Second Genoese–Savoyard War
|Second Genoese-Savoyard War|
|Duchy of Savoy||
Republic of Genoa|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Charles Emmanuel II|
The war was launched by Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy, in 1672, but an exiled Genoese named Rafaello della Torre had initially prompted Charles Emmanuel into declaring war. Charles Emmanuel believed that Spain, engaged in hostilities with France in the Franco-Dutch War, would not assist Genoa. Charles Emmanuel’s declaration of war was based on pretexts that were “slight and trivial,” and it was evident that his reasons for going to war were to gain the seaport of Savona.
The Savoyards initially had the upper hand, as the attack on Genoa was unexpected, and the Savoyards occupied Pieve di Teco “and some other Places; but these were soon recovered.”
The Savoyards under the Marquis of Catalan marched to Castelvecchio di Rocca Barbena with plans to fortify it. The Genoese opposed them with a force of 9,000 men and seized all the roads, before the Savoyards could provision themselves. As a result, about 300 Savoyard officers and men departed from Castelvecchio. The remaining forces were overrun on August 15, 1672 by the Genoese.
Some inconclusive battles followed, including a struggle for control of Oneglia. The Genoese advanced towards Oneglia with plans to attack by sea and land, but the Savoyards prevented them.
End of war and aftermath
Louis XIV of France intervened diplomatically in the war to protect French interests. Louis XIV wanted to end the war between Savoy and Genoa before Charles Emmanuel could be completely defeated and a new front of the Franco-Dutch War could be opened in Italy.
Under the mediation of France, peace was concluded at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on January 18, 1673. Both sides returned whatever conquests that they had made.
Since the war ended in defeat for Savoy, “a bitter search for scapegoats followed,” including Marchese di Pianezza, who had a prominent role in this war and was the duke's chief advisor. Pianezza was accused of treason and fled to France.
Savoy’s 1672 war with Genoa also caused civil unrest: it had disrupted trade and resulted in the Savoyard government’s program to levy tolls on goods entering the territory of Mondovì.
In 1684, French naval forces would bombard Genoa for its support of Spain.
- Geoffrey Symcox, Victor Amadeus II: absolutism in the Savoyard State, 1675-1730. International Crisis Behavior Series (University of California Press, 1983), 80.
- Edmund Ludlow, The memoirs of Edmund Ludlow, lieutenant-general of the horse in the army of the commonwealth of England, 1625-1672, Volume 2. Editor: Charles Harding Firth (Clarendon Press, 1894), 438n.
- Ciro Paoletti, A military history of Italy. (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008), 34.
- Joseph Sayer, Samuel Pufendorf (Freiherr von), Antoine Augustin Bruzen de La Martinière, An introduction to the history of the principal states of Europe, Volume 2 (Publisher: Printed for A. Wilde, 1764, 27.
- "World History at KMLA: History of Warfare". KMLA. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- George Procter, The history of Italy: from the fall of the Western empire to the commencement of the wars of the French revolution, Volume 2. (G. B. Whittaker, 1825), 506.
- Geoffrey Symcox, Victor Amadeus II: absolutism in the Savoyard State, 1675-1730. International Crisis Behavior Series (University of California Press, 1983), 85-6.