Glossary of textile manufacturing

For terms specifically related to sewing, see Glossary of sewing terms.
For terms specifically related to dyeing, see Glossary of dyeing terms.

The manufacture of textiles is one of the oldest of human technologies. To make textiles, the first requirement is a source of fibre from which a yarn can be made, primarily by spinning. (Both fibre and fiber are used in this article.) The yarn is processed by knitting or weaving, which turns yarn into cloth. The machine used for weaving is the loom. For decoration, the process of colouring yarn or the finished material is dyeing. For more information of the various steps, see textile manufacturing.


A measure of how much amount of water a fabric can absorb.
Acetate is a synthetic fiber.
Acrylic fiber is a synthetic polymer fiber that contains at least 85% acrylonitrile.
Aida cloth
Aida cloth is a coarse open-weave fabric traditionally used for cross-stitch.
Alnage is the official supervision of the shape and quality of manufactured woolen cloth.
Alpaca is a name given to two distinct things:
  • The wool of the Peruvian alpaca.
  • A style of fabric originally made from alpaca fiber but now frequently made from a similar type of fiber.
Angora refers to the hair of the Angora rabbit, or the fabric made from Angora rabbit fur. (Fabric made from angora goat is mohair.)[1]
Appliqué is a sewing technique in which fabric shapes, lace or trim, are sewn onto a foundation fabric to create designs.[2]
Aramid fiber is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber.
An argyle pattern is one containing diamonds in a sort of diagonal checkerboard pattern.


Backstrap loom
Backstrap looms, as the name implies, are tied around the weaver's waist on one end and around a stationary object such as a tree, post, or door on the other. Tension can be adjusted simply by leaning back. Backstrap looms are very portable, since they can simply be rolled up and carried.
Baize is a coarse woollen or cotton cloth, often coloured red or green.
Ballistic nylon
Ballistic nylon is a thick, tough synthetic fabric used for a variety of applications.
Barathea is an indistinct twill or broken rib  usually a twilled hopsack weave  with a fine textured, slightly pebbled surface. Often of silk or silk blended with wool, used for neckties, women's fine suits and coats, men's and women's evening wear.
Batik is an Indonesian traditional word and refers to a generic wax-resist dyeing technique used on fabric.
Bedford cord
Bedford cord is a combination of two kinds of weave, namely plain and drill. It is a durable fabric that is often used in upholstery or outerwear.
The bias direction of a piece of woven fabric, usually referred to simply as "the bias", is at 45 degrees to its warp and weft threads. Every piece of woven fabric has two biases, perpendicular to each other.
In sewing, binding is used as both a noun and a verb to refer to finishing a seam or hem of a garment, usually by rolling or pressing then stitching on an edging or trim.
A blend is a fabric or yarn made up of more than one type of fiber.
Bobbin lace
Bobbin lace is a delicate lace that uses wound spools of thread (the bobbins) to weave together the shapes in the lace.
Bobbinet is a tulle netting with hexagonal shaped holes, traditionally used as a base for embroidery and lingerie.
Bombazine is a fabric originally made of silk or silk and wool, and now also made of cotton and wool or of wool alone. It is twilled or corded and used for dress-material.
To braid is to interweave or twine three or more separate strands of one or more materials in a diagonally overlapping pattern.
Material of superior quality.
Forming patterns in cloth with a supplementary weft.
Buckram is a stiff cloth, made of cotton or linen, which is used to cover, and protect, a book, and although more expensive than its lookalike, Brella, is stronger and resistant to cockroaches eating it. Buckram can also be used to stiffen clothes.
Burlap is a type of cloth often used for sacks.


Calico is a type of fabric made from unbleached, and often not fully processed, cotton. Also referred to a type of Printing.
Cambric is a lightweight cotton cloth used as fabric for lace and needlework.
Camel's Hair
Camel's Hair is a natural fiber from the camel. Camel hair can produce a variety of different coarseness of yarn. This fiber is a novelty fiber spun by hand-spinners.
Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, and other functions where sturdiness is required. It is also popularly used on fashion handbags.
Canvas work
Canvas work is embroidery on canvas.
Carding is the processing of brushing raw or washed fibers to prepare them as textiles.
A carpet is any loom-woven, felted textile or grass floor covering.
Cashmere is wool from the Cashmere goat.
Cellulose; this fiber processed to make cellophane and rayon, and more recently Modal, a textile derived from beechwood cellulose.
Cheesecloth is a loosewoven cotton cloth, such as is used in pressing cheese curds.
Chiffon is a sheer fabric made of silk or rayon.
Chino cloth
Chino cloth is a kind of twill fabric, usually made primarily from cotton.
Chintz is calico cloth printed with flowers and other devices in different colors. It was originally of Eastern manufacture.
Coir is a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut.
Colorfast (Colourfast)
Colors that will bleed or fade very easily from washing. Specifically, a textile's ability to maintain its color without running or fading.
Cord is twisted fibre, usually intermediate between rope and string. It is also used as a shortened form of corduroy.
Corduroy is a durable cloth.
Cotton is a soft fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant, a shrub native to the tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old World and the New World. The fibre is most often spun into thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile.
Crash is a rough fabric made from yarns that are usually undyed. The coarsest type is called Russian crash. Linen is generally used for the warp yarn, while linen and jute are used for the filler.
Crepe is a silk fabric of a gauzy texture, having a peculiar crisp or crimpy appearance.
Crazy quilt
Crazy quilting is the textile art of patchworking.
Crinoline was originally a stiff fabric with a weft of horse-hair and a warp of cotton or linen thread. The fabric first appeared around 1830.
Cross-stitch is a popular form of counted-thread embroidery in which X-shaped stitches are used to form a picture.
The process of creating fabric from a length of cord, yarn, or thread with a hooked tool.
Crochet hook
A crochet hook is a type of needle, usually with a hook at one end, used to draw thread through knotted loops.
The cro-hook is a special double-ended crochet hook used to make double-sided crochet. Because the hook has two ends, two colours of thread can be handled at once and freely interchanged.


Damask is a fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibers, with a pattern formed by weaving. Today, it generally denotes a linen texture richly figured in the weaving with flowers, fruit, forms of animal life, and other types of ornament.
Darning mushroom
A darning mushroom is a tool which can be used for darning clothes, particularly socks. The sock can be stretched over the top of the (curved) mushroom, and gathered tightly around the stalk.
Denim denotes a rugged cotton twill textile.
Dimity is a lightweight, sheer cotton fabric having at least two warp threads thrown into relief to form fine cords.
Dobby loom
Dobby loom is a loom in which each harness can be manipulated individually. This is in contrast to a treadle loom, where the harnesses are attached to a number of different treadles depending on the weave structure.
Double weave
Double weave is a type of advanced weave. It is done by interlacing two or more sets of warps with two or more sets of filling yarns.
Dowlas is the name given to a plain cloth, similar to sheeting, but usually coarser.
how durable a fabric or yarn is.
Dye is used to color fabric. There are two main types: Natural dyes and synthetic dyes. The process is called dyeing.
Dye lot
Dye lot is a number that identifies yarns dyed in the same vat at the same time. Subtle differences can appear between different batches of the same color yarn from the same manufacturer.


Eisengarn, meaning "iron yarn" in English, is a light-reflecting, strong, waxed-cotton thread. It is made by soaking cotton threads in a starch, paraffin wax solution. The threads are then stretched and polished. The end result of the process is a lustrous, tear-resistant yarn which is extremely hardwearing.[3][4] Invented in the 19th Century, it was further developed in 1927 by the textile designer Margaretha Reichardt at the Bauhaus for use on Marcel Breuer's tubular-steel chairs.[5][6]
Embroidery is an ancient variety of decorative needlework in which designs and pictures are created by stitching strands of some material on to a layer of another material. See also: Machine embroidery.
Ends per inch (EPI)
Ends per inch like Threads per inch is a measure of the coarseness or fineness of fabric, displaying the number of (warp) threads per inch of woven fabric.
Epinglé fabric
A type of velvet fabric woven on a wire loom or épinglé loom. The épinglé velvet is notable in that both a loop pile and a cut pile can be integrated into the same fabric. The art of épinglé weaving in Europe originated from Lucca (Italy) and later came to Venice and Genua, which is where the term Genua velvet comes from. The technique of épinglé weaving is still used today in the Flemish region of Kortrijk and Waregem. The fabric finds it application mostly in upholstery, although in medieval times it was used as apparel for princes and kings as well as for bishops, cardinals, and the Pope.
Epinglé loom
A kind of weaving machine whereby steel rods are inserted in a top shed which is formed over the bottom shed in which the weft is inserted. The steel rods are inserted into the fabric every second or third pick by a separate mechanism that is synchronised with the weaving motion. The same mechanism also extracts the rods from the fabric . If the rod carries a cutting blade at the tip the warps that are woven over the rods are cut, creating a cut pile effect. In case the rod has no blade, then the warp ends from a loop pile. Alternating cut and loop wires create cut and loop pile in the fabric. This weaving technology is used for weaving velvets for furnishing and apparel applications. These fabrics are known as 'moquette' or "épinglé' fabrics. This kind of weaving machine is also used for weaving carpets where it is known as a 'Wilton loom'.
Even-weave or evenweave fabric is used in counted-thread embroidery and is characterized by Warp and weft threads of the same size.
Grommets and eyelets are metal, plastic, or rubber rings that are inserted into a hole made through another material. They may be used to reinforce the hole, to shield something from the sharp edges of the hole, or both.


Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers. The fibers form the structure of the fabric.
The process of making felt is called felting.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences) is a class of materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to pieces of thread. Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. They can be spun into filaments, thread, or rope. They can be used as a component of composite materials. They can also be matted into sheets to make products such as paper or felt.
A filament is a fine, thinly spun thread, fiber, or wire.
See Weft
Finishing refers to any process performed on yarn or fabric after weaving to improve the look, performance, or "hand" (feel) of the finished textile.[7]
Fishnet is a material with an open, diamond shaped knit.
Flannel is a cloth that is commonly used to make clothing and bedsheets. It is usually made from either wool, wool and cotton, or wool and synthetic fabric.
Flax fiber is soft, lustrous and flexible. It is stronger than cotton fiber but less elastic. The best grades are used for linen fabrics such as damasks, lace and sheeting. Coarser grades are used for the manufacturing of twine and rope.
Frieze is a coarse woollen cloth with a nap on one side, that was raised by scrubbing it to raise curls of fibre (French: frisé). In the 19th century rough cheap frieze was made of wool mixed with shoddy (see Shoddy).
Fulling is a step in clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth (particularly wool) to get rid of oils, dirt, and other impurities.
A type of heavy twilled woven cotton fabrics, chiefly prepared for menswear. Usually dyed in a dark shade. Declined in popularity from 1813, being replaced by harder wearing and better quality wool cloths.


Gabardine is a tough, tightly woven fabric often used to make suits, overcoats and trousers. The fibre used to make the fabric is traditionally worsted (a woolen yarn), but may also be cotton, synthetic or mixed. The fabric is smooth on one side and has a diagonally ribbed surface on the other.
A gauge is a set number of rows per inch (in knitting) or the thread-count of a woven fabric that helps the knitter determine whether they have the right size knitting needles or a weaver if the cloth is tight enough.
Gante is a cloth made from cotton or tow warp and jute weft. It is largely used for bags for sugar and similar material, and has the appearance of a fine hessian cloth.
Gauze is a very light, sheer, fine woven fabric.
Genova velvet
A type of velvet where in Jacquard patterns are woven into the ground fabric and where the pile is made of a combination of cut and uncut (loop) pile. This fabric is also known as Venetian velvet, or more generally, as épinglé velvet. In the actual terminology of furnishing fabrics it is mostly named with its French name "velours de Gênes".
This kind of fabric is made on a wire loom or épinglé loom.
A geotextile is a synthetic permeable textile.
Gingham is a fabric made from dyed cotton yarn.
Glass fiber (fibre)
Fiberglass is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. It is widely used in the manufacture of insulation and textiles.
A gossamer is a very light, sheer, gauze-like fabric, popular for white wedding dresses and decorations.
Grogram is a coarse fabric of silk mixed with wool or with mohair and often stiffened with gum. It also is known as Grosgrain.


Common component of a loom used to separate warp threads for passage of the weft. Commonly made of cord or wire.
To hem a piece of cloth (in sewing), a garment worker folds up a cut edge, folds it up again, and then sews it down. The process of hemming thus completely encloses the cut edge in cloth, so that it cannot ravel.
A hem is also the edge of cloth hemmed in this manner.
The main uses of hemp fibre are rope, sacking, carpet, nets and webbing. Hemp is also being used in increasing quantities in paper manufacturing. The cellulose content is about 70%.
Huckaback is a type of coarse absorbent cotton or linen fabric used for making towels.[8]


Ikat is a style of weaving that uses a tie-dye process on either the warp or weft before the threads are woven to create a pattern or design. A Double Ikat is when both the warp and the weft are tie-dyed before weaving.
Imberline is a woven fabric with various colored stripes in the warp, often separated by gold thread. The fabric is often used in upholstery and drapery manufacture.
Intarsia is a knitting technique used to create patterns with multiple colours.
A type of material used on the unseen or "wrong" side of fabrics in sewing.


Jacquard loom
The Jacquard loom was the first machine to use punched cards. It uses punched cards to control the pattern being woven. It is a form of dobby loom, where individual harnesses can be raised and lowered independently.
Jamdani is a kind of fine cloth made in Bangladesh.
Jute is a long, soft, shiny plant fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads.
Jute is one of the cheapest natural fibres, and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin.


Knitting is the Process of inter-looping of yarns or inter-meshing of loops
Knit fabrics
Knit fabrics are fabrics that were produced through the process of knitting.
Knitting needle gauge
A knitting needle gauge is used to determine the size of a knitting needle. Some also double for crochet hooks. Most needles come with the size written on the needle, but many needles (like double-pointed needles) tend to not be labeled. Also, with wear and time the label often wears off.
Needle gauges can be made of any material, and are often made for metal and plastic. They tend to be about 3 by 5 inches. They contain holes of various sizes, and often have a ruler along the edge for determining the gauge of a sample.


Lace-making is an ancient craft. A lace fabric is lightweight openwork fabric, patterned, either by machine or by hand, with open holes in the work. The holes can be formed via removal of threads or cloth from a previously woven fabric, but more often lace is built up from a single thread and the open spaces are created as part of the lace fabric.
Lamé is a type of brocaded clothing fabric with inwoven metal threads, typically of gold or silver, giving it a metallic sheen.
Lawn is a fine linen or cotton cloth.
Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen produced in Ireland is called Irish linen. Linens are fabric household goods, such as pillowcases and towels.
Loden is water-resistant material for clothing made from sheep wool.
The Loom is a machine used for weaving fabric.
Lucet is a method of cordmaking or braiding which is believed to date back to the Viking age. Lucet cord is square, strong, and slightly springy. It closely resembles knitted I-cord or the cord produced on a knitting spool. Lucet cord is formed by a series of loops, and will therefore unravel if cut.


Macrame or macramé is a form of textile-making using knotting rather than weaving or knitting. Its primary knots are the square knot and forms of hitching (full hitch and double half hitches).
Mercerized cotton
Mercerization is a treatment for cotton fabric and thread mostly employed to give cotton a lustrous appearance.
Merino is the Spanish name for a breed of sheep, and hence applied to a woolen fabric.
A mesh is similar to fabric or a web in that it has many connected or weaved pieces. In clothing, a mesh is often defined as fabric that has a large number of closely spaced holes, such as is common practice for modern sports jerseys.
Metallic fiber (fibre)
Metallic fibers are fibers used in textiles which are either composed of metal, or fibers of other materials with a metal coating.
Their uses include decoration and the reduction of static electricity.
Microfibre (fiber)
Fibres with strands thinner than one denier. Fabrics made with microfibres are exceptionally soft and hold their shape well.
Millinery is women's hats and other articles sold by a milliner, or the profession or business of designing, making, or selling hats for women.
Mockado is a woollen pile fabric made in imitation of silk velvet.[9][10][11]
Modal is a cellulose fiber made by spinning reconstituted cellulose from beech trees.
Mohair is a silk-like fabric made from the hair of the Angora goat. It is durable, light and warm, although some people find it uncomfortably itchy.
Fibrous woollen material generated from waste fabric, particularly tightly woven cloths and rags. See also: shoddy.
Muslin is a type of finely woven cotton fabric, introduced to Europe from the Middle East in the 17th century. It was named for the city where it was first made, Mosul in what is now Iraq.


Nainsook is a fine, soft muslin fabric, often used to make babies clothing.
Nap is the raised surface of certain cloth, such as flannel.
Needlepoint is a form of canvas work created on a mesh canvas. The stitching threads used may be wool, silk, or rarely cotton. Stitches may be plain, covering just one mesh intersection with a single orientation, or fancy, such as Bargello. Plain stitches, known as Tent stitches, may be worked as basketweave or half cross.
Needlework is another term for the handicraft of decorative sewing and textile arts. Anything that uses a needle for construction can be called needlework.
Net is a device made by fibers woven in a grid-like structure, as in fishing net, a soccer goal, a butterfly net, or the court divider in tennis
Nonwoven fabric
Non-woven textiles are those which are neither woven nor knit, for example felt. Non-wovens are typically not strong (unless reinforced by a backing), and do not stretch. They are cheap to manufacture.
Novelty yarn
Novelty yarn
Nylon is a synthetic polymer, a plastic. Nylon fibres are used to make many synthetic fabrics and women's stockings.


Oil cloth
Oil cloth was, traditionally, heavy cotton or linen cloth with a linseed oil coating: it was semi-waterproof. The most familiar use was for brightly printed kitchen tablecloths.[12] Dull-colored oilcloth was used for bedrolls, sou'westers, and tents. By the late 1950s, oilcloth became a synonym for vinyl (polyvinyl chloride) bonded to either a flanneled cloth or a printed vinyl with a synthetic non-woven backing.
Organdy or organdie is the sheerest cotton cloth made. Combed yarns contribute to its appearance. Its sheerness and crispness are the result of an acid finish on greige (unbleached) lawn goods. Because of its stiffness and fiber content, it is very prone to wrinkling.
Organza is a thin, plain weave, sheer fabric traditionally made from silk, the continuous filament of silkworms. Nowadays, though many organzas are woven with synthetic filament fibers such as polyester or nylon, the most luxurious organzas are still woven in silk.


Paisley is a droplet-shaped vegetal motif, similar to half of the T'ai Chi symbol, the Indian bodhi tree leaf, or the mango tree. The design originated in India and spread to Scotland when British soldiers brought home cashmere shawls.
Patchwork is a form of needlework or craft that involves sewing together small pieces of fabric and stitching them together into a larger design, which is then usually quilted, or else tied together with pieces of yarn at regular intervals, a practice known as tying. Patchwork is traditionally 'pieced' by hand, but modern quiltmakers often use a sewing machine instead.
Percale refers to a closely woven, high thread count, cotton fabric often used for sheets and clothing.
Persian weave
Persian weave is a method of weave used in jewelry and other art forms.
Pile knit
Pile knit
Pile weave
Pile weave
Pile Wire
A steel rod which is inserted in between the base fabric and the pile ends in a pile fabric woven on a wire loom or épinglé loom. The height and thickness of the rod determine the size of the loop. A pile wire can be a simple rod  in which case the pile yarns will form a 'loop' pile. If the pile wire is equipped with a blade holder and cutting blade at the tip it will cut the pile loops during extraction thus producing cut pile.
From a Scots language word meaning blanket, plaid usually referring to patterned woollen cloth otherwise known as tartan.
Plain weave
Plain weave
Plied yarn
Plied yarn is yarn that has been plied, with the process called plying.
Plush is a fabric having a cut nap or pile the same as fustian or velvet.
Polyester is a synthetic fiber
Poplin is a heavy, durable fabric that has a ribbed appearance. It is made with wool, cotton, silk, rayon, or any mixture of these. The ribs run across the fabric from selvage to selvage. They are formed by using coarse filling yarns in a plain weave.

A type of fabric structure that gives different holes or figured textures

Purl stitch
a commonly used stitch in knitting


Qalamkari is a type of hand-painted or block-printed textile, produced in various places in India.
Qiviut is the wool of the musk ox.
Quilting is a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth with a layer of insulating batting in between. A bed covering or similar large rectangular piece of quilting work is called a quilt.


Rayon is a transparent fibre made of processed cellulose. Cellulose fibres from wood or cotton are dissolved in alkali to make a solution called viscose, which is then extruded through a nozzle, or spinneret, into an acid bath to reconvert the viscose into cellulose. A similar process, using a slit instead of a hole, is used to make cellophane.
Rib knit
Rib knit
Rib weave
Rib weave
A rolag is a loose woolen roll of fibers that results from using handcards.
A roving is a long rope of fibers where all of the fibers are going parallel to the roving.
A rug is a form of carpet. It is usually smaller than a carpet. See also: rug making


Sateen is a fabric formed with a satin weave where the floats are perpendicular to the selvage of the goods.
A Satin is a cloth that typically has a glossy surface and a dull back. It is formed by a sequence of broken twill floats in either the warp or weft system, which respectively identify the goods as either a satin or a sateen.
Satin weave
A satin is a broken twill weaving technique that forms floats on one side of the fabric. If a satin is woven with the floats parallel to the selvedge of the goods, the corresponding fabric is termed a "satin." If the floats are perpendicular to the selvedge of the goods, the fabric is termed a 'sateen.'"
A seam, in sewing, is the line where two pieces of fabric are held together by thread.
Seam ripper
A seam ripper is a small tool used for unpicking stitches.
Selvage or Selvedge
The woven edge portion of a fabric parallel to the warp is called selvage.
Serge is a type of twill fabric that has diagonal lines or ridges on both sides, made with a two-up, two-down weave. The worsted variety is used in making military uniforms, suits, great and trench coats. Its counterpart, silk serge, is used for linings. French serge is a softer, finer variety. The word is also used for a high quality woolen woven.
Serging is the binding off of an edge of cloth.
Sewing is an ancient craft involving the stitching of cloth, leather, animal skins, furs, or other materials, using needle and thread. Its use is nearly universal among human populations and dates back to Paleolithic times (30,000 BC). Sewing predates the weaving of cloth.
Shag (fabric) is typically used to make a deep-pile carpets. This is the oldest use of the term. Shag carpet is sometimes evoked as an example of the aesthetic from the culture of the U.S. 1970s. Also used to make carpets for mariners.
In weaving, the shed is the gap between yarns on a loom when one or more, but not all, of the harnesses are raised.
Sheer is a semi-transparent and flimsy cloth.
Recycled or remanufactured wool. Historically generated from loosely woven materials. Benjamin Law invented shoddy and mungo, as such, in England in 1813. He was the first to organise, on a larger scale, the activity of taking old clothes and grinding them down into a fibrous state that could be re-spun into yarn. The shoddy industry was centred on the towns of Batley, Morley, Dewsbury and Ossett in West Yorkshire, and concentrated on the recovery of wool from rags. The importance of the industry can be gauged by the fact that even in 1860 the town of Batley was producing over 7000 tonnes of shoddy. At the time there were 80 firms employing a total of 550 people sorting the rags. These were then sold to shoddy manufacturers of which there were about 130 in the West Riding. Shoddy is inferior to the original wool; "shoddy" has come to mean "of poor quality" in general (not related to clothing), and the original meaning is largely obsolete.
The opal effect achieved on a fabric by dyeing the warp and weft threads different colours. The yarns are dyed first and then woven. When looking at the fabric from various angles it appears to alter in colour, this is more obvious in lustrous fabrics and more so in certain types of weaves.
A shuttle in weaving is a device used with a loom that is thrown or passed back and forth between the threads of the warp to weave in the weft.
Silk is a natural protein fiber that can be woven into textiles. It is obtained from the cocoon of the silkworm larva, in the process known as sericulture, which kills the larvae. The shimmering appearance for which it is prized comes from the fibre's triangular prism-like structure, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles.
Sisal or sisal hemp is an agave Agave sisalana that yields a stiff fiber used in making rope. (The term may refer either to the plant or the fiber, depending on context.) It is not really a variety of hemp, but named so because hemp was for centuries a major source for fiber, so other fibers were sometimes named after it.
Skein is when a length of yarn is bundled in a loose roll rather than put on a cone (as you would purchase from store)- usually done if yarn is going to a dye vat or needs a treatment in a manufacturing/knitting mill environment.
Spandex fiber
Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity (stretchability). It is stronger and more durable than rubber, its major plant competitor. It was invented in 1959 by DuPont, and when first introduced it revolutionized many areas of the clothing industry.
Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials.
Spread Tow Fabrics
Spread Tow Fabrics is a type of lightweight fabric. Its production involves the steps of spreading a tow of higher count, e.g. 12k, into thin-and-wide spread tow tape (STT) and weaving them into a lightweight fabric by employing the novel tape-weaving technique.
Staple is the raw material, or its length and quality, of fiber from which textiles are made.
A stitch is a single turn or loop of the thread or yarn in sewing, knitting, and embroidery.[13]
Stuff is a coarse cloth, sometimes made with a linen warp and worsted weft.
The Super grading system is used to grade the quality of wool fabric. The higher the number, the more yarn is packed in per square inch, therefore all things being equal a super 120s yarn is better than super 100s.


Tablet weaving
Tablet weaving is a process of weaving where tablets, also called 'cards', are used to create the shed that the weft is passed through. It is generally used to make narrow work such as belts or straps.
Tactel is the brand name of a man-made fibre made from nylon.
Taffeta is a type of fabric, often used for fancy dresses.
Tapestry is a form of textile art. It is woven by hand on a weaving-loom. The chain thread is the carrier in which the coloured striking thread is woven. In this way, a colourful pattern or image is created. Most weavers use a naturally based chain thread made out of linen or wool. The striking threads can be made out of silk, wool, gold or silver, but can also be made out of any form of textile.
Tarlatan (alt. sp. tarlaton) is a starched, open-weave fabric, much like cheese cloth. It is used to wipe the ink off a plate during the intaglio inking process. The open weave allows for the tarlatan to pick up a large quantity of ink. The stiffness imparted by the starch helps prevent the fabric from taking the ink out of the incised lines.
A tassel is a ball-shaped bunch of plaited or otherwise entangled threads from which at one end protrudes a cord on which the tassel is hung, and which may have loose, dangling threads at the other end.
Tatting is a technique for handcrafting lace that can be documented approximately to the early 19th century.
Terry cloth
Terry cloth is a type of cloth with loops sticking out. Most bath towels are examples of Terry cloth.
A thimble is a protective shield worn on the finger or thumb.
Threads per inch (TPI)
Threads per inch is the measurement of the number of threads per inch of material, such as fabric, or metal in the case of screws and bolts.
Thread count
The thread count is the number of warp threads per inch plus the number of weft threads.
Tissue is a fine woven fabric or gauze.
Trim or trimming in clothing and home decorating is applied ornament such as gimp, passementerie, ribbon, ruffles, or, as a verb, to apply such ornament.
Tulle is a netting, which is often starched, made of various fibers, including silk, nylon, and rayon, that is most commonly used for veils, gowns (particularly wedding gowns) and ballet tutus.
Tweed is a type of fabric using the twill weave.
Twill tape
Twill tape is a flat twill-woven ribbon of cotton, linen, polyester, or wool.
Twill weave
Twill is a type of fabric woven with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs. It is made by passing the weft threads over one warp thread and then under two or more warp threads. Examples of twill fabric are gabardine, tweed and serge.



Velour is a textile, a knitted counterpart of velvet.
It combines the stretchy properties of knits such as spandex with the rich appearance and feel of velvet.
Velvet is a type of tufted fabric in which the cut threads are very evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it its distinct feel. Velvet can be made from any fiber. It is woven on a special loom that weaves two piece of velvet at the same time. The two pieces are then cut apart and the two lengths of fabric are wound on separate take-up rolls.
Velveteen is a cotton cloth made in imitation of velvet. The term is sometimes applied to a mixture of silk and cotton. Some velveteens are a kind of fustian, having a rib of velvet pile alternating with a plain depression. The velveteen, trade varies a good deal with the fashions that control the production of velvet.
Viscose is an artificial cellulose-based polymer, sometimes used as a synonym for Rayon


The warp is the set of lengthwise threads attached to a loom before weaving begins, and through which the weft is woven.
Warp knit
Warp knit
Water repellent
Water repellent
Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn made of fibre called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. This cloth can be plain (in one color or a simple pattern), or it can be woven in decorative or artistic designs, including tapestries.
The weft is the yarn that is woven back and forth through the warp to make cloth.
Weft knit
Weft knit
Wilton Carpet
Wilton carpet is produced on a specific type of weaving machine called wire loom. Wilton carpets are pile carpets whereby the pile is formed by inserting steel rods in the pile warps of the fabric. After extraction of the rods the pile is looped (in case straight wires have been used) or cut (in case cutting wires are used). Wilton carpet is generally considered as high quality and is used for heavy duty applications. It is named after Wilton, Wiltshire.
Wire loom
Weaving machine for pile fabrics or velvets whereby the pile is made by weaving steel rods or wires into the fabrics. When the wires are extracted the warp ends that have been woven over the wires remain as loops on top of the fabric or will form cut pile if the wire is equipped with a cutting blade. This technique is also known as "épinglé weaving". A wire loom in a much wider version (up to 5 meters of width) and in heavier construction is used for the manufacturing of carpets is called a "WILTON" loom, and the carpets made on such a loom are known as "Wilton Carpets"
The woof is the same thing as the weft.
Wool is the fiber derived from the hair of domesticated animals, usually sheep.
Woolen or woollen is the name of a yarn and cloth usually made from wool.
Worsted fabric
Worsted is the name of a yarn and cloth usually made from wool. The yarn is well twisted and spun of long staple wool (though nowadays also medium and short fibres are used). The wool is combed so that the fibres lie parallel.
Woven fabric
A woven fabric is a cloth formed by weaving. It only stretches in the bias directions (between the warp and weft directions), unless the threads are elastic. Woven cloth usually frays at the edges, unless measures are taken to counter this, such as the use of pinking shears or hemming.



Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving and ropemaking. Yarn can be made from any number of synthetic or natural fibers.


Zibeline is a thick, soft fabric with a long nap.


  1. Beech et al. 1986, p. 5
  2. Picken (1957), p. 8
  3. Industriegeschichte aus dem Bergischen land (in German). (Accessed: 27 November 2016)
  4. WDR digit project. Eisengarnfabrikation in Barmen. (Video (16 min) in German). (Accessed: 27 November 2016).
  5. Bauhaus100. Margaretha Reichardt (Accessed: 27 November 2016)
  6. Kreis Weimarer Land/Angermuseum Erfurt (2009). Margaretha Reichardt 1907-1984 Textilkunst. [Kreis Weimarer Land/Angermuseum Erfurt]:[Erfurt], p19
  7. Picken (1957), p. 130
  8.  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Huckaback". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  9. Jenkins (2003), p. 434
  10. "Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities, 1550-1820". 2007. Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  11. Montgomery (2007), p. 295
  12. "Printed Tablecloths". Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  13. Picken (1957), p. 322


This is a glossary of textile terminology with explanations of terms related to fabrics, knitting, or use of textiles.


Terms Description Category
1 x 1 rib Knit: 1x1 ribbing has one knit stitch, followed by one purl stitch, followed by one knit stitch, and so on; the elasticity depends on the number of knit/purl transitions; 1x1 ribbing is more elastic than 2x2 ribbing, etc.; however, some cable patterns may "pull in" more than ribbing (i.e., have a smaller gauge); in such cases, a ribbed border may flare out instead of contracting Fabrics
5P 5 Pocket Product Groups
ABC always be closing; the traditional slogan that emphasizes the need to be continually moving the customer towards agreement and action within discussions Acronyms
a.k.a. or aka also known as Acronyms
bar tack a series of hand- or machine-made stitches used for reinforcing areas of stress on a garment, such as pocket openings, bottom of a fly opening or buttonholes Workmanship
BC bodycolor Acronyms
BF body fabric Acronyms
bias tape narrow strip of fabric, cut on the bias a.k.a. cross-grain; the strip's fibers makes it stretchier; it is used in making piping, binding seams, finishing raw edges, etc. Fabrics
bias binding folded bias tape used in binding seams Fabrics
binding finishing a seam or hem of a garment, usually by rolling or pressing then stitching on an edging or trim
bleeding the transfer of color (afgeven) Tests
bnd back neck drop Acronyms
BOC nr Bill of Components number Acronyms
BOM Bill of Material Acronyms
bobbin a cylinder or spindle on which yarn or thread is wound (as in the bottom spool in a sewing machine)
brt Bartack
bttn button
bull denim a 3x1 twill weave piece dyed fabric, made from coarse yarns; weights can vary from 9 ounces per square yard (310 g/m2) up to the standard 14 oz/sq yd; bull denim is essentially a denim without indigo Fabrics
canvas a firm, closely woven cloth usually of linen, hemp, or cotton used for clothing and formerly much used for tents and sails; Plain weave, mostly rugged, heavy material made from plyed yarns, has body and strength; it is usually manufactured in the grey state but some is dyed for different uses Fabrics
cap/slv cap sleeve
CB center back Acronyms
CC Comments Client Acronyms
CF center front Acronyms
chambray mostly made of cotton, plain weave or dobby designs on a plain-weave ground, made with a dyed warp and a white or unbleached filling, has a white selvedge; some woven with alternating white and coloured warp; smooth, strong, closely woven, soft and has a slight lustre; wears very well, easy to sew, and launders well; is not crease-resistant, it wrinkles easily (originated in Combrai, France, where it was first made for sunbonnets) Fabrics
chamois cloth of a cotton fabric; fabric is napped, sheared, and dyed to simulate chamois leather; it is stiffer than kasha and thicker, softer and more durable than flannelette; must be designated as "cotton chamoise-colour cloth"; plain weave; used for shirts or in dusters, interlining, storage bags for articles to prevent scratching Fabrics
check a fabric woven or printed with a pattern in squares that resembles a checkerboard Fabrics
Chino cotton a twill (left hand) weave; combined two-ply warp and filling; has a sheen that remains; fabric was purchased in China (thus the name) by the U.S. Army for uniforms; originally used for army cloth in England many years before and dyed olive-drab; fabric is mercerized and sanforized; washs and wears extremely well with a minimum of care. Fabrics
circular knitting also 'knitting in the round', is a form of knitting that creates a seamless tube. Fabrics
Classic CO (Dutch: ontwerp van een doorlopend dessin Styling
Co cotton Fabrics
colorfastness This test is designed to determine the amount of color transferred from the surface of colored textile materials to other surfaces by rubbing; testing is usually done for both wet and dry crocking; assessed by a comparison with the Gray Scale for Staining or the Chromatic Transference Scale (i.e. 1-2-3-4-5); because washing, drycleaning, shrinkage, ironing, finishing, etc., may affect the degree of color transfer from the material, the test may be made before, after or before and after such treatment. Tests
COJ carry over jeans Acronyms
cuff hem of shirt sleeve
DD Delivery Date Acronyms
debossing process for producing sunken designs or relief Artwork
Denier a measure-unit of fineness for rayon, nylon, and silk, based on a standard mass per length of 1 gram per 9,000 meters of yarn Measurement
dexter right side while wearing
drape The way in which cloth falls or hangs
DTM Dye To Match Acronyms
Ea Elasthane Fabrics
embro Embroiderie
embossing process for producing raised designs or relief Artwork
fancy stitch Stitch without function, just for detailing Styling
fastness the color-fastness; the fixedness of a color Tests
feel, the the touch Finishing
felled seam stitching seam by turning under or by folding together the seams of fabric; purpose is to avoid rough edges Workmanship
fnd Front Neck Drop Acronyms
French Terry a variety of terry (or toweling) fabric, which is identified by its uncut looped pile; French terry cloth only has the highly absorbent looped pile on one side of the fabric; the other side is flat and smooth; it can be woven from different kinds of threads and can be stretch or non-stretch. Fabrics
Fully Fashioned knitted to fit the shape of the body Styling
FYI for your information Acronyms
Garment Dyed / GD the dyeing of the final product Finishing
gauge the measurement of the number of stitches and rows per inch of knitting Measurement
gimp a narrow ornamental trim used in sewing or embroidery often stiffened with metallic wire or coarse cord running through it a.k.a. boondoggle
Greige unbleached and undyed or untreated fabric, cloth or yarn Fabrics
Gzt Gunzetal [note: yarn supplier]
hand loom a swatch sample of a woven fabric specially made according to customer's specification Fabrics
HBT Herringbone Tape Acronyms
HDT Heavy Duty Tape Acronyms
Htg Hangtag
HSP Highest shoulder point Acronyms
i/o instead of Acronyms
ICON Raw Icon Program
interlining fabric put between the outer material and the ordinary lining of a garment Fabrics
JKT Jackets Product Groups
L Ligne [note: size of button]
LHS lefthand side / sinister Acronyms
l/s long sleeve Acronyms
look, the the appearance Finishing
loop tag a bartack which is 'loose' in the middle Workmanship
machinist sewing engineer
m/b must be [note: this is not a polite way of communicating] Acronyms
MC matching color Acronyms
MN Marc Newson Program
mockup full-sized scale model of a structure, used for demonstration, study or testing Samples
mock fabric cheap mock fabric that behaves like final fabrics Fabrics
moustache abrasion of lines to imitate pre-worn garment (a.k.a. whiskers) Finishing
NY RAW New York Raw Program
open end spinning a technology for creating yarn without using a spindle; this system is much less labour-intensive and faster than ring spinning Fabrics
outlook expectation (Dutch: vooruitzicht) Finishing
QC Quality Control Tests
O5 Other-5 Product Groups
PA Polyamide [note: a.k.a. nylon] Fabrics
patched on/under panels stitched on top/underneath Workmanship
PES polyester Fabrics
pce Piece
pcs Pieces
PfA Process for Approval Acronyms
P.I. Pro-forma Invoice Acronyms
pilling Unraveled fibers of which the loose ends ball up on the fabric surface Tests
piping a tube of ornamental fabric around the edge of a garment or textile work
pls Please
pre-fab pre fabricated Acronyms
pressed open seam a seam that has two seam allowances that are each pressed flat at its own side of the seam Workmanship
PT ARMY PT Army Program
PO purchase order Acronyms
proto sample before SMS to see the effect and reaction to fabrics artworks and treatments Samples
pttn Pattern
pxs Prices
raw unwashed/untreated Finishing
R.E. Raw Essentials Program
RFD ready for dyeing Acronyms
ring spinning a method of spinning fibres; a characteristic of ring-spun yarn is the uneven texture of the yarn Fabrics
RHS righthand side, or dexter Acronyms
rubbing abrasion/friction (induced wear) Tests
s/b should be Acronyms
scar cut in panel stitched back together again
sheer fabric any very light-weight fabric (e.g.; chiffon, georgette, voile, sheer crepe); usually has an open weave. Fabrics
shrinkage Size-reduction (caused by washing/finishing) Tests
single jersey Single knit fabrics and jersey knits are light to medium weight fabrics with flat vertical ribs on the right side and dominant horizontal lines on the wrong side; fabric stretches from 20 to 25% across the grain. Fabrics
sinister left side while wearing
size spec Measurement Specification (a.k.a. 'Spec') Measurement
slv Sleeve
s/less sleeveless
SMS salesman sample Samples
SMS-zero 1st approved perfect salesman sample used as base for production of SMS-collection Samples
SMS11 and SMS12 two sealed, identical twin salesman sample, used as production reference Samples
S.O.P. standard operating procedure Acronyms
spun yarn a textile yarn spun from staple-length fiber Fabrics
s/off see: strike off Acronyms
s/s short sleeve Acronyms
SS Side Seam Acronyms
Step Sequence of an SMS cycle, from development until sales
strike off a.k.a. "s/off" a 'strike off' is a full-sized cropped section taken from the overall image/artwork; it is produced on the same material with the same finishing as the final product; it provides an exact sample of the final product Samples
submit delivery of a request Samples
SW Sweat Product Groups
swatch a sample strip cut from a piece of material Fabrics
TC textile color Acronyms
TEE T-shirt (a.k.a. 'T') Product Groups
thread count measured by adding the number of warp ends per inch and filling picks per square inch in the woven fabric; the higher the number, the more dense the yarns are packed together Fabrics
tnp top neck point Acronyms
TP textile paper Acronyms
Y/D yarn dyed, the dyeing of the yarn before weaving or knitting Acronyms
wb waistband Acronyms
whiskers abrasion of lines to imitate pre-worn garment (a.k.a. moustache) Finishing
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/29/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.