This office was created in 1842, and it was held by two fudai daimyō who were appointed concurrently. At any given time, one would normally be in residence at Shimoda, and the other would be in Edo as part of an alternating pattern. Conventional interpretations have construed these Japanese titles as "commissioner" or "overseer" or "governor."
List of Shimoda bugyō
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- Beasley, William G. (1955). Select Documents on Japanese Foreign Policy, 1853-1868. London: Oxford University Press. [reprinted by RoutledgeCurzon, London, 2001. ISBN 978-0-19-713508-2 (cloth)]