Scottish independence referendum, 2014
|Scottish independence referendum|
|Should Scotland be an independent country?|
|Date||18 September 2014|
|Note: Saturation of colour denotes strength of vote|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
A referendum on Scottish independence took place on 18 September 2014. The referendum question, which voters answered with "Yes" or "No", was "Should Scotland be an independent country?" The "No" side won, with 2,001,926 (55.3%) voting against independence and 1,617,989 (44.7%) voting in favour. The turnout of 84.6% was the highest recorded for an election or referendum in the United Kingdom since the introduction of universal suffrage.
The Scottish Independence Referendum Bill, setting out the arrangements for this referendum, was passed by the Scottish Parliament in November 2013, following an agreement between the Scottish and the United Kingdom governments, and was enacted as the Scottish Independence Referendum Act 2013. To pass, the independence proposal required a simple majority. With some exceptions, all European Union (EU) or Commonwealth citizens resident in Scotland aged 16 or over could vote, a total of almost 4.3 million people. This was the first time that the electoral franchise was extended to include 16 and 17 year olds in Scotland.
Yes Scotland was the main campaign group for independence, while Better Together was the main campaign group in favour of maintaining the union. Many other campaign groups, political parties, businesses, newspapers and prominent individuals were also involved. Prominent issues raised during the referendum included which currency an independent Scotland would use, public expenditure, EU membership, and North Sea oil.
Formation of the United Kingdom
The Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England were established as independent countries during the Middle Ages. After fighting a series of wars during the 14th century, the two monarchies entered a personal union in 1603 (the Union of the Crowns) when James VI of Scotland also became James I of England. The two nations were temporarily united under one government when Oliver Cromwell was declared Lord Protector of a Commonwealth in 1653, but this was dissolved when the monarchy was restored in 1660. Scotland and England united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, factors in favour of union being, on the Scottish side, the economic problems caused by the failure of the Darien scheme and, on the English, securing the Hanoverian line of succession. Great Britain in turn united with the Kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Most of Ireland left the Union in 1922 to form the Irish Free State; consequently, the full name of the United Kingdom since 1927 is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The Labour Party was committed to home rule for Scotland in the 1920s, but it slipped down its agenda in the following years. The Scottish National Party (SNP) was formed in 1934, but did not achieve significant electoral success until the 1960s. A document calling for home rule, the Scottish Covenant, was signed by 2 million people (out of a population of 5 million) in the late 1940s. Home rule, now known as Scottish devolution, did not become a serious proposal until the late 1970s as the Labour government of James Callaghan came under electoral pressure from the SNP.
A proposal for a devolved Scottish Assembly was put to a referendum in 1979. A narrow majority of votes were cast in favour of change, but this had no effect due to a requirement that the number voting 'Yes' had to exceed 40% of the total electorate.
No further constitutional reform was proposed until Labour returned to power in 1997, when a second Scottish devolution referendum was held. Clear majorities expressed support for both a devolved Scottish Parliament and that Parliament having the power to vary the basic rate of income tax. The Scotland Act 1998 established the new Scottish Parliament, first elected on 6 May 1999, with power to legislate on unreserved matters within Scotland.
2007 SNP administration
A commitment to hold a referendum in 2010 was part of the SNP's election manifesto when it contested the 2007 Scottish Parliament election. The press were largely hostile towards the SNP, with a headline for The Scottish Sun in May 2007 stating – along with an image of a hangman's noose – "Vote SNP today and you put Scotland's head in the noose". As a result of that election, the SNP became the largest party in the Scottish Parliament and formed a minority government led by the First Minister, Alex Salmond.
The SNP administration launched a 'National Conversation' as a consultation exercise in August 2007, part of which included a draft referendum bill, the Referendum (Scotland) Bill. After this, a white paper for the proposed Referendum Bill was published, on 30 November 2009. It detailed 4 possible scenarios, with the text of the Bill and Referendum to be revealed later. The scenarios were: no change; devolution per the Calman Review; further devolution; and full independence. The Scottish government published a draft version of the bill on 25 February 2010 for public consultation; Scotland's Future: Draft Referendum (Scotland) Bill Consultation Paper contained a consultation document and a draft version of the bill. The consultation paper set out the proposed ballot papers, the mechanics of the proposed referendum, and how the proposed referendum was to be regulated. Public responses were invited.
The bill outlined three proposals: the first was full devolution or 'devolution max', suggesting that the Scottish Parliament should be responsible for "all laws, taxes and duties in Scotland", with the exception of "defence and foreign affairs; financial regulation, monetary policy and the currency", which would be retained by the British government. The second proposal outlined Calman-type fiscal reform, gaining the additional powers and responsibilities of setting a Scottish rate of income tax that could vary by up to 10p in the pound compared with the rest of the UK, setting the rate of stamp duty land tax and "other minor taxes", and introducing new taxes in Scotland with the agreement of the UK Parliament, and finally, "limited power to borrow money". The third proposal was for full independence.
In the 3rd Scottish Parliament only 50 of 129 MSPs (47 SNP, 2 Greens, and Margo MacDonald) supported a referendum. The Scottish government withdrew the bill after failing to secure opposition support.
2011 SNP administration
The SNP repeated its commitment to hold a referendum when it published its 2011 Scottish parliamentary election manifesto. Days before the election, Salmond stated that legislation for a referendum would be proposed in the "2nd half of the parliament", as he wanted to secure more powers for the Scottish Parliament via the Scotland Bill first. The SNP gained an overall majority in the election, winning 69 from 129 seats, thereby gaining a mandate to hold an independence referendum.
In January 2012, the UK government offered to legislate to provide the Scottish Parliament with the powers to hold a referendum, providing it was "fair, legal and decisive". This would set "terms of reference for the referendum", such as its question(s), elector eligibility and which body would organise the vote. As the UK government worked on legal details, including the timing of the vote, Salmond announced an intention to hold the referendum in the autumn of 2014. Negotiations continued between the two governments until October 2012, when the Edinburgh Agreement was reached.
The Scottish Independence Referendum (Franchise) Act 2013 was passed by the Scottish Parliament on 27 June 2013 and received Royal Assent on 7 August 2013. On 15 November 2013, the Scottish government published Scotland's Future, a 670-page white paper laying out the case for independence and the means through which Scotland might become an independent country.
The Scottish government announced on 21 March 2013 that the referendum would be held on 18 September 2014. Some media reports mentioned that 2014 would be the 700th anniversary of the Battle of Bannockburn and that Scotland would also host the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the 2014 Ryder Cup. Salmond agreed that the presence of these events made 2014 a "good year to hold a referendum".
Eligibility to vote
Under the terms of the 2010 Draft Bill, the following people were entitled to vote in the referendum:
- British citizens who were resident in Scotland;
- citizens of other Commonwealth countries who were resident in Scotland;
- citizens of other European Union countries who were resident in Scotland;
- members of the House of Lords who were resident in Scotland;
- Service/Crown personnel serving in the UK or overseas in the British Armed Forces or with Her Majesty's Government who were registered to vote in Scotland.
Convicted prisoners were not able to vote in the referendum. The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) earlier ruled that this restriction was unlawful, but Scottish judge Lord Glennie said that he believed the ECHR judgment would apply only to parliamentary elections. Appeals against his ruling were rejected by the Court of Session in Edinburgh and the UK Supreme Court.
The normal voting age was reduced from 18 to 16 for the referendum, as it was SNP policy to reduce the voting age for all elections in Scotland. The move was supported by Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the Scottish Greens.
In January 2012, Elaine Murray MSP of Labour led a debate arguing that the franchise should be extended to Scots living outside Scotland, including the approximately 800,000 living in the other parts of the UK. This was opposed by the Scottish Government, which argued that it would greatly increase the complexity of the referendum and stated that there was evidence from the United Nations Human Rights Committee that other nations "might question the legitimacy of a referendum if the franchise is not territorial".
In the House of Lords, Baroness Symons argued that the rest of the UK should be allowed to vote on Scottish independence, on the grounds that it would affect the whole country. This argument was rejected by the British government, as the Advocate General for Scotland Lord Wallace said that "whether or not Scotland should leave the United Kingdom is a matter for Scotland". Wallace also pointed to the fact that only two of 11 referendums since 1973 had been across all of the United Kingdom. Professor John Curtice also argued that the Northern Ireland sovereignty referendum of 1973 (the "border poll") created a precedent for allowing only those resident in one part of the UK to vote on its sovereignty.
Legality of a referendum
There was debate as to whether the Scottish Parliament had the power to legislate for a referendum relating to the issue of Scottish independence, as the constitution is a reserved matter for the UK Parliament. The Scottish government insisted in 2010 that they could legislate for a referendum, as it would be an "advisory referendum on extending the powers of the Scottish Parliament", whose result would "have no legal effect on the Union".:17 Lord Wallace, Advocate General for Scotland, said in January 2012 that holding a referendum concerning the constitution would be outside the legislative power of the Scottish Parliament and that private individuals could challenge a Scottish Parliament referendum bill.
The two governments signed the Edinburgh Agreement, which allowed for the temporary transfer of legal authority. In accordance with the Edinburgh Agreement, the UK government drafted an Order in Council granting the Scottish Parliament the necessary powers to hold, on or before 31 December 2014, an independence referendum. The draft Order was approved by resolutions of both Houses of Parliament, and the Order, titled The Scotland Act 1998 (Modification of Schedule 5) Order 2013, was approved by Queen Elizabeth II, following the advice of Her Ministers, at a meeting of the Privy Council on 12 February 2013. Under the powers temporarily transferred from Westminster under the section 30 Order, the Scottish Parliament adopted the Scottish Independence Referendum Act 2013, summoning the referendum, defining the question to be asked, giving the date on which the referendum was to be held, and establishing the rules governing the holding of the referendum. The Bill for the Act was passed by the Scottish Parliament on 14 November 2013 and received Royal Assent on 17 December 2013. Under section 36 of the Act, it came into force the day after Royal Assent.
The Electoral Commission was responsible for overseeing the referendum, "with the exception of the conduct of the poll and announcement of the result, and the giving of grants. In its role of regulating the campaign and campaign spending, the Electoral Commission will report to the Scottish Parliament. (...) The poll and count will be managed in the same way as [local] elections, by local returning officers (...) and directed by a Chief Counting Officer".
The Edinburgh Agreement stated that the wording of the question would be decided by the Scottish Parliament and reviewed for intelligibility by the Electoral Commission. The Scottish government stated that its preferred question was "Do you agree that Scotland should be an independent country?" The Electoral Commission tested the proposed question along with three other possible versions. Their research found that the "Do you agree" preface made it a leading question, which would be more likely to garner a positive response. The question was amended to "Should Scotland be an independent country?", which the Electoral Commission found was the most neutral and concise of the versions tested.
Cost and funding
In the 2010 Draft Bill, the Scottish government proposed that there would be a designated organisation campaigning for a 'Yes' vote and a designated organisation campaigning for a 'No' vote, both of which would be permitted to spend up to £750,000 on their campaign and to send one free mailshot to every household or voter in the referendum franchise. There was to be no public funding for campaigns. Political parties were each to be allowed to spend £100,000. This proposed limit on party spending was revised to £250,000 in 2012.
In 2013, new proposals by the Electoral Commission for the 16-week regulated period preceding the poll were accepted. They allowed the two designated campaign organisations to spend up to £1.5 million each and for the parties in Scotland to spend the following amounts: £1,344,000 (SNP); £834,000 (Labour); £396,000 (Conservatives); £201,000 (Liberal Democrats); £150,000 (Greens). An unlimited number of other organisations could register with the Electoral Commission, but their spending was limited to £150,000. Groups spending more than £250,000 were required to submit audited returns to the Commission by 18 March 2015.
According to the Scottish government's consultation paper published on 25 February 2010, the cost of the referendum was "likely to be around £9.5 million", mostly spent on running the poll and the count. Costs would also include the posting of one neutral information leaflet about the referendum to every Scottish household, and one free mailshot to every household or voter in the poll for the designated campaign organisations. As of April 2013, the projected cost of the referendum was £13.3 million.
The campaign in favour of Scottish independence, Yes Scotland, was launched on 25 May 2012. Its chief executive was Blair Jenkins, formerly the Director of Broadcasting at STV and Head of News and Current Affairs at both STV and BBC Scotland. The campaign was supported by the SNP, the Scottish Green Party (which also created "its own pro-independence campaign to run alongside Yes Scotland") and the Scottish Socialist Party. At its launch, Salmond stated that he hoped one million people in Scotland would sign a declaration of support for independence. On 22 August 2014, Yes Scotland announced that the one million target had been surpassed.
The campaign in favour of Scotland remaining in the UK, Better Together, was launched on 25 June 2012. It was led by Alistair Darling, former Chancellor of the Exchequer, and had support from the Conservative Party, Labour Party and Liberal Democrats.
Political advertising on television and radio in the UK was prohibited by the Communications Act 2003, with the exception of permitted party political broadcasts. Three major cinema chains stopped showing adverts by referendum campaign groups after receiving negative feedback from their customers.
In December 2013 the Better Together campaign declared that it had received donations of £2.8 million. Six-figure contributions were made by businessmen Ian Taylor and Donald Houston, and by author C. J. Sansom; almost 27,000 donations of under £7,500 had been received by the same date. A later donation came from writer J. K. Rowling, who announced in June 2014 that she had given £1 million. In the following month, whisky distiller William Grant & Sons announced a donation of approximately £100,000. On 12 August 2014 Better Together announced that it had raised enough money to cover the maximum spending permitted and was no longer accepting donations. This was attributed in part to a large number of small donations being received after the first televised debate between Salmond and Darling.
As of May 2014, the Yes Scotland campaign had declared £4.5 million in cash donations. EuroMillions lottery-winners Chris and Colin Weir gave £3.5 million. A six-figure donation was given by investment fund manager Angus Tulloch; approximately 18,000 donations of less than £7,500 had been made by the same date.
Voting for the referendum commenced on 27 August 2014, with the receipt of ballots by postal voters. As of 15 August, 680,235 eligible voters had registered for postal voting, a 20% increase compared with March 2014. During the postal vote phase, Police Scotland arrested a man from Glasgow on suspicion of selling his vote on eBay.
The registration deadline for referendum voters was 2 September 2014. Several councils reported the processing of "unprecedented" numbers of new registrations, while others received "tens of thousands" of applications in the final week.
Outcome of the vote
The UK government stated that, if a simple majority of the votes cast were in favour of independence, then "Scotland would become an independent country after a process of negotiations". If the majority was against independence, Scotland would continue within the United Kingdom. Further powers would be devolved to the Scottish Parliament as a result of the Scotland Act 2012. The Electoral Commission prepared an information leaflet which confirmed that the UK and Scottish governments had reached agreement on these points. David Cameron said in May 2014 that he believed that the referendum would be "'irreversible and binding". In the event of a majority for Yes, the Scottish Government had proposed an independence date of 24 March 2016. It was suggested that, following the conclusion of negotiations, the UK Parliament would legislate for Scottish independence to take place on the date that had been negotiated. A report by a UK House of Lords committee, published in May 2014, said that the UK could opt to delay the independence date.
In 2013, as part of a European Union (EU) member state, Scottish farmers received £583 million in subsidy payments from the EU under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Annual CAP payments are made to the UK, which then determines how much to allocate to each of the devolved administrations, including Scotland. In the last CAP agreement, farmers in the UK qualified for additional convergence payments because Scottish farmers receive a lower average single farm payment per hectare, mainly due to the mountainous terrain in Scotland. Supporters of independence therefore believed that an independent Scotland would receive greater agricultural subsidies than when part of the UK. Opponents of independence believed that Scottish farmers benefited because the UK was one of the larger EU member states and therefore had a greater say in CAP negotiations. They also questioned whether an independent Scotland would immediately receive full subsidy payments from the EU, as recent new member states had had their subsidies phased in.
Border controls and immigration
The UK has some opt-outs from EU policies. One is the opt-out from the Schengen Area, meaning there are full passport checks for travellers from other EU countries except the Republic of Ireland, which is part of the Common Travel Area (CTA) with the UK. The Scottish government proposed that an independent Scotland should remain outside the Schengen Area and join the CTA, ensuring that no passport controls would be needed at the Anglo-Scottish border. Nicola Sturgeon commented that an independent Scotland would negotiate with the EU to have the same visa arrangements as the UK has.
Alistair Carmichael, the Secretary of State for Scotland, said in January 2014 that it would make sense for Scotland to be in the CTA, but it would have to operate similar immigration policies to the rest of the UK. This position was supported by Home Secretary Theresa May, who said in March 2014 that passport checks should be introduced if Scotland adopted a looser immigration policy. The Conservative MP Richard Bacon said there would be "no reason" for border controls to be implemented.
In the white paper Scotland's Future, the Scottish government pledged to expand childcare provision in an independent Scotland. The paper stated that this policy would cost £700 million, but that this would be financed by increased tax revenue from an additional 100,000 women returning to work.
Scottish Labour leader Johann Lamont said that the policy should be implemented immediately if the Scottish government believed it would have a beneficial effect, but Salmond responded that under devolution the costs of the policy would have to be financed by cuts elsewhere in public expenditure. In March 2014, the National Day Nurseries Association said that the plan could not be implemented unless greater funding was provided by local authorities to private nurseries. A report by the Scottish Parliament Information Centre questioned the economic benefit of the policy, pointing out that there were only 64,000 mothers of children aged between 1 and 5 who were economically inactive. A spokesman for Salmond said that the estimated total 104,000 women would enter the workforce over a longer period, as future generations of mothers would also be able to work, stating: "The key point about the policy is that it doesn't happen on one day or one year and then cease."
The Scottish government proposed that all British citizens who had been born in Scotland would automatically become Scottish citizens on the date of independence, regardless of whether or not they were then living in Scotland. British citizens "habitually resident" in Scotland would also be considered Scottish citizens, even if they already held the citizenship of another country. Every person who would automatically be considered a Scottish citizen would be able to opt out of Scottish citizenship provided they already held the citizenship of another country. The Scottish government also proposed that anyone with a Scottish parent or grandparent would be able to apply for registration as a Scottish citizen, and any foreign national living in Scotland legally, or who had lived in Scotland for at least 10 years at any time and had an ongoing connection to Scotland, should be able to apply for naturalisation as a Scottish citizen. The UK Home Secretary, Theresa May, said future policies of an independent Scottish government would affect whether Scottish citizens would be allowed to retain British citizenship. An analysis paper published by the UK government in January 2014 stated that it was likely that Scots would be able to hold dual citizenship; however, the duality was considered with respect to all other countries, not specifically to the rest of the UK. The possibility of holding dual UK–Scotland citizenships could be subject to the "proof of affinity".
The SNP said that there was a defence underspend of "at least £7.4 billion" between 2002 and 2012 in Scotland and that independence would allow the Scottish government to correct this imbalance. In its white paper, the Scottish government planned that an independent Scotland would have a total of 15,000 regular and 5,000 reserve personnel across land, air and maritime forces by 2026. In July 2013, the SNP proposed that there would be a £2.5 billion annual military budget in an independent Scotland. The House of Commons Defence Select Committee said that the £2.5bn budget was too low. Andrew Murrison, UK Minister for International Security Strategy agreed and said it was "risible" for the SNP to suggest it could create an independent force by "salami-slicing" from current British armed forces units.
The House of Commons defence committee also stated that Scottish independence would have a negative effect on its industry, while the UK government said it would not be willing to build warships in a foreign country. Geoff Searle, the director of BAE Systems' Type 26 Global Combat Ship programme, said in June 2014 that the company had no alternative plan for shipbuilding, but this position was later revised by the Chairman of BAE, who stated that they could resume shipbuilding in the English city of Portsmouth if an independent Scotland was established. The chief executive of Thales, one of Britain's largest defence suppliers, said that if Scotland became independent that this might raise questions about continued investment from his firm.
The Royal United Services Institute said in 2012 that an independent Scotland could set up a Scottish Defence Force, comparable in size and strength to those of other small European states like Denmark, Norway and Ireland, at an annual cost of £1.8 billion. The authors acknowledged that an independent Scotland would "need to come to some arrangement with the rest of the UK" on intelligence-gathering, cyber-warfare and cyber-defence, that the future cost of purchasing and maintaining equipment of its forces might be higher due to smaller orders, and that recruitment and training "may prove problematic" in the early years.
Dorcha Lee, a former colonel in the Irish Army, said that Scotland could eschew forming an army based on inherited resources from the British Army and instead follow an Irish model of a limited self-defence force.
The Trident nuclear missile system is based at Coulport weapons depot and naval base of Faslane in the Firth of Clyde area. While the SNP objects to having nuclear weapons on Scottish territory, British military leaders have said that there is no alternative site for the missiles; in April 2014, several British military leaders co-signed a letter stating that forcing Trident to leave Scottish waters would place the UK nuclear deterrent in jeopardy. Nowhere to Go, a report by Scottish CND, concluded that the removal of Trident from Scotland would force unilateral nuclear disarmament by the United Kingdom, as the weapons have no viable alternative base. A report by the Royal United Services Institute said that relocating Trident would be "very difficult, but not impossible" and estimated that it would take about 10 years and create an additional cost of around £3 billion.
A seminar hosted by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace stated that the Royal Navy would have to consider a range of alternatives, including disarmament. A report in 2013 from the Scotland Institute think tank suggested a future Scottish government could be convinced to lease the Faslane nuclear base to the rest of the UK to maintain good diplomatic relations and expedite NATO entry negotiations.
In 2012 the SNP dropped a long-standing policy of opposition in principle to NATO membership. MSPs John Finnie and Jean Urquhart resigned from the SNP over the policy change. The Scottish Green Party and Scottish Socialist Party remained opposed to continued membership of NATO.
The SNP position that Trident nuclear weapons should be removed from Scotland but that it should hold NATO membership was criticised by Willie Rennie, leader of the Scottish Liberal Democrats, and Patrick Harvie, co-convenor of the Scottish Green Party. Alex Salmond said it would be "perfectly feasible" to join NATO while maintaining an anti-nuclear stance and that Scotland would pursue NATO membership only "subject to an agreement that Scotland will not host nuclear weapons and NATO continues to respect the right of members to only take part in UN sanctioned operations". In 2013, Professor Malcolm Chalmers of the Royal United Services Institute stated that "pragmatists" in the SNP accepted that NATO membership would be likely to involve a long-term basing deal enabling the UK to keep Trident on the Clyde.
The former Secretary General of NATO and Scottish Labour peer Lord Robertson said in 2013 that "either the SNP accept the central nuclear role of NATO ... or they reject the nuclear role of NATO and ensure that a separate Scottish state stays out of the world's most successful defence alliance." General Richard Shirreff criticised SNP proposals for defence and questioned whether other NATO members would accept an independent Scotland that rejected the principle of nuclear deterrence. This was disputed by Mariot Leslie, a former UK permanent representative to NATO, who stated that NATO would not want to disrupt its arrangements by excluding Scotland.
A UK government paper on security stated that Police Scotland would lose access to the intelligence apparatus of the UK, including MI5, SIS and GCHQ. The paper also said that an independent Scottish state would need to build its own security infrastructure. Theresa May commented that an independent Scotland would have access to less security capability, but would not necessarily face a reduced threat. In 2013, Allan Burnett, former head of intelligence with Strathclyde Police and Scotland's counter-terrorism co-ordinator until 2010, said that "an independent Scotland would face less of a threat, intelligence institutions will be readily created, and allies will remain allies". Peter Jackson, professor of security at the University of Glasgow, agreed that Special Branch could form a "suitable nucleus" of a Scottish equivalent of MI5, and that Scotland could forego creating an equivalent of MI6, instead "relying on pooled intelligence or diplomatic open sources" like Canada or the Nordic countries. Baroness Ramsay, a Labour peer and former case officer with MI6, said that the Scottish government's standpoint on intelligence was "extremely naïve" and that it was "not going to be as simple as they think". Nicola Sturgeon stated that Scotland would create its own security service like MI5 to work alongside police and tackle terrorism, cyber attacks and serious organised crime. She also stated that creating an external intelligence agency would remain an option.
The Scottish government and pro-independence campaigners said that a democratic deficit existed in Scotland because the UK was a unitary state that did not have a codified constitution. The SNP also described the unelected House of Lords as an "affront to democracy". The "democratic deficit" label has sometimes been used to refer to the period between the 1979 and 1997 UK general elections, during which the Labour Party held a majority of Scottish seats but the Conservative Party governed the whole of the UK. Alex Salmond said in September 2013 that instances such as this amounted to a lack of democracy, and that "the people who live and work in Scotland are the people most likely to make the right choices for Scotland". In January 2012, Patrick Harvie said: "Greens have a vision of a more radical democracy in Scotland, with far greater levels of discussion and decision making at community level." The Scottish Government intended that an independent Scotland should have a written constitution which "expresses our values, embeds the rights of our citizens and sets out clearly how our institutions of state interact with each other and serve the people".
Menzies Campbell wrote in April 2014 that any democratic deficit had been addressed by creating the devolved Scottish Parliament, and that "Scotland and the Scottish have enjoyed influence beyond our size or reasonable expectation" within the British government and the wider political system. Conservative MP Daniel Kawczynski said in 2009 that the asymmetric devolution in place in the UK has created a democratic deficit for England. This is more commonly known as the West Lothian question, which cites the anomaly where English MPs cannot vote on affairs devolved to Scotland, but Scottish MPs can vote on the equivalent subjects in England. Kawczynski also pointed out that the average number of voters in a parliamentary constituency is larger in England than in Scotland.
During the campaign each of the three main UK parties conducted reviews into devolution, with each recommending that more powers should be devolved to the Scottish Parliament. On the morning prior to a televised debate between Alex Salmond and Alistair Darling, a joint statement was published by Better Together. Co-signed by the 3 main UK party leaders, it stated a commitment to grant Scotland increased power over domestic taxes and parts of the social security system. Boris Johnson, the Conservative mayor of London, stated his opposition to giving the Scottish Parliament greater fiscal powers. During the second televised debate, Salmond challenged Darling to specify which additional powers that could help create greater employment in Scotland would be granted if there was a "no" vote. During a visit to Scotland later that week, David Cameron promised more powers "soon".
On 8 September, former Prime Minister Gordon Brown suggested a timetable for the additional powers to be implemented in the event of a "no" vote. He proposed that work on a new Scotland Act would begin immediately after the referendum, resulting in the publication of a white paper by the end of November 2014. Two days before the referendum, the three main UK party leaders (Cameron, Miliband and Clegg) publicly pledged to introduce "extensive new powers" by the timetable suggested and that the Barnett formula of public funding would be continued.
A principal issue in the referendum was the economy. The UK Treasury issued a report on 20 May 2013 which said that Scotland's banking systems would be too big to ensure depositor compensation in the event of a bank failure. The report indicated that Scottish banks would have assets worth 1,254% of GDP, which is more than Cyprus and Iceland before the last global financial crisis. It suggested Scottish taxpayers would each have £65,000 of potential liabilities during a hypothetical bailout in Scotland, versus £30,000 as part of the UK. Economists including Andrew Hughes Hallett, Professor of Economics at St Andrews University, rejected the idea that Scotland would have to underwrite these liabilities alone. He observed that banks operating in more than one country can be given a joint bailout by multiple governments. In this manner, Fortis Bank and the Dexia Bank were bailed out collectively by France, Belgium, and the Netherlands. The Federal Reserve System lent more than $1 trillion to British banks, including $446 billion to the Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS), because they had operations in the United States.
Robert Peston reported in March 2014 that RBS and Lloyds Banking Group might be forced to relocate their head offices from Edinburgh to London in case of Scottish independence, due to a European law brought in after the 1991 collapse of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International. Financial groups The Royal Bank of Scotland, Lloyds, Clydesdale Bank, TSB and Tesco Bank later announced that they planned to move their registered headquarters from Scotland to England in the event of Scotland voting for independence; most indicated that they had no immediate intention to transfer any jobs.
Weir Group, one of the largest private companies based in Scotland, commissioned a study by Oxford Economics into the potential economic effects of Scottish independence. It found that Weir would pay more corporation tax, despite the Scottish government's proposal to cut the rate of corporation tax, due to it no longer being able to offset losses in Scotland against profits in the rest of the UK. It also stated that independence would result in additional costs and complexity in the operation of business pension schemes. The report found that 70% of all Scottish exports are sold to the rest of the UK, which it said would particularly affect the financial services sector. Standard Life, one of the largest businesses in the Scottish financial sector, said in February 2014 that it had started registering companies in England in case it had to relocate some of its operations there.
In February 2014, the Financial Times noted that Scotland's per capita GDP is bigger than that of France when a geographic share of oil and gas is taken into account, and still bigger than that of Italy when it is not. As of April 2014, Scotland had a similar rate of unemployment to the UK average (6.6%) and a lower fiscal deficit (including as a percentage of GDP) than the rest of the UK. Scotland performed better than the UK average in securing new Foreign Direct Investment in 2012–13 (measured by the number of projects), although not as well as Wales or Northern Ireland. GDP growth during 2013 was lower in Scotland than in the rest of the UK, although this was partly due to an industrial dispute at the Grangemouth Refinery.
Deutsche Bank issued a report in the week prior to the referendum and the media reported on 13 September that David Folkerts-Landau, the bank's chief economist, had concluded: "While it may sound simple and costless for a nation to exit a 300 year-old union, nothing could be further from the truth". Folkerts-Landau claimed that the economic prospects after a "yes" vote were "incomprehensible," citing Winston Churchill's 1925 Gold Standard decision and the actions of America's Federal Reserve that triggered the Great Depression of the 1930s, as other mistakes of a similar magnitude. The Swiss UBS financial services company supported the position of the Deutsche Bank.
Supporters of independence have said that Scotland does not meet its full economic potential because it is subject to the same economic policy as the rest of the UK. In 2013, the Jimmy Reid Foundation published a report stating that UK economic policy had become "overwhelmingly geared to helping London, meaning Scotland and other UK regions suffer from being denied the specific, local policies they need". Later in January 2014, Colin Fox said that Scotland is "penalised by an economic model biased towards the South East of England". In November 2013, Chic Brodie said that Scotland was "deprived" of economic benefit in the 1980s after the Ministry of Defence blocked oil exploration off the West of Scotland, ostensibly to avoid interference with the UK's nuclear weapons arsenal.
Another major economic issue was the currency that would be used by an independent Scotland. The principal options were to establish an independent Scottish currency, join the euro, or retain the pound sterling (a form of currency substitution).
Throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, the SNP's policy was that an independent Scotland should adopt the euro, though this was relegated to a long-term rather than short-term goal by the party's 2009 conference. There was disagreement over whether Scotland would be required to join the euro if it wished to become an EU member state in its own right. All new members are required to commit to joining the single currency as a prerequisite of EU membership, but they must first be party to ERM II for two years, something that requires an own currency. The Scottish government argued that countries have a de facto opt-out from the euro because they are not obliged to join ERM II. For example, Sweden has not yet adopted the euro. The people of Sweden rejected adopting the euro in a 2003 referendum and its government has not joined by refusing to enter ERM II.
The SNP favoured continued use of sterling in an independent Scotland through a formal currency union with the UK, with the Bank of England setting its interest rates and monetary policy and acting as its central bank. The white paper Scotland's Future identified five key reasons that a currency union "would be in both Scotland and the UK's interests immediately post-independence": Scotland's main trading partner is the UK (⅔ of exports in 2011); "companies operating in Scotland and the UK [...have] complex cross-border supply chains"; there is high labour mobility; "on key measurements of an optimal currency area, the Scottish and UK economies score well"; and short-term economic trends in the UK and Scotland have "a relatively high degree of synchronicity".
In June 2012, Alistair Darling said voters in the rest of the UK could choose not to be in a currency union with Scotland. Former Prime Minister Sir John Major rejected the idea of a currency union, saying it would require the UK to underwrite Scottish debt. Another former Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, said the SNP proposal would create a "colonial relationship" between Scotland and Westminster. The Welsh First Minister, Carwyn Jones, said in November 2013 that he would seek a veto on a currency union between Scotland and the rest of the UK.
Yes Scotland said that a currency union would benefit both Scotland and the rest of the UK, as Scotland's exports would boost the balance of payments, and consequently strengthen the exchange rate of sterling. Meanwhile, UK economists and financial experts stated that the effect on the balance of payments and the exchange rate would be "largely neutral". Sterling fell by almost one cent against the US dollar in a day early in September 2014, due to an opinion poll showing a swing towards the Yes campaign. The Financial Times reported a few days later that "Asset managers, investors and pension savers are moving billions of pounds out of Scotland" because of fears that Scotland would leave the UK. The newspaper also reported that "'exit clauses' are being inserted into commercial property contracts in Scotland to allow buyers to scrap deals or renegotiate prices if voters opt for independence".
The Scottish government stated that not having a currency union could cost businesses in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland £500 million in transaction charges when trading with an independent Scotland; Plaid Cymru treasury spokesperson Jonathan Edwards commented that such costs were a "threat to Welsh business". Scottish Labour leader Johann Lamont said that any additional transaction costs would fall largely on Scottish companies, costing businesses in Scotland 11 times more than those in England. The Institute of Directors stated that any new transaction costs would "pale in comparison to the financial danger of entering an unstable currency union."
If Scotland joined a currency union with the UK, some fiscal policy constraints could be imposed on the Scottish state. Banking experts have said that being the "junior partner" in a currency arrangement could amount to "a loss of fiscal autonomy for Scotland". Dr Angus Armstrong of the National Institute of Economic and Social Research wrote that the implicit constraints on its economic policy would be more restrictive than the explicit ones it faces as a member of the UK. Salmond said in February 2014 that an independent Scotland in a currency union would retain tax and spending powers. Gavin McCrone, former chief economic adviser to the Scottish Office, stated that Scotland's retention of the pound would be pragmatic initially, but problematic thereafter if a Scottish government wished to implement independent policies, and he warned that keeping the pound could lead to the relocation of Scottish banks to London.
The Chancellor of the Exchequer, as well as equivalent post-holders in the two other main UK political parties, rejected the idea of a formal currency union with an independent Scotland in February 2014. Shadow Chancellor Ed Balls said the SNP's proposals for a currency union were "economically incoherent", and that any currency option for an independent Scotland would be "less advantageous than what we have across the UK today".
After the three main UK political parties ruled out a formal currency union as a possibility, the Adam Smith Institute said that the economies of Panama, Ecuador and El Salvador "demonstrate that the informal use of another country's currency can foster a healthy financial system and economy". In September 2014, former European Commissioner Olli Rehn stated that an independent Scotland would be unable to meet EU membership requirements if it shared sterling informally, as it would not have an independent central bank. Rehn's comment was disputed by Salmond, who restated his belief that a sterling currency union would be formed and pledged to create the necessary financial institutions.
The Scottish Socialist Party favoured an independent Scottish currency, pegged to sterling in the short term. The Scottish Green Party said that keeping sterling as "a short term transitional arrangement" should not be ruled out, but also said that the Scottish Government should "keep an open mind about moving towards an independent currency". The Jimmy Reid Foundation, in early 2013, described retention of the pound as a good transitional arrangement, but recommended the eventual establishment of an independent Scottish currency to "insulate" Scotland from the UK's "economic instability". Other proponents of an independent Scottish currency included Yes Scotland chairman Dennis Canavan and former SNP deputy leader Jim Sillars.
On 9 September 2014, Mark Carney, governor of the Bank of England, said that a currency union between an independent Scotland and the remainder of the UK would be "incompatible with sovereignty". Carney was involved in a "Q&A" session at the Trades Union Congress and further explained that cross-border ties on tax, spending and banking rules are a prerequisite: "You only have to look across the continent to look at what happens if you don't have those components in place ... You need tax, revenues and spending flowing across those borders to help equalise, to an extent, some of the inevitable differences [across the union]." A spokesperson for the SNP's finance minister responded, saying "Successful independent countries such as France, Germany, Finland and Austria all share a currency – and they are in charge of 100% of their tax revenues, as an independent Scotland would be. At present under devolution, Scotland controls only 7% of our revenues." Carney's comments received vocal support from Darling and the GMB trade union, the latter of which supports the retention of the current UK formation.
Government revenues and expenditure
The Barnett formula has resulted in higher per-capita public spending in Scotland than England. If North Sea oil revenue is calculated on a geographic basis, Scotland also produces more per capita tax revenue than the UK average. The Institute for Fiscal Studies reported in November 2012 that a geographic share of North Sea oil would more than cover the higher public spending, but warned that oil prices are volatile and that oil is a finite resource. The Government Expenditure and Revenue Scotland report for 2012/13 found that North Sea oil revenue had fallen by 41.5% and that Scotland's public spending deficit had increased from £4.6 billion to £8.6 billion.
In May 2014, the UK government published an analysis identifying a "Union dividend" of £1,400 per year for each person in Scotland, mainly due to the higher level of public spending under the Barnett formula. The Scottish government disputed this analysis, saying that each Scot would be £1,000 better off per year under independence by 2030. Three economic experts said that both estimates were possible, but they both depended on unknown variables such as the division of UK government debt, future North Sea oil revenues, possible spending commitments of an independent Scotland and future productivity gains.
In its analysis, the UK government also estimated setup costs of £1.5 billion (1% of GDP) for establishing an independent state, or possibly £2.7 billion (180 public bodies costing £15 million each). Patrick Dunleavy of the London School of Economics criticised the UK government's "ludicrous" use of his research in arriving at the latter figure. The Treasury said that their main figure (£1.5 billion) was based on estimates by professor Robert Young of Western University. Two of the main unionist parties in Scotland called on the SNP to publish their own estimate of the setup costs of an independent state, but the Scottish government said that an estimate was not possible as the final bill would depend on negotiations with the rest of the UK. Professor Dunleavy estimated immediate setup costs of £200 million in a report commissioned by the Sunday Post newspaper, with "total transition costs" of between £600 million and £1,500 million in the first 10 years of independence.
The credit rating that an independent Scotland would merit also became a subject of debate. The credit-rating agency Fitch stated in 2012 that it could not give an opinion on what rating Scotland would have, because Scottish finances would largely depend on the result of negotiations between the UK and Scotland on the division of assets and liabilities. Standard & Poor's, another credit-rating agency, asserted in February 2014 that Scotland would face "significant, but not unsurpassable" challenges, and that "even excluding North Sea output and calculating per capita GDP only by looking at onshore income, Scotland would qualify for our highest economic assessment". Research published by Moody's in May 2014 said that an independent Scotland would be given an A rating, comparable with Poland, the Czech Republic and Mexico. An A rating would be two grades below its current rating for the UK, which Moody's said would be unaffected by Scottish independence.
Most issues regarding energy are controlled by the UK government, although control over planning laws allows the Scottish government to prevent the construction of new nuclear power stations in Scotland. Supporters of independence want to retain a single energy market for the whole of Great Britain after independence, in order to maintain price stability and support for suppliers. Opponents have said that independence would threaten the single energy market. Euan Phimister, professor of economics at Aberdeen University, has said that although independence would affect the relationship, it is likely that there would be continued English demand for electricity generated in Scotland because OFGEM projections suggest that there is little spare capacity. The second largest supplier of energy in the UK, SSE plc, believes that a single market would be the most likely outcome under independence, although it would require negotiations and may involve changes to the existing system.
Labour MP Caroline Flint has said that independence would mean higher energy bills in Scotland, as its customers would have to pay more to support renewable energy in Scotland, which represents one third of the UK total. Euan Phimister has said that bills are likely to increase across the whole of Great Britain because renewable schemes and new nuclear power stations in England are both receiving higher subsidies than the power plants which will shortly close due to environmental regulations. He also said that there is a distinction between existing and proposed renewable schemes in that the existing schemes have already been paid for, whereas any new construction requires the promise of subsidy from the consumer. Energy and Climate Change Secretary Ed Davey stated Scottish generators would no longer be eligible for UK subsidies, which would increase energy bills for consumers.
North Sea oil
Approximately 90% of the United Kingdom's North Sea oil fields are located in Scottish territorial waters. The tax revenue generated from an offshore site is not counted within the nation or region nearest to it, but is instead allocated to the UK Continental Shelf. The revenue from North Sea oil has been used to support current expenditure, rather than creating a sovereign oil fund. The SNP believes that a portion of the revenues should be invested in a sovereign oil fund. The Scottish government, citing industry regulator Oil and Gas UK, estimated in Scotland's Future that there were 24 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe) remaining to be extracted. Sir Ian Wood, founder of oil services company Wood Group, said in August 2014 that he believed there were between 15 and 16.5 billion boe and that the impact from declining production would be felt by 2030. In September 2014, an investigation by industry recruitment website Oil and Gas People stated that there were extensive oil reserves to the west of the Western Isles and Shetland. The report anticipated that the region would be developed within the next 10 years because of improvements in drilling technology, rig design and surveying.
The SNP advocated that an independent Scotland should become a full member state of the European Union (EU) with some exemptions, such as not having to adopt the euro. There was debate over whether Scotland would be required to re-apply for membership, and if it could retain the UK's opt-outs. The European Commission (EC) offered to provide an opinion to an existing member state on the matter, but the British government confirmed it would not seek this advice, as it did not want to negotiate the terms of independence ahead of the referendum.
There is no precedent for an EU member state dividing into two sovereign countries after joining the EU. Supporters of independence stated that an independent Scotland would become an EU member by treaty amendment under Article 48 of the EU treaties. Opponents said that this would not be possible and that an independent Scotland would need to apply for EU membership under Article 49, which would require ratification by each member state.
Christina McKelvie, Convener of the European and External Relations Committee of the Scottish Parliament, in March 2014 asked Viviane Reding, Vice-President of the European Commission, whether Article 48 would apply. Reding replied that EU treaties would no longer apply to a territory when it secedes from a member state. She also indicated that Article 49 would be the route to apply to become a member of the EU. José Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, stated earlier that an independent Scotland would have to apply for membership, while the rest of the UK would continue to be a member. In 2014, he reiterated that Scotland joining the EU would be "extremely difficult, if not impossible".
The former prime minister Sir John Major suggested in November 2013 that Scotland would need to re-apply for EU membership, but that this would mean overcoming opposition to separatists among many existing member states, particularly Spain. It may block Scottish membership of the EU, amid fears of repercussions with separatist movements in Catalonia and the Basque Country: in November 2013 the Spanish Prime Minister, Mariano Rajoy, said: "I know for sure that a region that would separate from a member state of the European Union would remain outside the European Union and that should be known by the Scots and the rest of the European citizens." He also stated that an independent Scotland would become a "third country" outside the EU and would require the consent of all 28 EU states to rejoin the EU, but that he would not seek to block an independent Scotland's entry. Salmond cited a letter from Mario Tenreiro of the EC's secretariat general that said it would be legally possible to renegotiate the situation of the UK and Scotland within the EU by unanimous agreement of all member states. Spain's position was reiterated two days before the referendum by the Spanish European affairs minister, who said "It is crystal clear that any partner member-state that leaves the member state is out of the European Union. If they want to apply again, they would have to follow the procedure of article 49 of the treaties."
Professor Sir David Edward, a former European Court judge, stated that the EU institutions and member states would be "obliged" to start negotiations before independence took effect to decide the future relationship. He said this would be achieved by agreed amendment of the existing Treaties (Article 48), rather than a new Accession Treaty (Article 49). Graham Avery, the EC's honorary director general, agreed with Edward. Avery wrote a report, published by the European Policy Centre, which said that EU leaders would probably allow Scotland to be part of the EU because of the legal and practical difficulties that would arise from excluding it. In a research paper, Professor Sionaidh Douglas-Scott of Oxford University stated that the EU law normally takes a "pragmatic and purposive approach" to issues that are not already provided for by existing treaties. Research published by the Economic and Social Research Council in August 2014 concluded that it was unlikely that an independent Scotland would be cut off from the rights and obligations of EU membership for any period of time, even if Scotland was not formally a member state of the EU from its date of independence.
In January 2013, the Republic of Ireland's Minister of European Affairs, Lucinda Creighton, stated that "if Scotland were to become independent, Scotland would have to apply for membership and that can be a lengthy process"; she later clarified, writing that she "certainly did not at any stage suggest that Scotland could, should or would be thrown out of the EU". In May 2013, Roland Vaubel, an Alternative for Germany adviser, published a paper stating that Scotland would remain a member of the EU upon independence, and suggested there would need to be negotiations between the British and Scottish governments on sharing "the rights and obligations of the predecessor state". Vaubel also said that Barroso's comments on the legal position had "no basis in the European treaties".
Future status of the United Kingdom in the European Union
In January 2013, the British Prime Minister, David Cameron, committed the Conservative Party to a referendum before the end of 2017 on UK membership of the EU if they won the 2015 general election. Legislation for an in/out EU referendum was approved by the House of Commons in November 2013. Studies showed some divergence in attitudes to the EU in Scotland and the rest of the UK. Although a Scottish government review based on survey data between 1999 and 2005 found that people in Scotland reported "broadly similar Eurosceptic views as people in Britain as a whole", Ipsos MORI noted in February 2013 that voters in Scotland said they would choose to remain in the EU in a referendum, while there was a majority for withdrawal in England.
Yes Scotland said that the UK government plans for an EU referendum have caused "economic uncertainty" for Scotland. During a CBI Scotland event attended by Cameron, businessman Mike Rake criticised him for creating uncertainty about EU membership. In response to such criticism, Cameron pointed to examples of inward investment in the UK that he said was not happening in the rest of Europe. Some commentators have suggested that the UK leaving the EU would undermine the case for Scottish independence, since free trade, freedom of movement and the absence of border controls with the UK could no longer be assumed.
Responsibility for health care has been devolved to the Scottish Parliament since it was established in 1999. The Scottish government has enacted health policies which are different from those in England, such as abolishing charges for prescriptions and elderly personal care. NHS Scotland has been operationally independent of the NHS in the rest of the United Kingdom since the formation of the NHS in 1948. Supporters of independence argue that independence is needed because possible reductions in the NHS budget in England would result in reduced funding for Scotland, which would make it difficult to maintain the existing service. Harry Burns, a former chief medical officer for Scotland, said in July 2014 that he thought independence could be beneficial for public health because it may give people greater control of their lives.
In May 2014, about 100 medical workers, including surgeons, consultant doctors, GPs, pharmacists, dentists, hospital porters and janitors joined a pro-independence campaign group called NHS for Yes. Its co-founder described health care in Scotland as "a shining example of self-government for Scotland demonstrably being far better than Westminster government" and said independence would "protect [NHS Scotland] from future Westminster funding cuts, and the damaging impact of privatisation south of the border".
Two days before the referendum, papers indicating "a funding gap of £400–£450m in the next two financial years, 2015–17", for Scotland's NHS, resulting from Scottish government policies, were leaked to the media. A Scottish government spokesperson commented that the papers were from "part of the regular discussions among NHS leaders to plan for NHS Scotland's future".
Opponents of independence say that being part of the UK is crucial in allowing Scots to obtain specialist treatment elsewhere in the UK. At present, NHS Scotland has reciprocal arrangements in place with the NHS services in the rest of the UK and specialist services are shared. Vote No Borders, a unionist campaign group, ran a cinema advert claiming that Scots would find it more difficult to obtain treatment at the Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH), a London facility which specialises in care for children. Vote No Borders withdrew the advert after GOSH complained that it had not been consulted about the advert and stated that they have reciprocal health care agreements with numerous countries.
The white paper on independence proposes that an independent Scotland would open around 100 embassies around the world. David Cameron has suggested an independent Scotland would be "marginalised" at the United Nations, where the UK is a permanent member of the Security Council. John Major has suggested that, after Scottish independence, the remaining UK could lose its permanent seat at the UN Security Council.
A republic is favoured by some pro-independence political parties and organisations, including the Scottish Green Party and the Scottish Socialist Party. The SNP is in favour of an independent Scotland retaining the Queen as head of state. Christine Grahame has said she believes that party policy is to hold a referendum on the matter, due to a 1997 SNP conference resolution.
Some media reports suggested that the announcement on 8 September of the pregnancy of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge with her second child would help pro-union sentiment. The Queen's official position on Scottish independence was neutral. Just prior to the referendum, Elizabeth II said in a private conversation that she hoped people would "think very carefully about the future", a statement quickly published widely in the media.
UK State Pensions are managed by the UK government, paying £113.10 per week to a single person who is of state pension age in 2013/14. The state pension age for men is 65, but this is due to rise to 66 in 2020 and 67 by 2028. Research by the National Institute of Economic and Social Research found that an independent Scotland could delay these increases, due to a lower life expectancy. The Scotland's Future white paper pledged to maintain a state pension at a similar rate to the UK.
Former prime minister Gordon Brown said in April 2014 that Scotland had an above-average share of the public-sector pension bill and concluded that pensions would be protected by sharing risks and resources within the UK. UK government pensions minister Steve Webb said in May 2014 that Scots would be entitled to the current levels of state pension after independence because they had accumulated rights within the existing system. Webb went on to say that there would need to be negotiations between the UK and Scotland as to how these pensions would be paid.
In relation to private pension schemes, a report by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland expressed concern that there were no plans to deal with EU regulations that may affect the funding of cross-border defined benefit schemes. The EC decided in March 2014 not to relax these regulations, which require cross-border schemes to be fully funded.
Scotland hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow, less than two months before the referendum. The Scottish team won a record number of gold medals, which Alan Bisset said would help give voters more belief and confidence. Sunday Herald columnist Ian Bell took an opposing view, saying that sporting success would be unlikely to aid support for independence, due to the lengthy and passionate debate on the subject.
Former Labour first minister Henry McLeish published a report in May 2014 that found no obvious barriers to an independent Scotland competing in the 2016 Summer Olympics. McLeish said that some athletes, particularly those in team sports, may choose to compete for the existing Great Britain team rather than Scotland, as they would be nationals of both states. International Olympic Committee representative Craig Reedie pointed out that Scotland would need to obtain United Nations membership and may want to set its own Olympic qualifying standards, which would need to be done in the period between independence (March 2016) and the closing date for entries (July 2016).
Gordon Brown pointed to the 2012 medal count for Great Britain, saying that it showed the success of a union that included the two nations. Scottish athletes were involved in 13 of the 65 medals won by Great Britain in 2012, but only three of those were won by Scots without assistance from other athletes. Sir Chris Hoy said in May 2013 that it could "take time" for Scottish athletes to "establish themselves in a new training environment", indicating that the good performance of Scottish athletes in the Great Britain team would not automatically translate into that of an independent Scotland team. Hoy also said that he believed the lack of facilities and coaching infrastructure in Scotland would have to be addressed by an independent state.
Status of Northern and Western Isles
The prospect of an independent Scotland raised questions about the future of the Northern Isles (Orkney and Shetland) and the Western Isles, island groups off the Scottish mainland. Some islanders called for separate referendums to be held in the islands on 25 September 2014, one week after the Scottish referendum. In March 2014, the Scottish Parliament published the online petition it had received calling for such referendums, which was supported by Shetland MSP Tavish Scott. The proposed referendums would have asked islanders to choose from three options: that the island group should become an independent country; that it should remain in Scotland; or that (in the event of Scottish independence) it should remain in the UK. The third option would have implemented a conditional promise made in 2012 by an SNP spokesperson, who said that Orkney and Shetland could remain in the United Kingdom if their "drive for self-determination" was strong enough.
Politicians in the three island groups referred to the Scottish referendum as the most important event in their political history "since the inception of the island councils in 1975". Angus Campbell, leader of the Western Isles, said that the ongoing constitutional debate offered the "opportunity for the three island councils to secure increased powers for our communities to take decisions which will benefit the economies and the lives of those who live in the islands". In a meeting of the island councils in March 2013, leaders of the three territories discussed their future in the event of Scottish independence. This included whether the islands could demand and achieve autonomous status within either Scotland or the rest of the UK. Among the scenarios proposed were achieving either Crown Dependency status or self-government modelled after the Faroe Islands, in association with either Scotland or the UK. Steven Heddle, Orkney's council leader, described pursuing Crown Dependency status as the least likely option, as it would threaten funding from the EU, which is essential for local farmers. Alasdair Allan, MSP for the Western Isles, said independence could have a positive impact on the isles, as "crofters and farmers could expect a substantial uplift in agricultural and rural development funding via the Common Agricultural Policy if Scotland were an independent member state of the EU".
In July 2013, the Scottish government made the Lerwick Declaration, indicating an interest in devolving power to Scotland's islands. By November, it had made a commitment to devolve further powers to Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles in the event of independence. Steven Heddle called for legislation to that effect to be introduced regardless of the referendum result.
A day before the referendum Alistair Carmichael, the MP for Orkney and Shetland, and then-Secretary of State for Scotland, suggested that if Shetland were to vote strongly against independence but the Scottish national vote was narrowly in favour, then a discussion should be had about Shetland becoming a self-governing crown dependency outside of independent Scotland, similar to the Isle of Man. He stated that he did not want such circumstances to arise, "and the best way to avoid this was to vote no in the referendum."
In 2012–13, Scottish universities received 13.1% of Research Councils UK funding. Alan Trench of University College London has said that Scottish universities receive a "hugely disproportionate" level of funding and would no longer be able to access it following independence. Willie Rennie, leader of the Scottish Liberal Democrats, has suggested that independence would mean Scottish universities losing £210m in research funding. The Institute of Physics in Scotland warned that access to international facilities such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider, the European Space Agency, and European Southern Observatory could require renegotiation by the Scottish government. It also expressed concerns about research funding from UK charities and the reaction of international companies with Scottish facilities.
The Scottish government's education secretary, Michael Russell, has said that Scotland's universities have a "global reputation" that would continue to attract investment after independence. In September 2013, the principal of the University of Aberdeen said that Scottish universities could continue to access UK research funding through a "single research area" that crossed both nations' boundaries. David Bell, professor of economics at the University of Stirling, said that cross-border collaboration might continue, but Scottish universities could still lose their financial advantage. Roger Cook of the Scotland Institute pointed out that although Scottish universities do receive a higher share of Research Councils funding, they are much less dependent on this as a source of funding than their counterparts in England. Professors from Scotland's five medical schools have written an open letter warning that independence would mean Scotland's researcher base being "denied its present ability to win proportionately more grant funding".
Questions have been asked whether Scotland, as an economy of a smaller size than the UK, would still support the same level of research activity, and what additional efforts might be required to establish a system of research councils "north of the border". Jo Shaw, Salvesen chair of European institutions at the University of Edinburgh, noted that in smaller states, relationships between universities and research funders become "cosy", and lead to a "corporatist" approach.
Students domiciled in Scotland do not pay tuition fees. Students domiciled in the rest of the UK are charged fees of up to £9,000 per annum by Scottish universities, but those from other EU member states are not charged fees, in order to comply with EU law.
If Scotland became an independent state, students from the rest of the UK would be in the position in which students from the rest of the EU are. A University of Edinburgh study found that this would cause a loss in funding and could potentially squeeze out Scottish students. The study suggested three courses of action for an independent Scotland: introduce tuition fees for all students; negotiate an agreement with the EU where a quota of student places would be reserved for Scots; or introduce a separate admissions service for students from other EU member states, with an admission fee attached. It concluded that the EU may allow a quota system for some specialist subjects, such as medicine, where there is a clear need for local students to be trained for particular careers, but that other subjects would not be eligible. The study also found that their third suggestion would run against the spirit of the Bologna agreement, which aims to encourage EU student mobility.
The Scottish government stated in its white paper, Scotland's Future, that the present tuition fees arrangement would remain in place in an independent Scotland, as the EU allows for different fee arrangements in "exceptional circumstances". Jan Figel, a former EU commissioner for education, said in January 2014 that it would be illegal for an independent Scotland to apply a different treatment to students from the rest of the UK. The Law Society of Scotland concurred. A report by a House of Commons select committee stated that it would cost an independent Scottish government £150 million to provide free tuition to students from the rest of the UK. A group of academics campaigning for independence expressed concern that the present arrangements would not continue if Scotland stayed within the UK, due to public spending cuts in England and the consequential effects of the Barnett formula.
The Yes campaign has argued that control of welfare policy would be a major benefit of independence. According to the Institute for Fiscal Studies, independence would "give the opportunity for more radical reform, so that the [welfare] system better reflects the views of the Scottish people". Yes Scotland and deputy first minister Nicola Sturgeon have said the existing welfare system can only be guaranteed by voting for independence. In September 2013, the Scottish Council for Voluntary Organisations (SCVO), which represents charities, called for a separate welfare system to be established in Scotland.
In November 2013, the Scottish government pledged to use the powers of independence to reverse key aspects of the Welfare Reform Act 2012, which was implemented across the UK despite opposition from a majority of Scotland's MPs. It said it would abolish Universal Credit and the bedroom tax. The SNP has also criticised Rachel Reeves, Labour's shadow secretary of state for work and pensions, for saying a future UK Labour government would be even tougher on benefits than the Cameron ministry.
In January 2012, sources close to the prime minister told The Scotsman that "a unified tax and benefit system is at the heart of a united country" and that these powers could not be devolved to Scotland after the referendum, though Liberal Democrat Michael Moore said in August 2013 that devolution of parts of the welfare budget should be "up for debate". Labour politician Jim Murphy, a former Secretary of State for Scotland, has argued that he is "fiercely committed" to devolving welfare powers to the Scottish Parliament, but also warned that independence would be disruptive and would not be beneficial. Scottish Labour's Devolution Commission recommended in March 2014 that some aspects of the welfare state, including housing benefit and attendance allowance, should be devolved.
Feminist economist Ailsa McKay, a supporter of the Radical Independence movement, argued that an independent Scotland should change its welfare system dramatically by offering all its people a basic income.
A number of demonstrations in support of independence were co-ordinated since the announcement of the referendum. The March and Rally for Scottish Independence in September 2012 drew a crowd of between 5,000 and 10,000 people to Princes Street Gardens. The event was repeated in September 2013; police estimated that over 8,000 people took part in the march, while organisers and the Scottish Police Federation claimed between 20,000 and 30,000 people took part in the combined march and rally. The March and Rally was criticised in both 2012 and 2013 for the involvement of groups like the Scottish Republican Socialist Movement and Vlaamse Volksbeweging.
Five days before the referendum vote, the Orange Order – a Protestant brotherhood – held a major anti-independence march and rally in Edinburgh. It involved at least 15,000 Orangemen, loyalist bands and supporters from Scotland and across the UK, and was described as the biggest pro-Union demonstration of the campaign up to that date. A rally for UK unity, organised by the Let's Stay Together campaign, was attended by 5,000 people in London's Trafalgar Square on the Monday preceding the referendum. Similar events were held in London, Bristol, Leeds, Cardiff, Manchester and Belfast on the day before the referendum.
Labour MP Jim Murphy conducted a Scotland-wide tour while campaigning for the No side, with the objective of visiting 100 towns and cities in 100 days before the referendum. On 28 August he suspended his tour, after being hit by an egg in Kirkcaldy, resuming his public speaking again on 3 September. Murphy said that he had been subjected to "co-ordinated abuse" from Yes supporters and pointed to evidence on social media to support this. Better Together released footage of events in the tour where he was heckled by members of the public, some of whom called him a "traitor", "parasite", "terrorist" and "quisling". David Cameron said that "there's nothing wrong with a bit of heckling, but throwing things isn't necessarily part of the democratic process". Alex Salmond pointed out that people had "every entitlement to peaceful protest", but also said that "people shouldn't throw eggs at somebody full stop".
At the launch of the Yes Scotland campaign in May 2012, Alex Salmond said that the case for independence would be driven by community activism and "online wizardry".
The not-for-profit and non-partisan What Scotland Thinks project tracked poll and survey data, including online activity, during the referendum campaign. Using data from the Applied Quantitative Methods Network (AQMeN) research centre, the project compiled the social media activity of the two main campaigns, Yes Scotland and Better Together, by monitoring their respective Facebook and Twitter accounts since August 2013. What Scotland Thinks published a report in February 2014 stating that the Yes Scotland campaign was gaining more Facebook likes. Following the launch of the White Paper on 26 November, the average gap between the two Facebook pages grew from about 8,000 to about 23,000 by February 2014. Analysis of the campaigns' Twitter accounts showed the gap between the campaigns increased from approximately 8,000 followers in August 2013 to 13,804 followers in February 2014, in favour of Yes Scotland. The project published a further report in June 2014 saying that greater online activity for Yes Scotland had continued.
Professor Michael Keating said in April 2014 that the pro-independence movement was visibly stronger and fighting a "ground war", while unionist supporters were fighting an "'air war' of facts and figures".
The launch of online celebrity videos from both viewpoints was reported by the media in mid-July 2014. The "Let's Stay Together" campaign group produced a YouTube video called "'Scotland, you're my best friend'", featuring John Barrowman, Ross Kemp and Eddie Izzard. A pro-independence video was produced by Yes Scotland and appeared on the campaign's YouTube channel. Titled "✘ on September 18th #voteYes", the video features 32 people, including David Hayman, Martin Compston and Stuart Braithwaite.
The pro-independence organisation National Collective was identified by the Independent newspaper as the initiators of an online hashtag campaign that began in mid-August 2014. Writing for the Independent, Antonia Molloy said that the previous "#IndyReasons" hashtag campaign served as the inspiration for the "#YesBecause" campaign that was observed on the Twitter, Facebook and Vine social media platforms. From 21 August, users were invited to explain their reasons for voting "Yes" and #YesBecause was trending on Twitter after an hour from the launch. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) reported on 22 August that a "#NoBecause" campaign emerged in opposition to the Collective.
Debates over the issue of independence took place on television, in communities, and within universities and societies since the announcement of the referendum. The STV current affairs programme Scotland Tonight televised a series of debates: Nicola Sturgeon v Michael Moore, Sturgeon v Anas Sarwar, Sturgeon v Alistair Carmichael and Sturgeon v Johann Lamont. On 21 January 2014, BBC Two Scotland broadcast the first in a series of round-table debates, which was filmed in Greenock and chaired by James Cook.
The Yes campaign repeatedly called for there to be a televised debate between UK Prime Minister David Cameron and First Minister of Scotland Alex Salmond. These calls for a one-on-one debate were dismissed by Cameron on the basis that the referendum is "for Scots to decide" and the debate should be "between people in Scotland who want to stay, and people in Scotland who want to go". Calls for such a debate were also supported by former Prime Minister Gordon Brown who said it would be a "good idea". Better Together chairman Alistair Darling accused Salmond of "running scared" from debating him instead, although Sturgeon stated in 2013 that a Salmond–Darling debate would take place at some point. Darling refused a public debate with Yes Scotland chairman Blair Jenkins. UKIP leader Nigel Farage also challenged Salmond to debate, but Farage was dismissed by an SNP spokeswoman as "an irrelevance in Scotland".
After weeks of negotiation, a debate between Salmond and Darling was arranged. The programme, titled as Salmond & Darling: The Debate, was broadcast by STV on 5 August 2014. The debate, moderated by Bernard Ponsonby, saw both politicians make opening statements and cross-examine each other before taking questions from the audience. At the end of the clash, they were both given the chance to make a closing speech. Both campaign groups claimed victory in the debate. A snap poll conducted by ICM stated Darling won the debate by 56% to 44%. In his analysis of the ICM poll, Professor John Curtice detected little movement either way as a result of the debate.
A second debate between Salmond and Darling, titled Scotland Decides: Salmond versus Darling was shown on BBC One Scotland (and BBC Two in the rest of the UK) on 25 August, and was hosted by Glenn Campbell. Salmond was perceived to have won the debate, and a snap poll conducted by ICM Research stated Salmond won the debate by 71% to 29%.
Accusations of BBC bias
In January 2014, a year-long academic study by Dr John Robertson at the University of the West of Scotland found that coverage by the BBC and the Scottish commercial channel STV had favoured the No campaign, although Robertson conceded that this was partly due to there being more major political parties in favour of No. In March 2014, BBC Scotland chiefs appeared before a Scottish Parliament committee to face questions from MSPs about the broadcaster's coverage. During that session, BBC Scotland director Ken MacQuarrie disputed the findings of Dr Robertson's study, saying that its conclusions were largely based upon "flawed analysis" and had contained factual errors.
During the latter stages of the campaign there were further allegations by some independence supporters that the BBC – the UK's national broadcaster – was biased against Scottish independence. In an interview for the Sunday Herald, Alex Salmond said he believed the BBC had been unconsciously biased against independence. Former BBC journalist Paul Mason commented: "Not since Iraq have I seen BBC News working at propaganda strength like this". The BBC replied that "Our coverage of the referendum story is fair and impartial in line with the editorial guidelines". Alex Massie wrote in The Spectator that the BBC's coverage was consistent with their attitude towards other government proposals of such magnitude and that it was incumbent upon the Yes campaign to prove its assertions.
On 29 June, several hundred independence supporters gathered in a demonstration outside the BBC Scotland headquarters in Glasgow in protest at the BBC's alleged bias. A week before the vote, BBC political editor Nick Robinson said in a news item that Salmond "didn't answer" his questions at a press conference.
Several thousand independence supporters protested at the BBC Scotland headquarters, accusing the BBC of broadcasting pro-Union "propaganda" and "lies". The Independent reported that the protesters accused Robinson of conniving "with the Treasury to spread lies about the dangers to business and financial services of an independent Scotland". Alastair Campbell said that the "organised protests" amounted to media censorship "not far off" Vladimir Putin's Russia, telling Twitter users they should "Vote YES for intimidation". The National Union of Journalists (NUJ) asked people to think about the implications of alleging journalistic bias when its members were only asking difficult questions. Robinson later expressed his "regret" at using the phrase "didn't answer" in his report and criticised the protests.
Speaking after the referendum, Yes Scotland chief executive Blair Jenkins said that he did not believe there was a "systemic bias" against Yes or any "corporate intent to disadvantage the Yes campaign".
In addition to the incidents described above, there were reports of intimidation during the campaign. A survey of the 133 business leaders who signed a public letter backing the Union reported that half of respondents "said that they had felt intimidated or pressurised by SNP or the Yes campaign as a result of their views". The Daily Telegraph reported that other businesspeople had been unwilling to express an opinion on the referendum publicly because they were concerned about a loss of business from the SNP-led Scottish government or local government. The NUJ called for abuse and bullying of its members, which had been led by online attacks, to end, commenting that, "For the duration of the referendum there has been hostility to journalists doing their jobs". The Scottish Police Federation stated that criminal acts related to the referendum were few in number and criticised those "suggesting a minority of mindless idiots are representative of anything".
Professor John Curtice stated in January 2012 that polling showed support for independence at 32%–38% of the Scottish population, a slight decline from 2007, when the SNP first formed the Scottish government. By 2012, there had been no poll evidence of majority support for independence, although the share "vehemently opposed to independence" had declined. According to Curtice, the polls were stable during most of 2013, with "no" leading by an average of 17% with a year to go. Polling expert Nate Silver said in 2013 that the yes campaign had "virtually no chance" of winning the referendum. Silver later said that although his prediction had been proven "right", he had done little research beforehand.
The gap narrowed after the release of the Scottish government white paper on independence: an average of 5 polls in December 2013 and January 2014 gave 39% yes and 61% no, once 'don't knows' had been excluded. The polls tightened further after the Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, stated in February that the UK government was opposed to a currency union; the average yes support increased to 43%, once 'don't knows' had been excluded. There was little movement in the following months, with the average continuing to show 43% yes and 57% no (excluding don't knows) in July 2014 and August 2014.
In September, polls indicated that the vote would be closer than was indicated earlier. On 6 September a YouGov poll gave those in favour 47% versus 45% for those against; excluding those undecided, the figures were 51% and 49%, respectively. The final polls, taken in the last few days of the campaign, indicated a lead for No of 4–6%. There was no exit poll; instead, soon after polling stations had closed, YouGov released a final poll that had been taken during the day of voting, indicating 46% Yes, 54% No.
Writing after the referendum, Nate Silver pointed out that the final margin of victory for No was greater than that indicated by the opinion polls. He suggested that this could have been due to less enthusiastic voters being more pro-Union, which may not have been reflected in the polls.
The Scottish Independence Referendum Bill identified the Convener of the Electoral Management Board for Scotland as Chief Counting Officer for the referendum. The Chief Counting Officer, Mary Pitcaithly, was supported by a Counting Officer in each of the 32 local authority areas of Scotland, who was typically the Chief Executive for that local authority. Each Counting Officer had a referendum team, which included:
- Electoral Registration Officers. They compiled and maintained the electoral register and lists of postal and proxy voters.
- Presiding Officers (one per polling place). They were responsible for the overall management of the polling place.
- Poll Clerks. They assisted the Presiding Officer at their polling place.
- Polling Station Inspectors (optional). They toured the area polling stations (the specific part/room of the polling place in which votes were cast).
Voting places and times
Voting took place between 07:00 and 22:00 BST in "polling places", which included schools, church halls, libraries and community centres. Those who were still queuing when polls closed were not denied the chance to vote.
Count of votes
Counting began after polls closed. Votes from the 32 local government areas were counted and announced by each area separately. Results came in during the early hours of 19 September, with the first result being from Clackmannanshire, and the last being from Highland.
55.3% voted against independence, with a turnout of 84.6%. 28 of the 32 council areas voted "No", although the four areas that voted "Yes" (Dundee, Glasgow, North Lanarkshire and West Dunbartonshire) contained over 20% of the Scottish electorate.
The overall turnout of 84.6% was very high for Scotland. Turnout was around 50–60% for elections to the Scottish and UK parliaments in the early 21st century. The most recent United Kingdom general election with a comparable turnout was in 1950, when 83.9% voted. The last ballot in the United Kingdom with a higher turnout than 84.6% was in January 1910, when no women and fewer men were allowed to vote (i.e. before universal suffrage applied to UK elections). Of the 32 areas, East Dunbartonshire had the highest turnout at 91.0%, and Glasgow the lowest at 75.0%.
An academic study, surveying 5,000 Scottish voters soon after the referendum, found that the majority for No was formed by an "unusual alliance" of the very young, average earners, Protestants and women. The study supported polling evidence that there was a gender gap, but countered beliefs that higher earners had supported No and that younger voters had mostly voted Yes.
|Invalid or blank votes||3,429||0.09|
|Registered voters and turnout||4,283,392||84.59|
|Voting age population and turnout||4,436,428||81.67|
|Source: BBC News, General Register Office for Scotland|
|Local authority||Yes votes||No votes||Yes (%)||No (%)||Valid votes||Turnout (%)|
|Argyll and Bute||26,324||37,143||41.5%||58.5%||63,467||88.2%|
|Dumfries and Galloway||36,614||70,039||34.3%||65.7%||106,653||87.5%|
|Perth and Kinross||41,475||62,714||39.8%||60.2%||104,189||86.9%|
Reactions to the result
Queen Elizabeth II issued a politically neutral statement following the referendum, stating that it was "a result that all of us throughout the United Kingdom will respect". She said that she and her family would support all efforts to "work constructively for the future of Scotland and indeed all parts of this country".
Prime Minister David Cameron said he was "delighted" with the result, adding: "it would have broken my heart to see our United Kingdom come to an end and I know that this sentiment was shared not just by people across our country but also around the world". While attending a public event with Michael Bloomberg later in September, Cameron told Bloomberg that the Queen had "purred down the line" when he informed her of the result. Cameron admitted he was "very embarrassed" for revealing the Queen's political view, which she had guarded in her own comments.
Alex Salmond, the Scottish First Minister and leader of the SNP, stated that he accepted the "verdict of the people" and called upon "all Scots to follow suit in accepting the democratic verdict of the people of Scotland". He called the referendum a "triumph for the democratic process and for participation in politics". He also resigned as SNP leader and as Scottish First Minister, saying that "for me as leader my time is nearly over but for Scotland the campaign continues and the dream shall never die".
There was a large international reaction to the results of the Scottish independence referendum. The White House congratulated Scotland on their "full and energetic exercise of democracy". President Barack Obama noted the "debate, discussion, and passionate yet peaceful deliberations" and welcomed the result, saying he looked forward to "continuing our strong and special relationship with all the people of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
John Baird, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Canada, welcomed the decision and praised the conduct of the referendum. The Premier of Quebec, Philippe Couillard, said that there were limited comparisons between Scotland and Quebec, where the sovereignty movement lost referendums in 1980 and 1995, and suggested a devolved model similar to federalism as a possible future model for the UK: "I think that if the Scots had what we have, Quebecers within Canada, they probably would be quite happy". Stéphane Bédard, leader of the Parti Québécois, described himself as "disappointed" by the result.
German Chancellor Angela Merkel said that, "We [the German government] have always respected the fact that this referendum was called and that the central government in London agreed to this. And now we respect the outcome of it as well". When asked how she felt about the result she replied "I will not comment on this but just smile".
The Prime Minister of Ireland, Enda Kenny, stated that the Irish government would respect the "democratic decision that Scotland should remain as part of the United Kingdom", he went on to say how "As neighbours, friends and partners across political, economic, cultural and many other spheres, relations between Ireland and Britain have never been stronger. We look forward to working with all parties across these islands in the years ahead. The Good Friday Agreement of 1998 is the historic template for harmonious and mutually beneficial development of the totality of relationships among the peoples of these islands. In particular, it has led to a transformation in relationships between the two great traditions on this island".
Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of Italy, released a statement saying that "The Italian government, also in its capacity as duty president of the EU, hails the result of the vote democratically expressed by the Scottish people," he later sent a message to David Cameron where he said that Scotland "recognised and appreciated diversity" without "fragmenting".
In a press release following the referendum, the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated: "It is an understandable and logical desire of the Scottish people for the central authorities to guarantee respect for their national and cultural identity, language and traditions and also give them more independence to take decisions on Scotland's socioeconomic development and its standing in the united state. We have noted that the UK government has extended concrete promises in this regard. We believe that these factors are extremely important not only for Scotland but also in the general context of devolution processes".
Facing the result of the referendum, Erna Solberg, Prime Minister of Norway, stated to Norwegian broadcaster NRK she was 'glad' Scotland chose to remain in union and that Scottish independence could have become challenging for Norway as a neighbouring country.
Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy, in a video message, said that the Scottish have avoided serious consequences and "have chosen the most favourable option for everyone; for themselves, for all of Britain and for the rest of Europe". Iñigo Urkullu, the President of the Basque Country, stated on the day of the referendum that as the British Government had allowed Scotland to freely decide its own future, the responsibility of the Basque government was to "follow Scotland's footsteps" in securing a similar agreement in Spain. Artur Mas, President of the Generalitat of Catalonia, described the referendum as a model for a future vote in the Catalonia, and said "What happened in Scotland is not a setback for us, because what we really want in Catalonia is to have the chance to vote". On the day after the Scottish referendum, the Catalan parliament voted to hold a "popular consultation" on Catalan independence, which was scheduled for 9 November 2014. The Spanish government has said that such a vote would be unconstitutional, but the non-binding Catalan self-determination referendum was held anyway. The large majority (80%) voted to make Catalonia an independent country, although two-thirds of Catalans did not participate in the referendum.
Allegations of voting irregularities
During a BBC results broadcast, Scottish Conservative leader Ruth Davidson said that No campaigners had been "taking tallies" of postal votes and that those showed that No was in the lead. This resulted in complaints to the Electoral Commission because the Scottish Independence Referendum Act 2013 states that people attending proceedings related to the receipt of postal votes must not attempt to ascertain the outcome or "communicate any information" from that voting. The Electoral Commission, who cannot investigate criminal allegations, passed the complaints onto Police Scotland. A formal investigation was subsequently opened.
According to official Russian observers, the conditions under which the votes were counted were not up to international standards and that the procedure used made it impossible to check on irregularities. Russia's criticism came just months after the international community rejected the results of a Kremlin-backed referendum held in the Russian-occupied Ukrainian territory of Crimea. Russian officials said that the strong performance of the SNP in the 2015 UK general election confirmed their suspicions about the Scottish referendum.
A petition demanding a second referendum, based on allegations of vote miscounting, gained more than 70,000 signatures in 24 hours. The petitioners referred to news footage that they claim showed unprocedural emptying of the boxes, a vote-counter placing Yes-votes between No-votes, an official filling in ballot papers, and Yes-votes on top of stacks placed on No-votes sorting tables, as well as to false fire-alarms and subsequent evacuation of polling stations. In response, the Chief Counting Officer, Mary Pitcaithly, declared that the referendum had been "properly conducted". An official spokesperson reiterated this point, saying that they were "satisfied that all counts throughout Scotland were properly conducted" and that incidents in the footage could be "easily explained" and were being presented as a "'conspiracy' theory".
Violence in Glasgow
On the night of 19 September, hundreds of unionists arrived to celebrate the 'No' vote and some attacked independence supporters who had gathered in George Square, Glasgow. Many of the unionists waved Union Jacks or loyalist flags and chanted "Rule, Britannia!" Some appeared to make Nazi salutes and shouted racist abuse. Police officers were drafted in to separate the groups but some unionists broke through police lines. A number of people were reportedly beaten and bottles were thrown. A press photographer told The Scotsman he saw people being "kicked about" and was forced to flee after being threatened. By the end of the following month, the police had made 32 arrests in relation to the events. The violence was condemned by politicians from both the 'Yes' and 'No' camps.
Increase in political activism
In the weeks following the referendum, thousands of people joined the Scottish National Party, the Scottish Green Party or the Scottish Socialist Party, which had all supported a 'Yes' vote. The parties claimed that many of the new members were former Scottish Labour Party members. By 2 October, SNP membership had trebled from 25,000 to 75,000, making it the third largest political party in the UK. Conservative MP David Mundell said that 80,000 people had signed up to their "Friends of the Union" group during the campaign. These people had not necessarily become full members of the Conservative Party because they were not focused on increasing the number of "card-carrying" members.
Following the referendum there were calls for greater unity within Scottish Unionism and to vote tactically against Nationalist candidates. A grass-roots campaign called "Scotland in Union" aimed to encourage tactical voting at the United Kingdom general election, 2015 and to publicise the benefits of being part of the United Kingdom. Analysis by the Electoral Reform Society before the election identified some constituencies where tactical voting could succeed, but also pointed out that many voters would find it difficult to support another party. Writing after the election, Professor John Curtice said that in only one constituency (Edinburgh South) could it be said that tactical voting succeeded in defeating an SNP candidate.
Two days before the referendum, the leaders of the three main UK political parties publicly pledged to devolve "extensive new powers" to the Scottish Parliament. They also agreed to a timetable proposed by Gordon Brown. In his speech responding to the referendum results, David Cameron said that an all-party commission, chaired by Lord Smith of Kelvin, would oversee the implementation of the new powers. Cameron also called for an answer to the West Lothian question, by removing the right of Scottish MPs to vote on legislation relating only to England. This proposal was opposed by Gordon Brown, who signed a petition calling for the additional powers to be devolved without any other conditions being attached.
The proposals were debated at length by the UK and Scottish parliaments. The bill devolving further powers to Scotland was passed unanimously by the Scottish parliament in March 2016.
2015 United Kingdom general election
After the referendum, the SNP took a clear lead over the other parties in Scottish opinion polls. In the 2015 United Kingdom general election, the SNP received 1,454,436 votes, 50.0% of the Scottish vote and 56 out of the 59 Scottish seats in the election. The Scottish Labour Party lost forty of their forty-one seats and the Scottish Liberal Democrats lost ten of their eleven seats – all to the SNP. They replaced the Liberal Democrats as the third largest party in the House of Commons.
2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum
Following the result of the UK-wide referendum on European Union membership, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon announced the SNP's intent to file legislation authorizing a second referendum on independence. The announcement was bolstered by results showing that all of Scottish council areas voted to remain in the EU while the overall majority of the UK voted to leave the EU.
- Constitution of the United Kingdom
- History of Scottish devolution
- History of the Scottish National Party
- Politics of the United Kingdom
- "Scotland to hold independence poll in 2014 – Salmond". BBC News. 10 January 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Scottish independence referendum – GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-01.
- "Devolution's swings and roundabouts". BBC. 7 April 1999. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "The 1979 Referendums". BBC. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- "Scottish Referendum Live – The Results". BBC. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- "Scottish Parliament Official Report – 12 May 1999". Scottish Parliament.
- "Manifesto 2007" (PDF). Scottish National Party. 12 April 2007. pp. 8, 15. Retrieved 11 September 2009.
- Macwhirter, Iain (3 May 2007). "The heat of the Scottish sun". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- "Timeline: Scottish independence referendum". BBC. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "Annex B Draft Referendum (Scotland) Bill". Official website, Publications > 2007 > August > Choosing Scotland's Future: A National Conversatio > Part 10. Scottish Government. 13 August 2009. Archived from the original on 10 September 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
- Quinn, Joe (30 November 2009). "SNP reveals vision for independence referendum". London: The Independent. Archived from the original on 30 November 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2009.
- "Your Scotland, Your Voice". www.scotland.gov.uk > News > News Releases > 2009 > November > YSYV. Scottish Government. 30 November 2009. Archived from the original on 30 November 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2009.
- "Scottish independence referendum plans published". BBC News. 25 February 2010. Archived from the original on 25 February 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- "Referendum consultation". www.scotland.gov.uk > News > News Releases > 2010 > February > referendum. Scottish Government. 25 February 2010. Archived from the original on 25 February 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- "Scotland's Future: Draft Referendum (Scotland) Bill Consultation Paper". www.scotland.gov.uk > Publications > 2010 > February > Scotland's Future: Draft Referendum (Scotland) Bil > PDF 1. Scottish Government. 25 February 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- "Draft Referendum (Scotland) Bill Consultation". www.scotland.gov.uk > Topics > Public Sector > Elections > Referendum Bill Consultation. Scottish Government. n.d. Archived from the original on 25 February 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- Black, Andrew (3 September 2009). "Q&A: Independence referendum". BBC News. Archived from the original on 10 September 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
- MacLeod, Angus (3 September 2009). "Salmond to push ahead with referendum Bill". London: The Times. Archived from the original on 10 September 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
- "Scottish independence plan 'an election issue'". BBC. 6 September 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- Stuart, Gavin (14 April 2011). "SNP launch 'Re-elect' manifesto with independence referendum vow". STV. STV Group. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- Black, Andrew (1 May 2011). "Scottish election: Party leaders clash in BBC TV debate". BBC. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- "Scottish election: SNP wins election". BBC. 6 May 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- Clegg, David (17 January 2012). "Advocate General says SNP's referendum plans would be 'contrary to the rule of law'". The Courier. DC Thomson. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- Clegg, David (11 January 2012). "Independence referendum: Scotland facing constitutional chaos". The Courier. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- Text of the Scottish Independence Referendum (Franchise) Act 2013 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk
- "Scottish independence: Referendum White Paper unveiled". BBC News. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- Severin Carrell & Nicholas Watt (10 January 2012). "Scottish independence: Alex Salmond sets poll date – and defies London". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Bannockburn date mooted for referendum". Herald Scotland. 2 January 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Scotland's referendum: If at first you don't succeed". The Economist. 14 January 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Scottish independence: Killers lose referendum vote bid". BBC News. BBC. 19 December 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Killers fail to win referendum vote". BBC. 2 July 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- Alderson, Reevel (24 July 2014). "Scottish independence: Killers fail to get referendum vote". BBC. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- "Viewpoints: Can 16- and-17-year olds be trusted with the vote?". BBC. 14 October 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- Macdonnell, Hamish (17 September 2011). "16-year-olds likely to get the vote on Union split". The Times Scotland. London: Times Newspapers Limited. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- "Scottish independence: Bill to lower voting age lodged". BBC News. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- "Scottish independence: Referendum voting age bill approved by MSPs". 27 June 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- "Scottish independence: SNP dismisses ex-pat voting call". BBC. 18 January 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- "Ulster Scots and Scottish independence". BBC News. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- Whitaker, Andrew (18 January 2012). "Scottish independence referendum: Publish legal advice or be damned, SNP warned over referendum". The Scotsman. Johnston Press. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- "Scottish independence: Referendum vote 'needs approval'". BBC News. BBC. 20 January 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- "2013 No. 242 Constitutional Law :Devolution Scotland" (PDF). Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2015-06-18.
- "Scottish Independence Referendum Act 2013" (PDF). Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2015-06-18.
- "Agreement between the United Kingdom Government and the Scottish Government on a referendum on independence for Scotland" (PDF). 15 October 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- Black, Andrew (30 January 2013). "Scottish independence: SNP accepts call to change referendum question". BBC. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- "Referendum on Scottish Independence: Question Testing" (PDF). www.electoralcommission.org.uk. Electoral Commission. 24 January 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
- Barnes, Eddie (14 October 2012). "Scottish independence: Salmond in campaign cash battle". Scotland on Sunday. Johnston Publishing. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- Adams, Lucy (1 May 2014). "Scottish independence: Questions raised over campaign spending rules". BBC. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence referendum campaigners spent £6.7m". BBC News. BBC. 14 May 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "Scottish independence: Referendum cost estimated at £13.3m". BBC. 3 April 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- "Scottish independence: One million Scots urged to sign 'yes' declaration". BBC. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "Scottish independence: Greens join Yes Scotland campaign". BBC. 6 October 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- "Scottish independence: Yes Scotland signs up 143,000 supporters". BBC. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- "Scottish independence: Yes declaration hits million target". BBC. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Alistair Darling warns of 'no way back'". BBC. 25 June 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "Federalism: the best future for Scotland". Scottish Liberal Democrats. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "European Court upholds UK political advert ban". BBC. 22 April 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Cinemas pull referendum adverts". BBC. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "JK Rowling Subjected to Cybnernat Abuse After £1m Pro-UK Donation". The Daily Telegraph. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- "Scottish Independence: Who Are the Big and Small Money Referendum Donors?". BBC News. BBC. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- "Scottish Independence: Distiller William Grant and Sons Donates to Better Together". BBC. 6 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
- "Better Together calls for no more donations after post-TV debate flood of cash". The Daily Telegraph. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "Scottish Independence: The popular rise of postal voting". BBC. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Man arrested after votes 'for sale' on eBay". BBC News. 30 August 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- Adams, Lucy (2 September 2014). "Scottish independence: Thousands in late rush to register to vote". BBC. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- "Scottish independence referendum". UK Government. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Post-referendum agreement reached". BBC. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- Swinford, Steven (20 May 2014). "David Cameron: Scotland referendum will be 'irreversible and binding'". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
- McKenna, Kevin (24 November 2013). "SNP sets the day for Scottish independence: 24 March 2016". The Observer. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- "Constitution Committee - Eighth Report: Scottish independence: constitutional implications of the referendum". UK Parliament, House of Lords. 14 May 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- "Government Response to the House of Lords Select Committee on the Constitution Report of Session 2013-14, Scottish independence: constitutional implications of the referendum" (PDF). July 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- Cramb, Auslan (16 May 2014). "Peers suggest UK could delay proposed date of Scottish independence". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
- Bicker, Laura (29 April 2014). "Scottish independence: Farmers give their views on referendum debate". BBC. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- Smith, Colletta (29 April 2014). "Scottish independence:How might a 'Yes' vote impact on farmers?". BBC. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- "Scotland's CAP budget cut". Scottish Government. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- "Annex 7: Schengen and the Common Travel Area". Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- Carrell, Severin (14 March 2014). "Theresa May would seek passport checks between Scotland and England". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "The Foreign Policy Implications of and for an Independent Scotland" (PDF). 28 January 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- Tory MP rubbishes border claims. 4 November 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Alex Salmond outlines childcare 'savings'". BBC. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Could Scotland afford better childcare?". BBC. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- Taylor, Marianne (25 March 2014). "Scottish independence: Childcare plan 'unworkable' without more funds". BBC. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Scottish government childcare plan questioned". BBC. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "Scotland citizenship, passport plans outlined". The Scotsman. Johnston Publishing. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "Key questions on independence white paper answered". The Scotsman. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Gardham, Magnus (24 January 2014). "Scots to stay British despite vote". The Herald. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- "Scotland analysis: Borders and citizenship" (PDF).
- "UK caught "red-handed" on Scotland's underspend". www.snp.org. Scottish National Party. 21 January 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "Scotland's Future". Scottish Government. November 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "SNP's Clyde warships plan". The Scotsman. Johnston Publishing. 3 July 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- Morris, Nigel (27 September 2013). "Alex Salmond's SNP plans for Scottish independence criticised for lacking crucial detail over defence plans". The Independent.
- Cramb, Auslan (13 November 2013). "A budget of £2.5 billion will not buy Scottish Defence Force wishlist, warns defence minister". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "SNP defence plans slammed". Left Foot Forward. 27 September 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Nigel Morris (6 November 2013). "Shipyards jobs axe: an Independent Scotland 'could lose key Royal Navy contracts'". The Independent. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "BAE Systems continues Type 26 key equipment selections, recommends single-site build plan". Jane's. 3 June 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- Sam Bannister (8 July 2014). "Shipbuilding could return to Portsmouth, says BAE Systems chairman". Portsmouth.co.uk. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Scottish Independence: Thales Warns of Job and Investment Cuts on Union Break". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "A' the Blue Bonnets: Defending an Independent Scotland". Royal United Services Institute. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "Irish lesson for independent Scottish forces". The Herald. 14 April 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Richard Norton-Taylor (29 January 2012). "Trident nuclear deterrent 'at risk' if Scotland votes for independence". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "What would Scottish independence mean for Trident?". New Statesman. 13 January 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Riley-Smith, Ben (14 April 2014). "Alex Salmond's Trident plan 'would put UK nuclear deterrent in jeopardy'". The Daily Telegraph.
- "Trident: Nowhere to Go". Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Trident relocation 'very difficult but not impossible'". BBC. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "Scottish Independence May Impact U.S. Trident Missile Program | Global Security Newswire". NTI. 3 April 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Johnson, Simon (24 June 2013). "Independent Scotland 'faces dilemma between Trident and Nato'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- "SNP members vote to ditch the party's anti-Nato policy". BBC. 19 October 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- "Two MSPs resign from SNP over party's Nato stance". The Guardian. 23 October 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "One Year on: How Was it for Them?". The Herald. 25 May 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Alex Salmond told nuclear ban out of line with being in Nato". 15 August 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Alex Salmond accused of misleading voters over Trident base promises". The Guardian. 15 August 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "SNP members vote to ditch the party's anti-Nato policy". BBC. 19 October 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Nato chiefs deal blow to SNP's anti-nuclear strategy". The Guardian. 14 August 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Cramb, Auslan (10 April 2013). "An independent Scotland would have to 'support nuclear weapons' to gain access to Nato". Daily Telegraph.
- "Scottish independence: Former Nato commander attacks SNP defence policy". BBC. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Nato members 'would welcome' Scotland". BBC. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- Currie, Martin; Black, Andrew (12 February 2014). "Scottish independence referendum: Experts examine the claims". BBC. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- David Leask (30 June 2013). "Spy wars". The Herald. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
- Scott MacNab (30 January 2013). "Sturgeon: '100 embassies' for independent Scotland". The Scotsman. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Alex Salmond: we must leave UK but maintain our other unions". 12 July 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "The people's constitution". 28 August 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "Billy Bragg backs Scottish independence". The Scotsman. 10 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "Salmond: Independence to tackle 'democratic deficit'". www.itv.com. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "House of Lords an 'affront to democracy' says SNP". 4 August 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "The Democratic Deficit". 13 February 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Holyrood debate marks one year to referendum". BBC News. 18 September 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "Alex Salmond: Why should Scotland let itself be ruled by the Tories?". 26 February 2014. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
- "Referendum should spark an era of radical Scottish democracy". 25 January 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "Scotland's Future: from the Referendum to Independence and a Written Constitution".
- Campbell, Menzies (7 April 2014). "I will vote no to independence because I love Scotland". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "It is time to address the democratic deficit in England". www.conservativehome.com. 4 March 2009. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Tories back Scots income tax power". BBC. 2 June 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- "Scottish independence: What are the 'No' parties offering instead of independence?". BBC. 2 June 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- "Scottish independence: STV confirm Darling and Salmond TV debate date". BBC. 9 July 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- Severin Carrell (5 August 2014). "Scotland promised extra tax and legal powers for referendum no vote". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- Whitaker, Andrew (11 August 2014). "Boris Johnson vows to resist Scots tax devolution". The Scotsman. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Cameron promises more powers for Scotland 'soon'". BBC. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Brown sets out more powers timetable". BBC News. BBC. 8 September 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Cameron, Miliband and Clegg sign 'No' vote pledge". BBC News. BBC. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- Fraser, Douglas (15 October 2012). "Scottish independence: Braveheart or iPad?". BBC. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- "U.K. Treasury Says Independent Scotland Couldn't Aid Banks". Bloomberg. 20 May 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- Hughes Hallett, Andrew; Scott, Drew (24 January 2012). "Scotland has thought the options through and counted the cost". Financial Times. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "RBS no longer in debt to US Federal Reserve". CFO World. IDG Inc. 2 December 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Peston, Robert (5 March 2014). "EU law may force RBS and Lloyds to become English". BBC. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Scottish independence: RBS confirms London HQ move if Scotland votes Yes". BBC News. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- Titcomb, James (11 September 2014). "What banks are heading for the exit door if Scotland votes for independence?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- Cook, James; Black, Andrew (3 April 2014). "Scottish independence: 'Yes' vote carries substantial risk, says Weir Group". BBC. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Peston, Robert (27 February 2014). "Standard Life could quit Scotland". BBC. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Independence debate: Yes, Scotland?". 2 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "Scottish unemployment total falls by 7,000". BBC. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- "Scotland's Economy: the case for independence". May 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Rise of 16% in Scottish inward investment projects". BBC. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Growth in Scottish economy slows". BBC. 16 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Simon Johnson (13 September 2014). "Scotland heading for a 'Great Depression' after a Yes vote". The Telegraph. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Scottish independence 'will improve prosperity'". The Scotsman. 3 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "Independence 'boost' for English devolutionists". The Targe. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "London calling (the shots)". The Herald. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Picken, Andrew (9 November 2013). "West coast oil boom was blocked by MoD". Sunday Post. DC Thomson. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "The case for Scottish independence". Diplomatonline.com. 12 April 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Scottish independence: Scotland should use pound, says Adam Smith Institute". BBC News. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
[A] new report, written by the research director of the Adam Smith Institute, Sam Bowman, argued that sterlingization – using the pound without the use of a central bank – would be 'a significant improvement on Scotland's current arrangements'.
- "SNP Accuse Labour Over Euro". www.snp.org. Scottish National Party. 3 January 2002. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "SNP European divisions laid bare". BBC. 16 October 2009. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Johnson, Simon (19 October 2009). "SNP split over euro membership". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "Scotland in the European Union". Scottish Government. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- "Sweden says No to euro". BBC. 15 September 2003. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- "EU central bank agreement on ERM II operating procedures". Sveriges Riksbank. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- "Scotland could refuse to accept UK liabilities if currency union is blocked". 26 November 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Carrell, Severin (19 June 2012). "Scottish independence: Alistair Darling challenges plans for currency union". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Meikle, James (25 June 2012). "Scottish independence: Darling ridicules Salmond's claims". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Scottish independence: Former prime minister John Major gives warning". BBC. 28 November 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Brown, Gordon (23 November 2013). "Gordon Brown writes exclusively for the Daily Record on why Salmond's economic plans are destined to make Scotland less independent". Daily Record. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- Carrell, Severin (21 November 2013). "Welsh first minister sets out case against Scottish independence". The Guardian.
- "Question on Currency". 23 April 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "Could an Independent Scotland keep Sterling? What experts say". Scots Politics. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Ashcroft, Brian (26 April 2013). "Sterling and Scottish Independence". Scottish Economy Watch. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "Scottish independence uncertainty drags sterling to five-month lows". Reuters. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- Gray, Alistair; Cumbo, Josephine; Arnold, Martin (9 September 2014). "Investors pull cash ahead of Scots vote". Financial Times. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Salmond warns: the 'George Tax' would cost English business hundreds of millions". 17 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "SNP warns UK businesses could face £500m in transaction costs unless an independent Scotland keeps pound". 18 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "Independence 'would cost Scottish businesses more than their English competitors'". Telegraph. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Banking experts say 'go for Scottish pound'". BBC News. 2 April 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- "Independent money matters". BBC. 3 February 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Salmond stands firm on tax and spending powers". 1 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "Gavin McCrone: indy would be costly...but No vote will mean no more devo". 20 July 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- "Scottish Independence: 'Yes' Vote Means Leaving Pound, Says Osborne". BBC News. BBC. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Balls 'not bluffing' on currency". The Scotsman. Johnston Press. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Carrell, Severin (3 October 2013). "Ed Balls: Alex Salmond's sterling currency union plans flawed". The Guardian.
- "Balls to Salmond: let's discuss indyref finance issues". The Herald. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Sterlingisation 'would threaten EU membership'". BBC News. BBC. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- "What currency?" (PDF). Scottish Socialist Party. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "Greens attack phoney war on currency". 23 April 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "Scotland 'must have own currency after Yes vote". 16 April 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- "Governor's notes on currency union". The Herald. 30 January 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Phillip Inman, Patrick Wintour (9 September 2014). "Scottish independence: currency union 'incompatible with sovereignty'". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- Maddox, David (18 December 2013). "Barnett Formula 'would remain' after No vote". The Scotsman. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Flanders, Stephanie (9 January 2012). "Scotland: A case of give and take". BBC. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Sparrow, Andrew (19 November 2012). "Scotland's post-independence prosperity linked to oil". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- "Scottish public spending deficit rises, say latest Gers figures". BBC. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "Tax and spend: What are experts saying about Scottish figures?". BBC. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Rivals both say Scots 'better off with us'". BBC. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Asking the experts: What are economists saying about indyref figures?". BBC. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Row over start-up costs". BBC. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Call to release post-'Yes' costs". BBC. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Prof Patrick Dunleavy says Treasury claims 'ludicrous'". BBC. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Treasury figure for cost of Yes vote 'badly misrepresents' key research – says academic whose own work it was based on". The Independent. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- "Voters will not be told cost of Yes vote before referendum". The Herald. 30 May 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Prof Patrick Dunleavy makes £200m start-up claim". BBC. 22 June 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Start-up cost 'up to £1.5bn'". BBC. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- Barnes, Eddie (22 April 2013). "Scottish independence: SNP pound freedom warning". The Scotsman. Retrieved May 2013. Check date values in:
- Fraser, Douglas (19 October 2012). "Scottish independence: credit where it's due". BBC. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- "Credit ratings agency outlines 'significant' challenges for independence". STV. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Moody's predicts Scotland would get an 'A' credit rating". BBC. 1 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "Scotland's referendum: What are the issues around energy?". BBC. 30 April 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- Taylor, Marianne (5 February 2014). "Scottish independence: Energy market claims analysed". BBC. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: UK 'faces energy blackout risk'". BBC. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: SSE says single energy market 'likely' post Yes". BBC. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- Severin Carrell, Scotland correspondent (9 April 2014). "Ed Davey says an independent Scotland must fund its own energy projects". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Mitchell, Adam (17 April 2013). "Oil wealth key to Thatcher's legacy, analysts say". www.france24.com. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- Jack, Ian (19 April 2013). "North Sea oil fuelled the 80s boom, but it was, and remains, strangely invisible". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Sir Ian Wood issues warning over oil predictions". BBC. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "Scottish West Coast untapped oil and gas reserves worth trillions". www.oilandgaspeople.com. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- Carrell, Severin (23 October 2012). "Alex Salmond accused of misleading Scottish voters about EU legal advice". The Guardian.
- Edward, David, "Scotland's Position in the European Union", Scottish Parliamentary Review, Vol. I, No. 2 (Jan 2014) [Edinburgh: Blacket Avenue Press]
- "Scottish independence: UK ministers not seeking advice on Scotland in EU". BBC. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- "HC 643 The foreign policy implications of and for a separate Scotland". www.publications.parliament.uk. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Currie, Martin (29 April 2014). "Scottish independence: Would Scotland be in the EU after a Yes vote?". BBC. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- "European and External Relations Committee" (PDF). Scottish Parliament. 10 March 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "Letter from Viviane Reding" (PDF). Scottish Parliament. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- Carrell, Severin (12 September 2012). "Barroso casts doubt on independent Scotland's EU membership rights". The Guardian.
- "Scottish independence: Barroso says joining EU would be 'difficult'". BBC. 16 February 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Johnson, Simon (28 November 2013). "Sir John Major: Scottish independence means 'walking away' from the pound". Daily Telegraph.
- Brian Brady (22 January 2012). "Spain could wield veto over Scotland's EU membership". The Independent. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Scottish independence: Mariano Rajoy says Scotland would be 'outside EU'". BBC News. 28 November 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- "Independent Scotland should stay in EU, says judicial expert". The Guardian. 28 November 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- Johnson, Simon (16 September 2014). "Spanish warn independent Scotland would get euro not pound". Daily Telegraph.
- "Scottish independence: Sir David Edward says Jose Manuel Barroso 'wrong' on EU". BBC News. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- "Scottish independence: Scotland could join EU in 18 months, says expert". BBC. 30 January 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Think tank report backs EU membership". BBC. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Academic says EU entry 'would be smooth'". BBC. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- "Scotland's European Union membership 'not in doubt' claims study". STV News. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Irish minister says EU application 'would take time'". BBC. 25 January 2013.
- "Ireland's Minister for European Affairs". www.scotreferendum.com. Scottish Government. 26 January 2013.
- "Advisory Board" (in German). Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- Hutcheon, Paul (12 May 2013). "Adviser to German Government: 'Indy Scotland Would Still Be in Europe'". Sunday Herald. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- "David Cameron promises in/out referendum on EU". BBC. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "EU referendum bill gets Commons approval". BBC. 29 November 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- "Attitudes Towards the European Union and the Challenges in Communicating 'Europe': Building a Bridge Between Europe and its Citizens". Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- "Scots want EU referendum but would vote to stay in". Ipsos MORI. 14 February 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- "What do No campaign say now EU membership under threat from Westminster?". Yes Scotland. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "Scottish independence: Alex Salmond says Eurosceptics 'damaging Scotland'". BBC. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Brian Ashcroft (28 January 2013). "Should Scotland be in EU if rUK out?". Scottish Economy Watch. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "What future for the Scottish-EU relationship? | Future of the UK and Scotland: The Referendum Debate". Futureukandscotland.ac.uk. 3 May 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Roxburgh, Angus (19 May 2013). "Scotland's tough call: stay in the UK, or stay in the EU?". The Guardian.
- "Q&A: Your Scottish independence questions". BBC. 25 June 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: What would it mean for the rest of the UK?". BBC News Magazine. BBC. 25 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Peterkin, Tom (17 June 2013). "Scottish independence: What would happen to the NHS?". The Scotsman. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Sir Harry Burns says Yes vote could be 'positive' for health". BBC. 20 July 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
- "Medics launch NHS for Yes campaign to 'protect health service'". STV News. 24 May 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- "Scottish independence: NHS in Scotland 'faces £400m funding gap'". BBC. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Peterkin, Tom (29 May 2014). "Great Ormond Street Hospital hits out at No advert". The Scotsman. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Vote No Borders advert pulled over child hospital claim". BBC. 30 May 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "Scottish Independence: Cameron Warns On UN Security Council Place". The Huffington Post. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Stacey, Kiran (16 December 2013). "Scots independence threat to UK influence, says Sir John Major". Financial Times. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- MacDonell, Hamish (24 November 2012). "Radicals threaten Salmond and Scottish independence campaign". The Independent. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- "SNP minister: I think indy Scotland should vote on the Queen". 11 August 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- Johnson, Simon (12 May 2012). "Queen 'may not remain monarch of an independent Scotland'". Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Torrance, David. The Battle for Britain. Biteback Publishing. p. 67.
- Moore, Suzanne. "England's love-bombing of Scotland is a pathetic afterthought". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- Hayes, Brown. "How The New Royal Baby Could Stop Scottish Independence". ThinkProgress. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- Davison, Janet (9 September 2014). "Scotland's referendum: How the next royal baby could sway it". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Goldhill, Olivia (8 September 2014). "Kate Middleton pregnant: Could Scottish royal baby fever keep the union together?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Graeme Wearden, Patrick Wintour, Rowena Mason (8 September 2014). "Pound slumps to 10-month low after Scottish yes campaign takes poll lead". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- "Queen hopes Scots voters 'think carefully'". The Scotsman. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- "Scotland's referendum: What are the issues around pensions?". BBC. 30 April 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- Fraser, Douglas (7 February 2014). "Scottish independence: Pension age rise 'could be delayed'". BBC. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- Taylor, Marianne (27 February 2014). "Scottish independence: Pensions and the referendum debate". BBC. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Brown says Scotland's pensions protected by UK". BBC. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Pensions 'secure' post-Yes, says UK minister". BBC. 7 May 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence:Accountancy body claims there is no clear plan for pensions". BBC. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Scottish independence: European Commission reverses pensions decision". BBC. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- Dickie, Mure (27 July 2014). "Golden games performance boosts Scotland before referendum". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Independence poll good for Games". The Herald. 27 February 2012. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Athletes 'could choose Team Scotland' for Rio Olympics". BBC. 8 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Independent Scotland 'would have to compete in Team GB at 2016 Olympics'". STV News. 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- "Who will claim the Olympics?". Al Jazeera. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Scottish independence: 'Scotland Olympic team could be in Rio'". BBC. 18 September 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Sir Chris Hoy: independence will make it harder for Scots athletes to reach their potential". The Herald. 28 May 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- Riley-Smith, Ben (18 March 2014). "Shetland and Orkney should get vote on whether to leave Scotland". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- Lawless, Jill (23 March 2014). "Scotland's Vikings go own way in independence vote". Associated Press. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Scottish islanders seek votes for own independence". Reuters. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "Island referendum petition launched". Shetland Times. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "Petition for independence in the Western Isles, Shetland and Orkney". The Herald. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- Johnson, Simon (20 March 2012). "SNP admits Shetland and Orkney could opt out of independent Scotland". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Orkney, Shetland and Western Isles councils lobby for more powers". BBC. 17 June 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Scottish independence: islands consider their own 'home rule'". The Guardian. 17 March 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "What independence White Paper could mean for the Isles". Stornoway Gazette. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Ross, David (23 November 2013). "Islands set to win key decision-making powers with unprecedented legislation". The Herald (Glasgow). Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "Islands Act should not depend on independence". Shetland News. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "Shetland may reconsider its place in Scotland after yes vote, says Carmichael". The Guardian. 17 September 2014.
- "Carmichael sets record straight on independence comments". 17 September 2014.
- "Scotland analysis: Science and research" (PDF). UK Government. November 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- "UK link funds R&D funding in Scotland". www.scotlibdems.org.uk. 27 November 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- "Scottish independence: Scientists setback fears". The Scotsman. 21 July 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "Scottish university research at risk from independence, claim LibDems". 27 November 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Scottish independence: Unis 'could get UK funds'". The Scotsman. Johnston Publishing. 1 September 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "State of independence could prove costly, Scots warned". 23 May 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "Scottish independence: What is dividing academics?". BBC. 23 May 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- "Scottish independence: how would it affect university research funding?". Guardian Blog. Guardian. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- "To be or not to be Independent, that is the Question!". Lab Times. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- "Scottish independence: how would it affect university research funding?". Times Higher Education. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- "Q&A : Graduate endowments". BBC. 13 June 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Students could be 'squeezed out' of home universities". BBC. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- "Full text of tuition fees agreement". BBC. 25 January 2000. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- "Scottish independence: MPs claim Yes vote would damage education". BBC. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- Whitaker, Andrew (17 January 2014). "Scottish independence: rUK tuition fees 'illegal'". The Scotsman. Johnston Publishing. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- "Scottish tuition fees for English students could be illegal under independence, lawyers warn". The Daily Telegraph. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Higher education only safe with 'Yes' vote, say academics". BBC. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- "Scotland can do better on Welfare and Pensions". 31 July 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Government spending on benefits and state pensions in Scotland: current patterns and future issues" (PDF). July 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Benefits could switch easily after a Yes vote, say SNP expert group". 10 June 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Only a Yes vote will meet demands for more powers". 6 January 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Scotland needs a separate welfare system, say charities". 29 September 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "White Paper preview: SNP key pledge: we'll scrap UK welfare reforms in a fairer Scotland". 24 November 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Sturgeon: we'll kick out the bedroom tax in an independent Scotland". 24 March 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Labour will be tougher than Tories on benefits, promises new welfare chief". 12 October 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "SNP comment on Joseph Rowntree Foundation's report". 24 January 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Report reveals dismal future no campaign offers". 13 October 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "No further tax powers for Scotland, says David Cameron". 29 January 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Moore: welfare budget could be devolved". 11 August 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Labour's Jim Murphy warns of 'disruptive change'". BBC. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Whitaker, Andrew (19 March 2014). "Labour reveal plans following No vote". The Scotsman. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Ailsa McKay: Citizens' financial rights". The Scotsman. 20 February 2013.
- "Thousands at Scottish independence rally in Edinburgh". BBC News. 22 September 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
- "Twitter / Scotspolfed". 23 September 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "Yes Scotland: thousands show up for independence march". 21 September 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
- "Union flag burning group expelled from Salmond rally". 16 September 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
- Gilligan, Andrew (22 September 2013). "Far-Right group allied to Scottish separatists". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
- Libby Brooks. "Orange Order anti-independence march a 'show of pro-union strength'". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Orange Order march through Edinburgh to show loyalty to UK". Financial Times. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Ellis-Petersen, Hannah. "Bob Geldof implores Scottish voters not to break up 'family'". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Spiro, Zachary. "'Day of Unity' grassroots rallies across the UK". Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Jim Murphy suspends campaign tour". BBC News. 29 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "Man hurled eggs at MP Jim Murphy because he 'wouldn't answer question'". STV News. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- "Scottish independence: One million Scots urged to sign 'yes' declaration". BBC News. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- Dr. Stephen Quinlan and Dr. Mark Shephard (21 February 2014). "Racing Ahead Online: Catching Up Offline?". What Scotland Thinks. NatCen. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- Dr. Mark Shephard and Dr. Stephen Quinlan (19 June 2014). "Yes Side Maintains Advantage in The Online Campaign Battle". What Scotland Thinks. NatCen. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- Michael Keating (April 2014). "Foresight: Scotland Decides" (PDF). Wiley Online Library. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- "Let's Stay Together". Let's Stay Together on YouTube. Google Inc. July 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- "✘ on September 18th #voteYes [with captions]". Sign4Scotland, YouTube. July 11, 2014. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
- Antonia Molloy (21 August 2014). "Scottish Independence: #YesBecause hashtag shows 'unfiltered reality' of Yes campaign". The Independent. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- "#YesBecause vs. #NoBecause as Scottish independence referendum looms". CBC News on Storify. Storify. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- "Independence debate wins students over". The Courier. DC Thomson. 24 September 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Yes wins Napier referendum". www.yesscotland.net. Yes Scotland. 15 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "Strath Indy Ref – Strathstudents". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "The 'Nos' have it at Perth & Kinross Youth Council's independence question time". The Courier. DC Thomson. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- "Yes vote triumph in Scottish Labour leader's own backyard". www.yesscotland.net. Yes Scotland. 29 November 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Daisley, Stephen (17 May 2013). "Nicola Sturgeon and Michael Moore clash in independence debate". STV News. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "STV prepare for second referendum debate". 5 September 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Alistair Carmichael faces Nicola Sturgeon in Scotland Tonight debate". STV News. 11 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "STV announces Nicola Sturgeon and Johann Lamont referendum debate". STV News. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- "Scottish independence: The Referendum Debate". BBC. 21 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "As-it-happened: Scottish independence referendum debate". BBC. 21 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "Scottish independence: David Cameron will not have TV debate with Alex Salmond". BBC News. 27 September 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Scottish independence: TV debate row continues". BBC News. 29 September 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Scottish independence: Cameron again rejects Salmond TV debate challenge". BBC News. 5 January 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- "Scottish independence: MP 'anger' over Brown debate call". BBC News. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- Barnes, Eddie (15 September 2013). "Alistair Darling: Alex Salmond scared of TV debate". The Scotsman. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- "Sturgeon: Salmond will have indyref debate with Darling, Carmichael after Cameron snub". The Herald. 17 October 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- Johnson, Simon (27 September 2012). "Alistair Darling: Yes Scotland chief is Alex Salmond underling". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Maddox, David (15 April 2014). "Nigel Farage challenges Salmond to TV debate". The Scotsman. Johnston Publishing. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Salmond and Darling clash in TV debate". BBC News. 5 August 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- "Alex Salmond and Alistair Darling clash in live debate on STV". STV News. 5 August 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- "Salmond v Darling: the debate for Scotland – as it happened". Guardian. 5 August 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- "Scottish independence: Both sides claim TV debate victory". BBC. 6 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- "Debate: snap poll declares Darling winner". The Herald. 5 August 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- "Who won the Leaders' Debate? ICM's Instant Poll". What Scotland Thinks. 6 August 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- "Scottish independence: BBC confirms Salmond-Darling debate". BBC. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Salmond and Darling clash in heated TV debate". BBC. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Salmond v Darling – What the Scottish papers say". BBC News. BBC. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- "Scottish independence: Campaigners give their verdict on Salmond v Darling". BBC. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- "Scottish independence: Council apology over TV debate tweet". BBC. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- "Salmond Wins Round Two". What Scotland Thinks. 26 August 2014. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
- Macnab, Scott (11 March 2014). "BBC portrayed Alex Salmond as 'figure of fun'". The Scotsman. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- McAlpine, Joan (21 January 2014). "Opinion: Joan McAlpine: TV bosses must act on findings of study that show indy coverage isn't the balanced affair it should be". Daily Record. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "BBC Accused of Anti-Independence Bias by Academic Report". Fife News Online. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Robertson, John. BBC bias and the Scots referendum – new report. OpenDemocracy. 21 February 2014.
- "Official Report: Education and Culture Committee 11 March 2014". Scottish Parliament. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Green, Chris (14 September 2014). "Scottish independence: BBC Scotland's referendum coverage 'institutionally biased', Alex Salmond claims". The Independent. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Yes campaign chief says BBC referendum coverage was not biased, STV News
- "BBC accused of anti-independence bias after editing out Salmond's reply to 'bank exodus' question". RT (TV network). 12 September 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Yes, of course the BBC is biased against Scottish Nationalists". Spectator Blogs.
- Gardham, Magnus (30 June 2014). "Pro-independence campaigners protest outside BBC studios". Herald Scotland. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Hundreds of protesters gather over ongoing 'BBC bias' row in Scottish independence referendum coverage". The Drum. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- Taylor, Marianne (14 August 2015). "Nick Robinson on his referendum row with Alex Salmond and recovering from cancer". The Herald. Herald & Times Group. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- "Scottish independence: NUJ calls for end to journalist intimidation". BBC News. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- "Nick Robinson condemns 'Putin-like' protests against indyref coverage". The Herald. Herald & Times Group. 20 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- Settle, Michael (13 June 2014). "SNP figures accused of intimidating business leaders". Herald Scotland. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Camilla Turner; Claire Newell; Holly Watt (17 September 2014). "Threats, intimidation and abuse: the dark side of the Yes campaign exposed". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- "NUJ calls for end to threats and intimidation of journalists reporting on the referendum in Scotland". National Union of Journalists. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
- McKay, David (17 September 2014). "Scottish independence: Police chief rejects claims of bullying". The Press and Journal. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- "Q&A: Scottish independence row". BBC. 17 January 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- Curtice, John (18 September 2013). "Scottish independence: What have the polls been saying?". BBC. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Higgins, Charlotte (13 August 2013). "Scottish independence campaign has almost no chance, says Nate Silver". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "The Scotland Independence Polls Were Pretty Bad". FiveThirtyEight. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- "Scottish independence: Are referendum polls on the move?". BBC. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Curtice, John (26 March 2014). "YouGov Reports Its Highest Yes Vote Yet". www.whatscotlandthinks.org. ScotCen Social Research. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Curtice, John (7 July 2014). "TNS BMRB Portray a Referendum Campaign Becalmed". www.whatscotlandthinks.org. ScotCen Social Research. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- Curtice, John (25 August 2014). "Scottish independence: 'Invaluable second chance' for Alex Salmond". BBC. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Vote 'will go to the wire'". BBC. 7 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- Wintour, Patrick (18 September 2014). "Scottish Final poll of Scottish referendum campaign shows six-point lead for no". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- Gardham, Magnus. "YouGov poll prediction is borne out as council declarations flood in". The Irish Times. Dublin. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "YouGov referendum prediction: YES 46%, NO 54%". YouGov. 18 September 2014.
- Report of 30 August 2013: Scottish Independence Referendum: The Chief Counting Officer's Approach, Accessed 14 September 2014
- Handbook for polling station staff, Accessed 14 September 2014
- "Scotland Votes as U.K.'s Future Hangs in the Balance". Bloomberg. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Brooks, Libby (16 September 2014). "Scottish referendum voting officer promises no 'carnage' on polling day". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Martin Stabe and Aleksandra Wisniewska. "Scotland's referendum count: When to expect what". Financial Times. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- Vanessa Barford. "Scottish independence: Guide to Scotland referendum night". BBC Online. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Scottish independence: referendum results – live". The Telegraph. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Scottish referendum: Scotland votes no to independence". BBC News. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Jeavans, Christine (19 September 2014). "Scottish independence referendum in maps". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Scotland turnout – all elections 1997 – 2007" (PDF). Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Fraser, Douglas (18 September 2015). "Study examines referendum demographics". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Scottish independence referendum – Results". BBC. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "The Queen's message following Scotland's referendum". The Royal Household. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- "Scottish independence: Key figures give their reaction". Sky News. BSkyB. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
- Watt, Nicholas (28 September 2014). "David Cameron 'embarrassed and sorry' for saying Queen purred". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- "Scottish referendum: Alex Salmond to quit as first minister". BBC News. BBC. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Winch, Jessica (19 September 2014). "Scotland votes no to independence: world reaction". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Bajekal, Naina (19 September 2014). "The World Reacts to Scotland's Decision Not to Leave the UK". TIME magazine. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- McGregor, Janyce (19 September 2014). "Philippe Couillard says Quebec-Scotland vote comparisons 'risky'". CBC News. CBC. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- Philip Autier (19 September 2014). "Philippe Couillard cautious in reaction to Scottish independence vote". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "How Scotland's 'No' vote resonates around the world". BBC News. BBC. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Reaction to rejection of independence by voters in Scotland: Taoiseach says attention will now turn to the changes in terms of devolution of powers, which will be 'closely followed in Ireland'". Inside Ireland. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- "Scotland votes no to independence: world reaction". Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
- "Comment by the Information and Press Department of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the Scottish independence referendum". The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- NRK: – Skotsk kalddusj for dem som ønsker løsrivelse 19 September 2014.
- "Scottish no vote best outcome for Europe, says Spanish PM Mariano Rajoy". Reuters. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Urkullu: La voluntad del Gobierno vasco es avanzar por el camino de Escocia" [Urkullu: The responsibility of the Basque government is to follow in Scotland's footsteps]. El País (in Spanish). 18 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Elena Gyldenkerne (19 September 2014). "Catalonia call independence vote despite Scottish 'no'". Reuters. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Catalonian leader orders referendum on independence from Spain". Reuters. 27 September 2014.
- "Catalonia's push for independence from Spain". BBC News. 11 November 2015. Retrieved 2016-06-22.
- Reuters 19 September 2014
- Chris Green (19 September 2014). "'Scottish referendum results: 10 counts of electoral fraud alleged in Glasgow.". The Independent. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Scottish referendum: Police assess postal vote allegations, BBC News
- Police probe claims pro-UK campaigners took illegal postal vote 'tallies', BBC News
- Feeney, Nolan (21 September 2014). "Russia says Scottish referendum could have been rigged.". Time. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- "SNP election landslide proves referendum result was rigged, claims Russian official". The Herald. 11 May 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Tabatha Kinder (20 September 2014). "Scottish Independence: 70,000 Nationalists Demand Referendum be Re-Held After Voting Rigging Claims.". International Business Times. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- "Scottish referendum: Vote count was 'properly conducted' says counting officer". 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Brooks, Libby (20 September 2014). "Violence in Glasgow as loyalists attack pro-independence supporters". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
- Dalton, Alastair (19 September 2014). "Police vow to catch George Square rioters". The Scotsman. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
- "Eleven arrested after pro-union rally in Glasgow". The Scotsman. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
- "Referendum disorder: 32 arrests over George Square trouble". BBC News. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
- "Green Party says membership up to 26,000 across Britain". BBC News. BBC. 6 October 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- "Scottish referendum: 'Yes' parties see surge in members". BBC News. BBC. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Conservative MP David Mundell hails surge in pro-UK activism". BBC News. BBC. 28 September 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- "SNP membership trebles following indyref". The Herald. Herald & Times Group. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Parties need a united front to stop Salmond". Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. 23 March 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Stevenson, Alex (23 March 2015). "Secret enemy: Meet the shady group fighting the SNP". politics.co.uk. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Cramb, Auslan (2 March 2015). "New pro-Union campaign to identify seats where tactical voting could defeat SNP". Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Johnson, Simon (6 March 2015). "Unionists can hold back the SNP 'if they act together'". Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Allardyce, Jason (3 May 2015). "Tactical voting to stop SNP set to fail". Sunday Times. News International. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Sanderson, Daniel (9 May 2015). "Calls for tactical voting proven meaningless in face of SNP tsunami". The Herald. Herald & Times Group. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Cook, James (1 October 2014). "What now for 'the vow'?". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Black, Andrew (6 October 2014). "Scotland votes 'No': What happens now?". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- "Brown calls on Scots to sign devolution 'promises' petition". BBC News. BBC. 30 September 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- "Holyrood gives approval to devolved powers Scotland Bill". BBC News. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- Lambert, Harry (21 October 2014). "Could the SNP win 25 Labour seats in 2015?". New Statesman. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
- "Scotland update: Is the SNP surge real?". Number Cruncher Politics. 16 October 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
- "'Scottish Lion Roars' In Historic SNP Landslide". Sky News. British Sky Broadcasting. 8 May 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Election 2015: SNP wins 56 of 59 seats in Scots landslide". BBC News. BBC. 8 May 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Mason, Rowena (10 May 2015). "SNP wants Liberal Democrats' third party parliamentary perks". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Brexit: Nicola Sturgeon says second Scottish independence vote 'highly likely'". BBC News.
- "Scotland 'highly likely' to hold second independence vote after EU vote: Sturgeon". Reuters. 24 June 2016.
|Wikinews has related news: Scotland sets date for referendum|
|Wikinews has related news: Scotland says 'No' in independence referendum|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Scottish independence referendum, 2014.|
- Scottish Government Referendum 2014 site
- UK Government Referendum 2014 site
- Scottish Independence Referendum Bill from the Scottish Parliament
- Scotland's Hour of Choice an article by Alistair Cole
- Text of the Scottish Independence Referendum Act 2013 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk
- Scotland Decides on stv.tv
- BBC Q&A
- Yes Scotland, official campaign for a Yes vote
- Better Together, official campaign for a No vote
- ESRC Debate Guide
- List of registered campaigners in the Scottish Independence Referendum
- Edd McCracken; Dr Nicola McEwen; Dr Simon Clark; Professor Stephen Tierney; Professor Ewen Cameron (2013). "The Scottish Independence Debate". Soundcloud (Podcast). The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 28 January 2016.