Superintendent (Supt), often shortened to "super", is a rank in British police services and in most English-speaking Commonwealth nations. In many Commonwealth countries the full version is superintendent of police (SP). The rank is also used in most British Overseas Territories and in many former British Colonies. In some countries, such as Italy, the rank of Superintendent is a low rank.
Rank insignia of superintendent
Superintendent in several countries
In Australia, the rank of superintendent is the next senior rank from chief Inspector and is less senior than a chief superintendent (Victoria Police, South Australia Police, New South Wales Police, Queensland Police) or an assistant commissioner (Western Australia Police). Some officers also hold the rank of detective chief superintendent (though this is seldom used) and detective superintendent. Superintendents wear an epaulette bearing one pip below a crown, the same rank badge as a lieutenant-colonel and wear police caps with a laurel wreath across the brim to indicate seniority.
In Canada, the rank of superintendent is usually the next senior rank up from inspector. Some police forces also have the higher rank of staff superintendent (senior staff superintendent) or regional superintendent.
Hong Kong Police Force ranks are based on the British system:
- Chief superintendent - in command of a branch or district formation
- Senior superintendent - second in charge of a district or commander of a bureau
- Superintendent - in command of HQ unit or police division
In India, a district superintendent of police (SP) or deputy commissioner of police (DCP) heads the police force of a district. Superintendents of Police are officers of the Indian Police Service. Their rank badge is the state emblem above one star, although those selected for higher rank or with fifteen or more years' service wear the state emblem above two stars. The rank below it is additional deputy commissioner of police (ADL.DCP) or additional superintendent of police (ASP), while the rank above it is senior superintendent of police (SSP) or deputy commissioner of police.In the state of Kerala, superintendents of police in charge of districts are called District Police chiefs.
In the Republic of Ireland the rank of superintendent is between inspector and chief superintendent. There are usually two or three assigned to each division. Detectives use the "Detective" prefix. There were 178 superintendents in the Garda Síochána at the beginning of 2006. In the Irish language, a garda superintendent is a cheannfort, which translates literally as "headman". Ard-cheannfort is a chief superintendent or "high headman". Cheannfort is also used for the military rank of "commandant", equivalent to major.
Each police district is commanded by a superintendent. Districts are sub-units of divisions, which are commanded by chief superintendents.
In Italian State Police the ranks of superintendent (three ranks: Deputy Superintendent, Superintendent and Chief Superintendent) are medium non commissioned officers ranks, senior to Agents and Assistants and junior to Inspectors. In official comparisons, they are equal to Sergeants.
Superintendent general and superintendent are, respectively, the ranks of the commander and deputy commanders of the Public Security Police (CPSP) of Macau. The rank of superintendent is senior to the rank of intendent.
The CPSP rank insignia follows the generic model of the Portuguese Public Security Police, with the insignia of senior officers consisting in epaulets that contain two crossed horsewhips inside a laurel wreath and PSP stars (six points silver star with the "SP" monogram in the center) whose number defines the precise rank. The number of stars in the insignia of superintendent general and superintendent are, respectively, four and three. The rank insignia of superintendent general and superintendent are also distinguished in being in red epaulets instead of the dark blue of the other ranks.
In New Zealand, the rank of superintendent is above inspector and below assistant commissioner. Superintendents are typically appointed as district commanders, and the rank is also held by the commandant of the Royal New Zealand Police College.
In Pakistan, a senior superintendent of police is the head of the district police. Some districts and police divisions are commanded by superintendents of police. The police service of Pakistan now identifies a new hierarchy including DPO, CCPO etc. Superintendent of police is equivalent to DPO (district police officer) and can be a CSP belonging to PSP and can also be a ranker.
In the Philippines, superintendent is a rank in the Philippine National Police, the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, and the Bureau of Fire Protection. It is above chief inspector and below senior superintendent and is regarded as the equivalent of lieutenant colonel in the Philippine Army.
In Portugal, superintendent (Portuguese: superintendente) is an officer rank in the Public Security Police (PSP). It is senior to the police rank of intendant and inferior to the rank of chief superintendent, being roughly equivalent to a colonel in the military.
Superintendents usually exercise the role of commanding officers of district commands or the role of second-in-command in the metropolitan and regional commands.
The rank insignia of a superintendent consists of a dark blue epaulet with two crossed horsewhips inside a laurel wreath and three PSP stars arranged in an inverted triangle. Each PSP star consists in a six point silver star with the "SP" monogram in the center.
In Singapore, the rank is used in both the police (SPF) and immigration authorities (ICA) as both use the same rank structure. It is considered a senior officer rank and is subordinate to a Deputy Assistant Commissioner and above a Deputy Superintendent.
The rank was introduced in 1825, for the head of the Cape Town police. It was discontinued in 1860.
It was also used in the short-lived Griqualand Mounted Police from 1873 to 1880 and in the Natal Police from 1894 to 1913, the Transvaal Town Police from 1901 to 1908, the Transvaal Police from 1908 to 1913, and the Orange River Colony Police from 1908 to 1913.
The rank reappeared in the Union of South Africa as the rank pf the head of the South African Railways & Harbours Police in 1944. It was equivalent to the military rank of colonel, with the same rank insignia. From 1946, there were three grades: chief superintendent (brigadier), deputy chief superintendent (colonel), and superintendent (lieutenant-colonel). The police titles were replaced by the military titles in the 1960s.
The title was reinstated for the South African Police Service in 1995. There were two grades: senior superintendent (equivalent to colonel) and superintendent (lieutenant-colonel). The police titles were replaced by the military titles in 2010.
In Sri Lanka, superintendent of police (SP) is a senior gazetted officer rank senior to assistant superintendent of police and junior to senior superintendent of police. The later was created in the 1980s. Superintendents are typically appointed as regional commanders of police divisions.
The rank of superintendent was introduced at the foundation of the Metropolitan Police in 1829. Each division was commanded by a superintendent. The rank below superintendent was originally inspector until the introduction of chief inspector in 1868. Originally, only the commissioners held a higher rank than superintendent (and they were not sworn police officers). In 1839, Captain William Hay was appointed to the new rank of inspecting superintendent, replaced by assistant commissioner in 1856. The rank of divisional superintendent was introduced between superintendent and assistant commissioner in 1869.
The rank of superintendent was also adopted in the Detective Branch (later the Criminal Investigation Department) from 1868, when Adolphus Williamson, the first head of the branch, was promoted to the rank.
In 1949, Metropolitan Police superintendents were regraded to the new rank of chief superintendent, chief inspectors were regraded to superintendent, and sub-divisional inspectors and divisional detective inspectors were regraded to chief inspector (with those ranks being abolished).
In September 1953, there was another change, when the rank was split into superintendent grade I (current superintendents, chief inspectors commanding sub-divisions and detective chief inspectors commanding divisional CIDs) and superintendent grade II (other current chief inspectors), with a redefined rank of chief inspector being created for senior inspectors. Superintendents grade II wore the crown (the rank badge formerly worn by chief inspectors), with superintendents grade I wearing a crown over a pip (the rank badge formerly worn by superintendents). This lasted until 1974, when superintendent once more became a single rank, wearing a crown on the epaulettes.
From January 1954 there was one superintendent grade I and one chief inspector in each sub-division, one chief superintendent, one superintendent grade II and one detective superintendent grade I in each division, and one commander, one deputy commander, one detective chief superintendent, and one detective superintendent grade II in each district. A detective chief inspector was added in each division later in 1954.
Other British forces
In most other forces, superintendent lay between inspector and assistant chief constable until well into the 20th century. In many smaller forces, the senior superintendent was also the ACC. Some forces had chief inspectors, and some later acquired chief superintendents, but this was by no means universal. Today, however, every force in the country has all three ranks.
In the United States, superintendent is the title used for the head of certain police departments, such as the New York State Police, Massachusetts State Police, Chicago Police Department, New Orleans Police Department, Ohio State Highway Patrol, and Puerto Rico Police Department.
Famous fictional examples
- Superintendent Battle in five Agatha Christie novels
- Supt Pang from the Hong Kong action film Hard Boiled.
- D/Supt Andy Dalziel from the BBC TV crime drama Dalziel and Pascoe, based on the Dalziel and Pascoe books by Reginald Hill
- D/Supt Iain Barclay from the BBC/HBO TV police thriller: Hunter (2009) and Five Days (2008)
- D/Supt Peter Boyd from the BBC TV crime drama Waking the Dead (2000–2011)
- D/Supt Sandra Pullman from the BBC TV crime drama New Tricks (2003–2013)
- From the ITV police drama The Bill:
- Superintendent Adam Okaro (2001-2006)
- Superintendent John Heaton (2006–2009)
- Superintendent Jack Meadows (2009–2010)
- Superintendent Amanda Prosser (2005)
- Superintendent Norman Mullett from the ITV crime drama A Touch of Frost, based on the novels by R.D. Wingfield
- D/Supt Jane Tennison of the Prime Suspect television series
- D/Supt Mike Walker of the TV series Trial and Retribution
- D/Supt Charles Wycliffe of the TV series Wycliffe
- D/Supt Tony Clark of TV series Between the Lines
- Superintendent Teresa Colvin from the FOX TV series The Chicago Code (2011)
- D/Supt Martin Schenk and D/Supt Rose Teller from the BBC's Luther
- Richard Jury, a member of the Criminal Investigation Department of the Metropolitan Police. He appears in several Martha Grimes novels, during which he is promoted from Chief Inspector.
- D/Supt Stella Gibson of the BBC TV series The Fall.
- "THE INDIAN POLICE SERVICE (UNIFORM) RULES". Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. Archived from the original on 15 July 2006. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- "Kerala Police Bill, 2010". Article2.org. 2010-12-04. Archived from the original on 2013-05-26. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
- "Senior Police Officer - Rank Structure". spf.gov.sg.
- "ICA - Rank Structure". ica.gov.sg.
- Report of the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis for the Year 1953
- Report of the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis for the Year 1954
- "Police Pay Scales". Police Oracle. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
- "Superintendent Joseph A. D'Amico". Troopers.ny.gov. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
- "Colonel Superintendent Timothy P. Alben and Marl Vincent Labitad". mass.gov. Retrieved 2015-01-16.
- Police Forces of the World, by William Hall Watson, Zeus Publications 2006, ISBN 1-921005-63-7