Siege of Antwerp (1814)
After the German Campaign of 1813, Napoleon had to retreat back over the Rhine. Whereas the two armies of Blücher and Schwarzenberg invaded France and marched on Paris, a third allied army under Bernadotte entered the Low Countries.
In January 1814 Napoleon appointed the old republican Lazare Carnot as governor of Antwerp. The 10.000 men garrison was composed of troops from I Corps and the Young Guard. After the French defeat at Hoogstraten, Carnot retreated to the fortified city, which was then besieged by Prussian, Russian, and British forces. The French garrison under Lazare Carnot, aided by a French naval flotilla under Missiessy, then resisted the Allied siege and only surrendered the city after Louis XVIII of France signed an armistice upon Napoleon’s abdication.
- Jean-Claude Gillet, La Marine impériale : Le grand rêve de Napoléon, Bernard Giovanangeli Éditeur, 2010 (ISBN 9782758700623)
- Digby Smith, The Greenhill Napoleonic Wars Data Book : Actions and Losses in Personnel, Colours, Standards and Artillery, 1792-1815, Greenhill Books, 1998 (ISBN 1-85367-276-9)
- Jean Tulard, Napoléon, Fayard, 1999 (ISBN 2-213-01813-8)
- Jean Tulard (dir.), Dictionnaire Napoléon, vol. A-H, Fayard, octobre 1999 (ISBN 2-213-60485-1)