Straight edge

Not to be confused with the tool known as a straightedge, or the song the subculture takes its name from, "Straight Edge".
A straight edge tattoo

Straight edge (sometimes abbreviated sXe or signified XXX or X) is a subculture of hardcore punk whose adherents refrain from using alcohol, tobacco and other recreational drugs, in reaction to the excesses of punk subculture.[1][2] For some, this extends to refraining from engaging in promiscuous sex, following a vegetarian or vegan diet, and/or not using caffeine or prescription drugs.[1] The term straight edge was adopted from the 1981 song "Straight Edge" by the hardcore punk band Minor Threat.[3]

Straight edge emerged amid the early-1980s hardcore punk scene. Since then, a wide variety of beliefs and ideas have been associated with some members of the movement, including vegetarianism and animal rights.[4][5] Ross Haenfler writes that as of the late 1990s, approximately three out of four straight edge participants were vegetarian or vegan.[6] While the commonly expressed aspects of the straight edge subculture have been abstinence from alcohol, nicotine, and illegal drugs, there have been considerable variations on how far to take the interpretations of "abstaining from intoxicants" or "living drug-free". Disagreements often arise as to the primary reasons for living straight edge. Straight edge politics are primarily left-wing and revolutionary but there have been conservative offshoots.[7]

In 1999, William Tsitsos wrote that straight edge had gone through three eras since its founding in the early 1980s.[8] Bent edge began as a counter-movement to straight edge by members of the Washington, D.C. hardcore scene who were frustrated by the rigidity and intolerance in the scene.[9] During the youth crew era, which started in the mid-1980s, the influence of music on the straight edge scene was at an all-time high. By the early 1990s, militant straight edge was a well-known part of the wider punk scene. In the early to mid-1990s, straight edge spread from the United States to Northern Europe,[10] Eastern Europe,[11] the Middle East,[12] and South America.[13] By the beginning of the 2000s, militant straight edge punks had largely left the broader straight edge culture and movement.[14]


A straight edge symbol

While some straight edge groups are treated as a "gang" by law enforcement officials,[15] a 2006 study found the vast majority of people who identify as straight edge are nonviolent.[16] While the early Washington, D.C. hardcore punk scene is often praised for its commitment to positive social change, both the youth crew movement of the 1980s and the vegan movement of the 1990s have drawn criticism. Straight edge has often been approached with skepticism and hostility, despite the ideologically less dogmatic and more multifaceted character of contemporary straight edge.[17]


1970s and early 1980s

Minor Threat, who coined the term straight edge

In the 1970s, the punk subculture was associated with the use of intoxicative inhalants, substances such as model airplane glue that were inhaled for the intoxicating effect.[18] In 1999, William Tsitsos wrote that straight edge had gone through three eras since its founding in the early 1980s.[8] Later analysts have identified another era that has taken place since Tsitsos's writing.[19] Straight edge grew out of hardcore punk in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and was partly characterized by shouted rather than sung vocals.[20] Straight edge individuals of this early era often associated with the original punk ideals such as individualism, disdain for work and school, and live-for-the-moment attitudes.[8]

Straight edge sentiments can be found in songs by the early 1980s band Minor Threat .[21] This anti-inebriation movement had been developing in punk prior to Minor Threat, but their song "Straight Edge" was influential in giving the scene a name, and something of a (somewhat unwilling) figurehead.[22] Minor Threat frontman Ian MacKaye is often credited with birthing the Straight edge name and movement and in later years has often spoken out about how he never intended it to be a movement. "I'm credited because I coined a phrase and wrote a song about it. I'm not going to spend any more energy than I already have explaining that. From the very beginning I've tried to say that this is not my opinion. That whole thing just makes me realize I don't have any control over what people think of me. And I don't really give a fuck. I think that the idea of straight edge, the song that I wrote, and the way people have related it, there's some people who have abused it, they've allowed their fundamentalism to interfere with the real message, which in my mind, was that people should be allowed to live their lives the way they want to. It was just the title of a song that I wrote but certainly never intended to start a movement"[23]

Straight edge sentiments can also be found in the song "Keep it Clean" by English punk band The Vibrators, and the 1970s Modern Lovers song "I'm Straight" (which rejected drug use).[24] As one of the few prominent 1970s hard rock icons to explicitly eschew alcohol and drug use, Ted Nugent was also a key influence on the straight edge ideology.[25]

Straight edge started on the East Coast of the United States in Washington D.C., and quickly spread throughout the United States and Canada.[26] By the 1980s, bands on the West Coast, such as America's Hardcore, Stalag 13, Justice League, and Uniform Choice, were gaining popularity. In the early stages of this subculture's history, concerts often consisted of both punk bands and straight edge bands. Circumstances soon changed and the early 1980s would eventually be viewed as the time "before the two scenes separated".[20] Early straight edge bands included Minor Threat, State of Alert, Government Issue, Teen Idles, The Faith, 7 Seconds, SSD, DYS, and Negative FX.[3][27][28]

Bent edge

Main article: Bent edge

Bent edge began as a counter-movement to straight edge by members of the Washington, D.C. hardcore scene who were frustrated by the rigidity and intolerance in the scene.[9] This idea spread, and on Minor Threat's first tour in 1982, people would come up to the band to identify themselves as bent, crooked, or curved edge.[29] The counter-movement was short lived and faded away by the end of the 1990s.[30]

Youth crew (mid-1980s)

During the youth crew era, which started in the mid-1980s, the influence of music on the straight edge scene seemed to be at an all-time high. The new branches of straight edge that came about during this era seemed to originate from ideas presented in songs, and many youth crew bands had a strong heavy metal influence.[31] Notable youth crew bands included: Youth of Today,[31] Gorilla Biscuits,[31] Judge, Bold, Chain of Strength, Turning Point, Uniform Choice, and Slapshot.[32]

In the mid-1980s, the band Youth of Today became associated with the straight edge movement, and their song "Youth Crew" expressed a desire to unite the scene into a movement.[33] Vegetarianism became an important theme in straight edge during this era,[34] starting with Youth of Today's 1988 song "No More", which contained lyrics condemning the consumption of meat.[35] This catalyzed a trend towards animal rights and veganism within the straight edge movement that would reach its peak in the 1990s.[34]


By the early 1990s, straight edge became a well-known part of the wider punk and DIY scene and underwent musical and political shifts. In the early part of the decade, a number of straight edge punks and their bands picked up on the vegetarian and other social justice politics of the mid-1980s and began more comprehensively advocating for social justice, animal liberation, veganism, and straight edge, itself. During this period, the straight edge scene birthed two major offshoots: the more conservative hardline[36] and the religiously influenced Krishna Consciousness.[37] While the majority of straight edge punks and Hare Krishna converts were pacifists, those influenced by hardline showed a willingness to resort to violence in order to promote their subculture.[38] Musically, the straight edge scene was increasingly drawing from heavy metal and was a founding influence on metalcore.

Outside the United States

The Brazilian straight edge, vegan band Point of No Return in 2006.

In the early to mid-1990s, straight edge spread from the United States to Northern Europe,[39] Eastern Europe,[40] the Middle East,[41] and South America.[42] Straight edge spread around the world due to the relentless touring of youth crew bands and the ease of ordering records from American record labels via mail.[43]


By the beginning of the 2000s, only small groups of militant straight edge individuals remained.[14] Contrary to news reports that portrayed straight edge as a gang,[44][45] several studies have shown that straight edge individuals as a whole are mostly peaceful people.[46] In the 2000s, there was a growing amount of tolerance of people who do not follow the straight edge lifestyle by straight edge individuals.[47] In this incarnation of straight edge, the musical styles of the bands involved are more varied, ranging from a youth crew revival style to metalcore to posicore.[14] Straight edge bands from the 2000s include Champion, Down to Nothing, Embrace Today, Have Heart, and Throwdown.[48]

X symbol

Italian straight edge band To Kill performing at a club

The letter X is the most known symbol of straight edge, and is sometimes worn as a marking on the back of both hands, though it can be displayed on other body parts as well. Some followers of straight edge have also incorporated the symbol into clothing and pins. According to a series of interviews by journalist Michael Azerrad, the straight edge X can be traced to the Teen Idles' brief West Coast tour in 1980.[49] The band's members were scheduled to play at San Francisco's Mabuhay Gardens, but when they arrived, club management discovered that they were all under the legal drinking age and would be denied entry to the club. As a compromise, management marked each of the members' hands with a large black X as a warning to the club's staff not to serve alcohol to the band.

Upon returning to Washington, D.C., the band suggested this same system to local clubs as a means to allow teenagers in to see musical performances without being served alcohol.[49] The Teen Idles released a record in 1980 called Minor Disturbance with the cover shot being two hands with black Xs on the back.[3][50] The mark soon became associated with the straight edge lifestyle.[3] It can also be used by drinking establishments to note a patron as under the drinking age, regardless of their views towards drugs and alcohol.

Later bands used the X symbol on album covers and other paraphernalia in a variety of ways. The cover of No Apologies by Judge shows two crossed gavels in the X formation.[51] Other objects that have been used include shovels, baseball bats, and hockey sticks.[51] A variation involving a trio of Xs is often used in flyers and tattoos. It can also be ironic, based on the fact that three Xs was popularized in cartoons and television shows to signify alcohol or poison. Moonshiners used an X to note how many times a particular batch of moonshine ran through the still, adding additional irony.[52] The term is sometimes abbreviated by including an X with the abbreviation of the term "straight edge" to give "sXe".[53] By analogy, hardcore punk is sometimes abbreviated to "hXc".[54]


By the late 1990s, many straight edge participants gave veganism the same degree of importance as abstinence from intoxicants, and some groups styled themselves "vegan straight edge",[55] sometimes abbreviated "xVx".[56] Bands such as Earth Crisis and Vegan Reich emphasized animal rights and environmentalism as social justice issues.[57] Perhaps owing to the "DIY" ethic of the punk subculture, some advocated direct action, and became associated with the radical groups Animal Liberation Front and Earth Liberation Front.[58] The California band Vegan Reich is most associated with the "Hardline" subculture, which espouses the sanctity of life, and draws connections between animal rights and anti-abortion activism.[59][60] Members of the Hardline movement have been described as espousing Old Testament-style spirituality,[61] militancy, and violence.[62] Violent activism has been described as an "extreme minority" within the vegan straight edge movement.[63]

Haenfler writes that straight edge participants see veganism as an extension of the movement's emphasis on positivity, much like their preference to reserve sex for emotionally meaningful relationships.[64] They tend to focus more on personal responsibility than confronting systemic issues in society.[65] However, veganism is not seen as a matter of personal purity, but rather is rooted in strong belief in animal rights, and a means of personally rejecting the exploitation of animals.[66] Some hold that veganism is "true straight edge", and their promotion of veganism and animal liberation has been described as evangelistic.[67]

See also


  1. 1 2 Sutherland, Sam (July 2006). "The Complicated Contradictions of Straight Edge Punk". Exclaim!. Retrieved February 22, 2010.
  2. Krist, Josh (22 August 1996). "White Punks on Hope". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Cogan 2008, p. 317
  4. Wood 1999, pp. 130–40
  5. Wood 1999, pp. 141–43
  6. Haenfler 2004, pp. 427
  7. Kuhn, Gabriel (2009). Sober Living for the Revolution. PM Press. pp. 13–14.
  8. 1 2 3 Tsitsos 1999
  9. 1 2 Andersen 2003, p. 125
  10. Kuhn 2010, p. 121
  11. Kuhn 2010, p. 132
  12. Kuhn 2010, p. 112
  13. Kuhn 2010, p. 66
  14. 1 2 3 Haenfler 2006, pp. 16–17
  15. Writer: David Shadrack Smith. Directors: Jim Gaffey and David Shadrack Smith (9 April 2008). "Inside Straight Edge". Inside. 50 minutes in. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
  16. Wood 2006, pp. 38, 41
  17. Kuhn, Gabriel (2009). Sober Living for the Revolution. PM Press. p. 14.
  18. Ghodse, Hamid. Ghodse's Drugs and Addictive Behaviour: A Guide to Treatment. Cambridge University Press, 2010. p. 98
  19. Kuhn 2010, pp. 8–9
  20. 1 2 Haenfler 2006, p. 11
  21. Wood 1999, pp. 137–38
  22. Azerrad, Michael (2001). Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground, 1981–1991. New York: Little, Brown and Company. p. 121. ISBN 0-316-78753-1.
  24. Goldfein 1989, p. 18
  25. Henry Rollins reports that he and friend Ian MacKaye (vocalist for Minor Threat) "would read about the Nuge and the thing that really rubbed off on us was the fact that he didn't drink or smoke or do drugs ... [Nugent's performance] was the craziest thing we'd ever seen onstage and here's this guy saying, 'I don't get high.' We thought that was so impressive." (Azerrad 2001, p. 121)
  26. Barlett 2006
  27. Blush 2001, pp. 26–29
  28. Blush 2010, pp. 163–165
  29. Kuhn 2010, p. 37
  30. Mullaney, Jamie L. "All In Time: Age And The Temporality Of Authenticity In The Straight-Edge Music Scene." Journal Of Contemporary Ethnography 41.6 (2012): 611-635. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 Feb. 2013.
  31. 1 2 3 Tsitsos 1999, p. 404
  32. Haenfler 2006, p. 218
  33. Haenfler 2006, p. 12
  34. 1 2 Wood 1999, p. 139
  35. Youth of Today 1988 as cited in Haenfler 2006
  36. Wood 1999, pp. 140–141
  37. Wood 1999, pp. 143–46
  38. Haenfler 2006, p. 88
  39. Kuhn 2010, p. 121
  40. Kuhn 2010, p. 132
  41. Kuhn 2010, p. 112
  42. Kuhn 2010, p. 66
  43. Kuhn 2010, pp. 50–52
  44. Wood 2003, pp. 45
  45. Haenfler 2006, p. 91
  46. Wood 2003, p. 46
  47. Wood 2003, pp. 46–47
  48. Haenfler 2006, p. 219
  49. 1 2 Azerrad 2001, p. 127
  50. Azerrad 2001, p. 132
  51. 1 2 Wood 2006, p. 119
  52. Helton & Staudenmeier 2002, p. 445
  53. Haenfler 2006, pp. 4
  54. Hannon 2010, pp. 162
  55. Haenfler 2006, pp. 53
  56. Pieslak 2015, pp. 177
  57. Tstitos 2016, pp. 205-206
  58. Pieslak 2015, pp. 177-184
  59. Pieslak 2015, pp. 183
  60. Tsitos 2016, pp. 206
  61. Tstitos 2016, pp. 206
  62. Pieslak 2015, pp. 183
  63. Helton 2002, pp. 465
  64. Haenfler 2004, pp. 427
  65. Haenfler 2004, pp. 428
  66. Helton 2002, pp. 456
  67. Helton 2002, pp. 452

References and bibliography

  • Andersen, Mark; Jenkins, Mark (2003). Dance of Days: Two Decades of Punk in the Nation's Capital. Akashic Books. ISBN 1-888451-44-0. 
  • Azerrad, Michael (2001). Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground, 1981–1991. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-78753-1. 
  • Barlett, Thomas (2006). "Study Rock's Clean, Mean Movement". Chronicle of Higher Education. 53 (6). 
  • Blush, Steven (2001). George Petros, ed. American Hardcore: A Tribal History (1 ed.). Feral House. ISBN 978-0-922915-71-2. 
  • Blush, Steven (2010). George Petros, ed. American Hardcore: A Tribal History (2 ed.). Feral House. ISBN 978-0-922915-71-2. 
  • Cogan, Brian (2008). The Encyclopedia of Punk. New York: Sterling. ISBN 978-1-4027-5960-4. 
  • Davis, Erik (1995). "Hare Krishna Hard Core". Spin. 11 (5): 69–73. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  • Goldfein, Josh (1989). "Straight and Narrow". Spin. 5 (1): 18. 
  • Haenfler, Ross (2006). Straight Edge: Hardcore Punk, Clean Living Youth, and Social Change. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-3851-3. 
  • Hannon, Sharon M. (2010). Punks: a guide to an American subculture. ABC-CLIO. 
  • Helton, Jesse J.; Staudenmeier, William J. (2002). "Re-imagining being 'straight' in straight edge". Contemporary Drug Problems. 29 (2): 445. ISSN 0091-4509. 
  • Kuhn, Gabriel (2010). Sober Living for the Revolution: Hardcore Punk, Straight Edge, and Radical Politics. PM Press. ISBN 1-60486-051-0. 
  • Mullaney, Jamie (2007). "'Unity Admirable But Not Necessarily Heeded:' Going Rates and Gender Boundaries in the Straight Edge Hardcore Music Scene". Gender & Society. 21 (3): 384–408. doi:10.1177/0891243207299615. 
  • O'Hara, Craig (1999). The Philosophy of Punk: More Than Noise. AK Press. ISBN 1-873176-16-3. 
  • Tsitsos, William (1999). "Rules of Rebellion: Slamdancing, Moshing, and the American Alternative Scene". Popular Music. 3 (18): 403. doi:10.1017/s0261143000008941. 
  • Wood, Robert T. (1999). "Nailed to the X: A Lyrical History of Straightedge". Journal of Youth Studies. 2 (2): 133–151. doi:10.1080/13676261.1999.10593032. 
  • Wood, Robert T. (2003). "The Straightedge Youth Sub-Culture: Complexities of Subculture Identity". Journal of Youth Studies. 6 (1): 33–52. doi:10.1080/1367626032000068154. 
  • Wood, Robert T. (2006). Straight Edge Youth: The Complexity and Contradictions of a Subculture. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0-8156-3127-8. 
  • Youth of Today (1988). We're Not In This Alone. New York: Caroline Records. 
  • Tsitos, William (2016). "An International Comparison of the Politics of Straight-Edge". Music Sociology: Examining the Role of Music in Social Life. Routledge. pp. 202–210. ISBN 978-161205-312-7. 
  • Haenfler, Ross (August 2004). "Rethinking subcultural resistance". Journal of Contemporary Ethnography. Sage. 33 (4): 406–436. doi:10.1177/0891241603259809. 
  • Pieslak, Jonathan (2015). Radicalism and Music: An Introduction to the Music Cultures of al-Qa’ida, Racist Skinheads, Christian-Affiliated Radicals, and Eco-Animal Rights Militants. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 9780819575852. 
  • Helton, Jesse (June 2002). "Re-Imagining Being "Straight" in Straight Edge". Contemporary Drug Problems. Sage. 29 (2): 445–473. doi:10.1177/009145090202900209. 

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