She finally decides to call a doctor. However, Vishwam dies, leaving her alone with their infant baby. When Sita is advised to return to her parents after Vishwam's death, she declines. The film ends with Sita feeding her baby and gazing at a painting from an Indian Hindu epic, Ramayana, depicting Sita Swayamvara and a closed door.
- Madhu as Vishwam
- Sharada as Sita
- Adoor Bhavani as Janaki
- K. P. A. C. Lalitha as Kalyani, a prostitute
- Thikkurissy Sukumaran Nair as a college principal
- P. K. Venukuttan Nair as Vasu, a small-time smuggler
- Vaikom Chandrasekharan Nair as an editor
- Karamana Janardanan Nair
- Bharath Gopi as a dismissed employee
The title refers to the ancient Indian practice of a girl of marriageable age choosing a husband from among a list of suitors. It was also an affirmation to one of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's beliefs about an individual's right to make own choices. The film's English title for international release was mainly One's Own Choice, however it was shown at the Moscow International Film Festival under the title, On Own Will. Other translations of the Malayalam title have also been used, such as By Choice, Her Own Choice, Marriage by Choice, Betrothal by Choice, The Betrothal, and The Selection.
While studying in the Film and Television Institute of India, Pune, Gopalakrishnan was influenced by the New Wave movement of global cinema and formed a film society in Kerala, named "Chitralekha Film Cooperative", with his classmates in 1965. Gopalakrishnan had initially submitted a romantic script Kamuki to the Film Finance Corporation (now National Film Development Corporation of India or NFDC) which they declined to finance. Later, he submitted the script for Swayamvaram, which Film Finance Corporation accepted and approved the loan of a ₹150,000 (US$2,200). However, it took seven years for him to get the film rolling, after he passed out of the Film and Television Institute of India. Gopalakrishnan co-scripted the film with writer-director K. P. Kumaran. The film was produced by Chitralekha Film Co-operative, Kerala's first film co-operative society for film production, with Swayamvaram being their first feature film production. The film's total budget was ₹250,000 (US$3,700) and Gopalakrishnan used the money he had collected from his documentary productions. Initially, Chitralekha Film Co-operative, the producer of the film had trouble distributing the film, so they decided to do it by themselves.
Gopalakrishan wanted fresh faces for both the lead roles and he had written letters to various heads of colleges and universities for the auditions. However, he did not receive any response from anywhere. For the female lead, Gopalakrishnan approached Sharada, one of the most successful actresses of her time. She was acting in commercial films when Gopalakrishnan asked her to star in Swayamvaram. Sharada was initially reluctant to commit herself to an art film, but agreed when Gopalakrishnan narrated the complete story to her at Prasad Studios, in Chennai. The male lead for the film, Madhu, was an old friend of Gopalakrishnan and had expressed a desire to act in one of his films. By the time Gopalakrishnan finished his studies and returned from FTII, Madhu was already a star in Malayalam cinema. Gopalakrishnan then decided to cast him opposite Sharada. Mentioning about his experience working with Gopalakrishnan and Swayamvaram, Madhu recollected in an interview that "[...] when Gopalakrishnan narrated the story of Swayamvaram, I knew it was going to be different." Years later he also mentioned that he "sometimes wished Prem Nazir had acted in Adoor's Swayamvaram. He might have won a Bharath award. But he was very busy those days."
Malayalam actor-director Thikkurissy Sukumaran Nair was cast as a college principal. Bharath Gopi, who later became a major actor in the Malayalam film industry, made his film debut in Swayamvaram, doing a minor role as the dismissed factory employee who gets replaced by Madhu. Gopi was a noted stage actor before Swayamvaram and would later play the lead role in Gopalakrishnan's second feature film, Kodiyettam, which earned him a reputation as one of the finest actors in Indian cinema and also inspired his screen name as "Bharath Gopi" or "Kodiyettam Gopi". He won a Best Actor award, then known as "Bharat Award", for the role at the 25th National Film Awards in 1977.
K. P. A. C. Lalitha, who would later play notable characters in many of Gopalakrishnan's films, played a small role as a prostitute in Swayamvaram. Noted Malayalam writer and journalist Vaikom Chandrasekharan Nair played a newspaper editor in the film. Gopalakrishnan praised him for his performance, expressing the difficulties of performing as oneself onscreen.
Due to financial crises, it took more than one and a half years for Gopalakrishnan to finish the film. Swayamvaram was one of the first Malayalam films to use synchronised sound and to be filmed in outdoor locales, for which Gopalakrishnan used his Nagra audio recorder. The film was shot in two schedules. It was delayed due to scheduling conflicts of the lead actress, Sharada. She was working in several films at that time, so Gopalakrishnan had to arrange the schedule to suit her convenience. The lead actor, Madhu, mentioned in an interview that Gopalakrishnan was clear about his characters and their behaviour. Gopalakrishnan also used to discuss the shoot with his crew before the shooting.
The film marked the beginning of a collaboration between Gopalakrishnan and cinematographer Mankada Ravi Varma. Gopalakrishnan had seen Varma's work in his second film as a cinematographer, Olavum Theeravum (1970), and when he decided to work on Swayamvaram, Gopalakrishnan approached Varma with the script. Initially reluctant, Varma agreed to do the film due to its "extensive" and "very well written" script. Incidentally, Varma won his only National Film Award for Best Cinematography, with a career spanned over thirty years, for Swayamvaram. The film featured no songs and has only an original score by M. B. Sreenivasan. The editing of the film was done by Ramesan, whereas S. S. Nair and Devadathan worked together on the production design. Sound mixing was done by P. Devadas. The total budget of the film was ₹250,000 (US$3,700), where the Film Finance Corporation provided ₹ 150,000 as a loan.
The film had a lukewarm initial theatrical response. Gopalakrishnan was told that "If only he had some songs in it, it would have done well". After the announcement of the National Film Awards, the film was re-released in theatres and gathered better response this time, which also helped Gopalakrishnan repay the loan to FFC, the main producer of the film. The film participated in the competition section of the 8th Moscow International Film Festival in 1973.
The previews of the film were held at various places, where it was well received by critics and audiences. Noted writer M. Govindan wrote a cover story in his magazine Sameeksha, and organised a seminar on the film in Chennai, then known as Madras. Various intellectuals and writers took part in it, including noted film experts like P. Bhaskaran and director Balu Mahendra. Noted critic and film director Vijayakrishnan mentioned that Devadas's sound mixing work was one of the major attractions of the film. Considerable use of natural sound, apart from background music, was new for Malayalam cinema. Cast performances were also praised by critics. Bharath Gopi received considerable attention even for his minimal screen appearance. Though Madhu had acted previously in several films, including Ramu Kariat's National Award-winning film, Chemmeen (1965), Swayamvaram marked a turning point in his career.
Although most of the reviews were positive, some film experts were critical about the film. Amaresh Datta, in his book The Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature, criticised the film for "following the neo-realistic style" and showcasing "same old love story without any freshness added". Poet and journalist C. P. Surendran called the film "disturbing" in one of his articles, criticising Gopalakrishnan and his films. Shyam Benegal, a film director and a well-known admirer of Gopalakrishnan's films, also mentioned that he was not particularly pleased with Swayamvaram. Some critics have pointed out its resemblance to Ritwik Ghatak's Subarnarekha (1965). Gopalakrishnan agreed on influences of Ghatak and Satyajit Ray but pointed that Swayamvaram's treatment is different from Ghatak's Subarnarekha as Swayamvaram is more about the trip.
The film received little critical response in Kerala, which Gopalakrishnan referred to as "more of a question of insensitivity rather than personal enmity." However, some noted critics like Moorkoth Kunhappa and T. M. P. Nedungadi praised the movie, with Nedungadi writing a response titled "Swayamvaram over, what next in Malayalam cinema?"
Swayamvaram pioneered the new wave cinema movement in Malayalam cinema. The film did not feature any dance numbers, comedy or melodramatic scenes, which were "usual ingredients" of films at that time, but it introduced viewers to then unknown techniques of film presentation, in which it was not merely used for "story-telling". It was an inevitable development for Malayalam cinema, as the film focused mainly on cinema rather than its story. The film also introduced film-goers to a new cinematic art through the impulses generated by the film, which in turn were more important than the film itself. The film is also said to have divided Malayalam films into three different categories, "uncompromising art films", "compromising films" which aimed at commercial success but tried maintaining a good deal of the artistic qualities, and the "commercial films" which purely aimed at box office success.
Through Swayamvaram, Gopalakrishnan became the first Indian director to use sound as a leitmotif (a recurring musical theme). The film provided a new experience to Indian cinema-goers, as it used ample amounts of natural sounds with a minimalistic background score.
The National Film Archive of India has digitally restored the film, and the restored version with improved subtitles in English was screened at the International Film Festival of India in November 2012. Also, the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee has acquired all of Gopalakrishnan's features, including Swayamvaram, to restore and preserve.
- Adoor Gopalakrishnan – Nominated
- National Film Award for Best Feature Film
- National Film Award for Best Director: Adoor Gopalakrishnan
- National Film Award for Best Actress: Sharada
- National Film Award for Best Cinematography: Mankada Ravi Varma
- 1973 Kerala State Film Awards (India)
- Kerala State Film Award for Best Photography (Black-and-white): Mankada Ravi Varma
- Kerala State Film Award for Best Art Direction: Devadathan
- Venkiteswaran, C. S. (22 November 2012). "Universal and timeless". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- "IFFI: 2007" (PDF). Press Information Bureau (India). 2007: 168.
- Bhaskaran 2010, p. 44.
- "8th Moscow International Film Festival". Moscow International Film Festival. 1973. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- NFDC 1991, p. 38.
- Thoraval 2002, p. 411.
- Radhakrishnan, R. (2009). "The Gulf in the imagination: Migration, Malayalam cinema and regional identity". Contributions to Indian Sociology. 43 (2): 217–210. doi:10.1177/006996670904300202.
- Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 1999, p. 387.
- Dharap 1973, p. 311.
- "Adoor Gopalakrishnan: Swayamvaram". Cinemaofmalayalam.net. Archived from the original on 21 November 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- Walsh, Bryan (28 April 2003). "Knee Deep in the New Wave". Time. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- Venkiteswaran 2001.
- "Low-key Mumbai film festival ends on high note". The Indian Express. Mumbai. 1 December 1997. Archived from the original on 24 May 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "Mohanlal to star in screen adaptation of 'The Master Builder'". Daily News and Analysis. 31 October 2006. Archived from the original on 4 October 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "Good films open up unfamiliar worlds: Adoor". The Hindu. 28 October 2005. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- Acharya, Sharmistha. "Bollywood and Globalization" (PDF). San Francisco State University: 15.
- Warrier, Shobha (8 September 2005). "Adoor made us forget our identities". Rediff.com. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- Warrier, Shobha (6 September 2005). "Adoor's first leading man". Rediff.com. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "Nostalgia spices up Gurupuja". The Hindu. 3 October 2005. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
- "Gopi, a versatile actor". The Hindu. 29 January 2008. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- Warrier, Shobha (29 January 2008). "Goodbye, Mr Bharat Gopi". Rediff.com. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- Prakash, Asha (17 June 2012). "They carry the gene for success". The Times of India. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "25th National Film Festival (1978)" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. p. 7. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
- Nagarajan, Saraswathy (29 January 2010). "Sense and Sensibility". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- "Vaikom remembered". The Hindu. 24 May 2005. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Warrier, Shobha (23 November 2010). "Goodbye, Mankada Ravi Varma". Rediff.com. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- Bhaskaran, Gautaman (26 November 2012). "Adoor's Swayamvaram on brand new print". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- Nagarajan, Saraswathy (7 September 2007). "Painting with light". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- Warrier, Shobha (16 October 2000). "I can't say no to Adoor". Rediff.com. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- Warrier, Shobha (10 January 2001). "We have a long way to go". Rediff.com. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- Jayaram 1996.
- Vijayakrishnan 1987, p. 135.
- Datta 2006, pp. 752–753.
- Surendran, C. P. (24 September 2005). "The Arbiter of Sanity". Tehelka. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- Datta 2002, pp. 217.
- Hakemulder, de Jonge & Singh 1998, pp. 118.
- "Wide range of films". The Hindu. 23 June 2006. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
- Gopalakrishnan, K. K. (2 December 2007). "Strength in the face of adversity". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Menon 1998, p. 26.
- Vilakudy, Rajaneesh (20 March 2009). "Before Resul Pookutty, there was Adoor Gopalakrishnan". Rediff.com. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- "No need for a two-tier system". The Times of India. 14 August 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- Krishnanunny, T. (2011). Sound in Moving Pictures. Mathrubhumi. ISBN 978-81-8265-022-0.
- "20th National Film Awards". International Film Festival of India. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "State Film Awards 1969–2008". Information and Public Relation Department of Kerala. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- Jayaram, S. B. (1996). Adoor Gopalakrishnan: 25 years of film making. Chalachithram. OCLC 47954603.
- Bhaskaran, Gautaman (2010). Adoor Gopalakrishnan: A Life in Cinema. Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-670-08171-4.
- NFDC (1991). Cinema in India, Volume 2. Delhi: National Film Development Corporation of India.
- Thoraval, Yves (2002). The Cinemas of India (1896–2000). Delhi: Macmillan India. ISBN 0-333-93410-5.
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul (1999). Encyclopaedia of Indian cinema. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-85170-455-7.
- Datta, Amaresh (2006). "Cinema Malayalam". The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1.
- Hakemulder, Jan R.; de Jonge, Fay A. C.; Singh, Prabhash P. (1998). Future of journalism, mass communication and public relations. Anmol Publications. ISBN 978-81-261-0067-5. OCLC 46886511.
- Dharap, B. V. (1973). Indian films. National Film Archive of India. ISSN 0377-7359. OCLC 692141264.
- Venkiteswaran, C. S. (2001). "Of Life...On Films...:Adoor on Swayamvaram" (Interview). Interview with Adoor Gopalakrishnan (Oct 2001 – Jan 2002 ed.). Deep Focus.
- Vijayakrishnan (1987). Malayala Cinemayude Katha. Kerala State Film Development Corporation. ISBN 978-81-8264-070-2.
- Menon, Dhanya (1998). "Malayalam Literary Survey (Journal)". 20 (1–21). Kerala Sahitya Akademi.
- Datta, Sangeeta (2002). Shyam Benegal. British Film Institute. ISBN 978-0-85170-907-9.