Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
|Amsterdam Airport Schiphol|
|IATA: AMS – ICAO: EHAM|
|Focus city for|
|Elevation AMSL||−11 ft / −3 m|
|Coordinates||52°18′29″N 004°45′51″E / 52.30806°N 4.76417°ECoordinates: 52°18′29″N 004°45′51″E / 52.30806°N 4.76417°E|
Location within Greater Amsterdam
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (Dutch: Luchthaven Schiphol, Dutch pronunciation: [ˈlʏxtˌɦaːvə(n) ˌsxɪpˈɦɔl]) (IATA: AMS, ICAO: EHAM) is the main international airport of the Netherlands, located 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) southwest of Amsterdam, in the municipality of Haarlemmermeer, province of North Holland. It is the fifth busiest airport in Europe in terms of passengers. The airport is built as a single-terminal concept: one large terminal split into three large departure halls.
Schiphol is the hub for KLM and its regional affiliate KLM Cityhopper as well as for Corendon Dutch Airlines, Martinair Cargo, Transavia and TUI Airlines Netherlands. The airport also serves as a European hub for Delta Air Lines and Jet Airways and as a base for EasyJet and Vueling.
Schiphol opened on 16 September 1916 as a military airbase. The end of the First World War also saw the beginning of civilian use of Schiphol Airport and the airport eventually lost its military role completely. By 1940, Schiphol had four asphalt runways at 45-degree angles. The airport was captured by the German military that same year and renamed Fliegerhorst Schiphol. The airport was destroyed through bombing but at the end of the war the airfield was restored quickly. In 1949, it was decided that Schiphol was to become the primary airport of the Netherlands. The airport's official English name, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, reflects the original Dutch word order (Luchthaven Schiphol).
Schiphol Airport is an important European airport, ranking as Europe's fifth busiest and the world's fourteenth busiest by total passenger traffic in 2015 (14th in 2014 and 2013 and 16th in 2012). It also ranks as the world's fifth busiest by international passenger traffic and the world's sixteenth busiest for cargo tonnage. 58.285 million passengers passed through the airport in 2015. Schiphol's main competitors in terms of passenger traffic and cargo throughput are London Heathrow Airport, Frankfurt Airport, Paris–Charles de Gaulle Airport, Istanbul Atatürk Airport and Madrid–Barajas Airport.
In 2010, 65.9% of passengers using the airport flew to and from Europe, 11.7% to and from North America and 8.8% to and from Asia; cargo volume was mainly between Schiphol and Asia (45%) and North America (17%).
In 2010, 106 carriers provided a total of 301 destinations on a regular basis. Passenger destinations were offered by 91 airlines. Direct (non-stop) destinations grew by 9 to a total of 274. Regular destinations serviced exclusively by full freighters (non-passenger) grew by eight to a total of twenty-seven.
The airport is built as one large terminal (a single-terminal concept), split into three large departure halls, which connect again once airside. The most recent of these was completed in 1994 and expanded in 2007 with a new section, called Terminal 4, although it is not considered a separate building. Plans for further terminal expansion exist, including the construction of a separate new terminal between the Zwanenburgbaan and Polderbaan runways that would end the one-terminal concept.
Because of intense traffic and high landing fees, some low-cost carriers decided to move their flights to smaller airports, such as Rotterdam The Hague Airport and Eindhoven Airport. Many low-cost carriers, such as EasyJet, however, continue to operate from Schiphol, using the low-cost H-pier. There have been talks about using the Lelystad Airport for low-cost carriers.
Schiphol is equipped with eighteen double jetway gates in preparation for airlines introducing the Airbus A380. Emirates was the first airline to fly the A380 to Schiphol in August 2012, deploying the aircraft on its double daily Dubai–Amsterdam service. During the summer, China Southern Airlines also uses the A380 on its Beijing–Amsterdam route.
Schiphol's name is derived from a former fortification named Fort Schiphol, which was part of the Stelling van Amsterdam defence works. Before 1852, the Haarlemmermeer polder in which the airport lies was a large lake with some shallow areas. There are multiple stories of how the place got its name. The most popular story is that in the shallow waters sudden violent storms could claim many ships. This was the main reason for reclaiming it. In English, Schiphol translates to "Ship Grave", a reference to many ships supposedly lost in the lake. When the lake was reclaimed, however, no ship wrecks were found. Another possible origin of the name is the word 'scheepshaal'. A scheepshaal is a ditch or little canal in which ships would be towed from one lake to another. A third explanation would be that the name derived from the words "scip hol". This is a low-lying area of land (hol) from where wood would be obtained to build ships.
Schiphol opened on 16 September 1916 as a military airbase, with a few barracks and a field serving as platform and runways. When civil aircraft started to use the field (17 December 1920), it was often called Schiphol-les-bains. The Fokker aircraft manufacturer started a factory near Schiphol airport in 1919. The end of the First World War also saw the beginning of civilian use of Schiphol Airport and the airport eventually lost its military role completely.
By 1940, Schiphol had four asphalt runways at 45-degree angles, all 1,020 metres (3,350 ft) or less. One was extended to become today's runway 04/22; two others crossed that runway at 52°18′43″N 4°48′00″E / 52.312°N 4.800°E. The airport was captured by the German military that same year and renamed Fliegerhorst Schiphol. A large amount of anti-aircraft defences were installed in the vicinity of the airport and fake decoy airfields were constructed in the vicinity near Bennebroek, Vijfhuizen and Vogelenzang in an attempt to confuse allied bombers. A railway connection was also constructed. Despite these defences, the airfield was still bombed intensively, and an exceptionally heavy attack on 13 December 1943 caused so much damage that it rendered the airfield unusable as an active base. After that, it served only as an emergency landing field, until the Germans themselves destroyed the remainders of the airfield at the start of Operation Market Garden. At the end of the war, the airfield was restored quickly, with the first aircraft, a Douglas DC-3, landing again on 8 July 1945.
A new terminal building was completed in 1949 and it was decided that Schiphol was to become the primary airport of the Netherlands. Expansion came at the cost of a small town called Rijk, which was demolished to make room for the growing airport. The name of this town is remembered in the name of the present Schiphol-Rijk industrial estate. In 1967, Dutch designer Benno Wissing created signage for Schiphol Airport well known for its clear writing and thorough color-coding; to avoid confusion, he prohibited any other signage in the shades of yellow and green used. This was part of the new terminal building that replaced the older facilities once located on what is now the east side of the airport. The A-Pier of the airport was modified in 1970 to allow Boeing 747 aircraft to make use of the boarding gates.
Development since the 1990s
The construction of a new Air Traffic Control tower was completed in 1991 as the existing tower could no longer oversee all of the airport. New wayfinding signage was designed that year as well by Paul Mijksenaar. A sixth runway was completed at quite some distance west of the rest of airport in 2003 and was nicknamed the Polderbaan, with the connecting taxiway crossing the A5 motorway. The distance of this runway means that taxi times to and from this runway can take between 10 and 20 minutes. It also required the construction of an additional Air Traffic Control tower as the primary tower is too far away to oversee this part of the airfield.
On 25 February 2005, a diamond robbery occurred at Schiphol's cargo terminal. The robbers used a stolen KLM van to gain airside access. The estimated value of the stones was around 75 million euros, making it one of the largest diamond robberies ever. Later that year, a fire broke out at the airport's detention centre, killing 11 people and injuring 15. The complex was holding 350 people at the time of the incident. Results from the investigation almost one year later showed that fire safety precautions were not in force. A national outrage resulted in the resignation of Justice Minister Donner (CDA) and Mayor Hartog of Haarlemmermeer. Spatial Planning Minister Dekker (VVD) resigned as well, because she bore responsibility for the construction, safety, and maintenance of state-owned buildings.
Schiphol uses a one-terminal concept, where all facilities are located under a single roof, radiating from the central plaza. The terminal, though, is divided into three sections or halls designated 1, 2 and 3. To all of these halls, piers or concourses are connected. However, it is possible, on both sides of security or border inspection, to walk from between piers, even those connected to different halls. The exception to this is the low-cost pier M: once airside (past security), passengers cannot access any other areas. Border control separates Schengen from non-Schengen areas. Schiphol Airport has approximately 165 boarding gates.
Schiphol has large shopping areas as a source of revenue and as an additional attraction for passengers. Schiphol Plaza is the shopping centre before customs, hence it is used by air travelers and non-traveling visitors.
Departure Hall 1
Departure Hall 1 consists of Piers B and C, both of which are dedicated Schengen areas. Pier B has 14 gates and Pier C has 21 gates.
Departure Hall 2
Departure Hall 2 consists of Piers D and E.
Pier D is the largest pier and has two levels. The lower floor houses non-Schengen flights and the upper floor is used for Schengen flights. By using stairs, the same jetways are used to access the aircraft. Schengen gates are numbered beginning with D-59; non-Schengen gates are numbered from D-1 to D-57.
Pier E is a dedicated non-Schengen area and has 14 gates. It is typically home to SkyTeam hub airlines Delta Air Lines and KLM, along with other members, such as China Airlines and China Southern Airlines. Other Middle Eastern and Asian airlines such as EVA Air, Etihad Airways, Iran Air and Air Astana also typically operate out of Pier E.
Departure Hall 3
Departure Hall 3 consists of piers F, G, H and M. Pier F has 8 gates and is typically dominated by SkyTeam members such as primary airline KLM, Kenya Airways, China Airlines and China Southern Airlines, and other members. Pier G has 13 gates and is, except for pier E, the only terminal that handles daily Airbus A380 service, by Emirates and China Southern Airlines. Piers H and M have 7 gates each and are home to low-cost airlines. Piers F, G and H are non-Schengen areas. Pier M is a dedicated Schengen area.
General aviation terminal
A new general aviation terminal was opened in 2011 on the east side of the airport, operated as the KLM Jet Center. The new terminal building has a floorspace of 6,000 m2 (65,000 sq ft); 1,000 m2 (11,000 sq ft) for the actual terminal and lounges, 4,000 m2 (43,000 sq ft) for office space and 1,000 m2 (11,000 sq ft) for parking.
The Rijksmuseum operates an annex at the airport, offering a small overview of both classical and contemporary art. Admission to the exhibits is free. The airport museum is closed until the end of 2016, due to refurbishment.
In summer 2010, Schiphol Airport Library opened alongside the museum, providing passengers access to a collection of 1,200 books (translated into 29 languages) by Dutch authors on subjects relating to the country's history and culture. The 89.9 m2 (968 sq ft) library offers e-books and music by Dutch artists and composers that can be downloaded free of charge to a laptop or mobile device. The Schiphol Airport Library closed in September 2014 for refurbishment until the end of 2016.
For aviation enthusiasts, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol has a large rooftop viewing area, called the Panoramaterras. It is not accessible to connecting passengers unless they first exit the airport. Enthusiasts and the public can enter, free of charge, from the airport's landside. Since June 2011, it is the location for a KLM Cityhopper Fokker 100, modified to be a viewing exhibit. Besides the Panoramaterras, Schiphol has other spotting sites, especially along the newest Polderbaan runway and at the McDonald's restaurant at the north side of the airport.
Schiphol has its own mortuary, where the dead can be handled and kept before departure or after arrival. Since October 2006, people can also hold a wedding ceremony at Schiphol.
Schiphol also has a new state-of-the-art cube-shaped Hilton hotel with 433 rooms, rounded corners and diamond-shaped windows. The spacious atrium has a 41-metre-high (135 ft) ceiling made of glass and is in the heart of the building. A covered walkway connect the hotels directly to the terminal. The hotel was completed in 2015.
In 2012, Schiphol Group announced an expansion of Schiphol, featuring a new pier, an expansion of the terminal, and a new parking garage. Pier A will be part of Departure Hall 1, which already has Pier B (14 gates) and Pier C (21 gates). The new Pier A will have 11 gates for flexible use. It can handle either 3 wide-body aircraft and 5 narrow-body aircraft, or 11 narrow-body aircraft. The first activities are expected to start in 2017 and to be completed in 2019. The expansions will cost about 500 million euros.
The new Pier A will be built next to Pier B, in an area now used as a freight platform for planes. Pier A will mainly be used for flights within Europe. To handle the extra passengers that come with this new pier, Schiphol will eventually expand the terminal and build new facilities for check-ins and arrivals. From the new building, direct access will be made to the platforms of the underground railway station. When the new terminal is finished in 2023, Schiphol will be able to handle over 70 million passengers.
The Schiphol air traffic control tower, with a height of 101 m (331 ft), was the tallest in the world when constructed in 1991. Schiphol is geographically one of the world's lowest major commercial airports. The entire airport is below sea level; the lowest point sits at 3.4 m (11 ft) below sea level (or 1.4 m (4.5 ft) below the Dutch Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP)); the runways are around 3 m (9.8 ft) below NAP.
|Number||Runway direction/code|| Length
(in metres and feet)
|Runway common name||Source of the name||Surface||Notes|
|1||18R/36L|| 3,800 m|
|Polderbaan||Decided via contest. 'Polder' is the Dutch word for land reclaimed from a body of water. Schiphol Airport is situated in a polder.||Asphalt||Newest runway, opened 2003. Own control tower.|
Located to reduce the noise impact on the surrounding population. Takeoffs only northbound and landings only southbound. The nearest end is located 5 km (3.1 mi) from the terminal building, and aircraft have a lengthy 15-minute taxi to and from the Terminal.
|2||06/24|| 3,500 m|
|Kaagbaan||Named after the Kagerplassen, a cluster of lakes which lies beyond the end of the runway||Asphalt||The Kaagbaan offered a location for spotters until the spotting location was closed in January 2008.|
|3||09/27|| 3,453 m|
|Buitenveldertbaan||Named after Buitenveldert, a part of Amsterdam||Asphalt||El Al Flight 1862 was trying to make an emergency landing on this runway when it crashed into a block of flats in the Bijlmermeer.|
|4||18L/36R|| 3,400 m|
|Aalsmeerbaan||Named after Aalsmeer||Asphalt|
|5||18C/36C|| 3,300 m|
|Zwanenburgbaan||Named after the village Zwanenburg||Asphalt||El Al Flight 1862 took off from this runway before crashing into flats in the Bijlmermeer when the plane was trying to return to the airport.|
|6||04/22|| 2,014 m|
|Oostbaan||Most Eastern (Oost) of all runways||Asphalt||Primarily used for general aviation traffic.
In October 2010 a B-737 of Corendon Airlines overshot the short runway and ended up with its nosegear in the mud.
Airlines and destinations
Note: The concourses listed are not definite since very few airlines have dedicated piers or gates; the piers listed below are based on typical operations.
|Rank||Airport||Passengers 2015||Change %||Carriers|
|1||UK, London (Heathrow), United Kingdom||1,587,992||-6.8||British Airways, KLM, KLM Cityhopper|
|2||Spain, Barcelona, Spain||1,202,517||1.3||KLM, Transavia, Vueling|
|3||France, Paris (Charles de Gaulle), France||1,150,297||-0.8||Air France, KLM|
|4||Italy, Rome (Fiumicino), Italy||1,139,727||10.8||Alitalia, easyJet, KLM, Vueling|
|5||UK, London (Gatwick), United Kingdom||1,041,133||18.9||British Airways, easyJet, Garuda Indonesia|
|6||Spain, Madrid, Spain||925,200||19.1||Air Europa, KLM, Iberia Express|
|7||Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark||913,084||2.8||KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Scandinavian Airlines|
|8||UK, Manchester, United Kingdom||858,149||17.1||easyJet, FlyBe, KLM, KLM Cityhopper|
|9||Germany, Frankfurt, Germany||799,450||6.1||KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Lufthansa, Lufthansa CityLine|
|10||Germany, Munich, Germany||789,482||7.9||KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Lufthansa, Lufthansa CityLine|
|11||Turkey, Istanbul (Atatürk), Turkey||777,526||23.7||AtlasGlobal, Corendon, KLM, Onur Air, Turkish Airlines|
|12||Switzerland, Zürich, Switzerland||761,115||5.6||KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Swiss International Air Lines|
|13||Sweden, Stockholm (Arlanda), Sweden||735,084||6.3||KLM, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Scandinavian Airlines|
|14||Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal||669,419||0.2||EasyJet, KLM, TAP Portugal, Transavia, Vueling|
|15||Switzerland, Geneva, Switzerland||649,621||1.6||EasyJet Switzerland, KLM, KLM Cityhopper|
|16||Norway, Oslo (Gardermoen), Norway||641,066||4.3||KLM, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Scandinavian Airlines|
|17||Italy, Milan (Linate), Italy||624,820||14.1||Alitalia, easyJet, KLM|
|18||UK, Edinburgh, United Kingdom||619,604||3.2||easyJet, KLM, KLM Cityhopper|
|19||Ireland, Dublin, Ireland||608,252||18.4||Aer Lingus, Ryanair|
|20||Turkey, Antalya, Turkey||588,583||−18.4||Corendon Airlines, Corendon Dutch Airlines, SunExpress, Transavia, TUI Airlines Netherlands|
|Rank||Airport||Passengers 2015||Change %||Carriers|
|1||UAE, Dubai, United Arab Emirates||816,578||19.7||Emirates, KLM, Transavia, TUI Airlines Netherlands|
|2||USA, Atlanta, United States||777,557||4.0||Delta, KLM|
|3||USA, New York (JFK), United States||661,932||-0.6||Delta, KLM|
|4||USA, Detroit, United States||598,460||−4.0||Delta|
|5||USA, Minneapolis/Saint Paul, United States||471,644||3.1||Delta|
|6||Curacao, Curaçao, Curaçao||459,426||7.8||KLM, TUI Airlines Netherlands|
|7||Thailand, Bangkok (Suvarnabhumi), Thailand||447,582||0,8||China Airlines, EVA Air, KLM|
|8||Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya||430,321||0,8||Kenya Airways, KLM|
|9||Canada, Toronto, Canada||418,507||13.9||Air Canada, Air Transat, KLM, TUI Airlines Netherlands|
|10||Hong_Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong||406,468||11.2||Cathay Pacific, KLM|
|11||Israel, Tel Aviv, Israel||390,914||12.2||Arkia Israel Airlines, easyJet, El Al, Israir, KLM, Transavia|
|12||UAE, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates||379,852||19.8||Etihad Airways, KLM|
|13||Singapore, Singapore, Singapore||346,155||2.2||KLM, Singapore Airlines|
|14||China, Beijing (Capital), China||315,145||1.1||China Southern, KLM|
|15||USA, Houston, United States||311,191||-7.9||KLM, United Airlines|
|16||China, Shanghai (Pudong), China||294,716||1.6||China Eastern, KLM|
|17||USA, Los Angeles, United States||281,929||7.8||KLM|
|18||Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia||274,767||-3.8||KLM|
|19||USA, Washington (Dulles), United States||262,498||0.2||KLM, United Airlines|
|20||Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname||262,059||4.1||KLM, Surinam Airways|
|Rank||Country||movements 2015||Change %|
|Rank||Country||Passengers 2015||Change %|
The TransPort Building on the Schiphol Airport property houses the head offices of Martinair and Transavia. Construction of the building, which has 10,800 m2 (116,000 sq ft) of rentable space, began on 17 March 2009. Schiphol Group and the architect firm Paul de Ruiter designed the building, while De Vries and Verburg, a firm of Stolwijk, constructed the building.
The World Trade Center Schiphol Airport houses the head office of SkyTeam, the Netherlands office of China Southern Airlines, and the Netherlands offices of Iran Air. The head office of Schiphol Group, the airport's operator, is located on the airport property. The Convair Building, with its development beginning after a parcel was earmarked for its development in 1999, houses KLM offices, including KLM Recruitment Services and the head office of KLM Cityhopper. The original control tower of Schiphol Airport, which the airport authorities had moved slightly from its original location, now houses a restaurant. The area Schiphol-Rijk includes the head offices of TUI Airlines Netherlands and Amsterdam Airlines.
At one time KLM had its head office on the grounds of Schiphol Airport. Its current head office in Amstelveen had a scheduled completion at the end of 1970. Previously Martinair had its head office in the Schiphol Center (Dutch: Schiphol Centrum) at Schiphol Airport. Formerly, the head office of Transavia was in the Building Triport III at Schiphol Airport. NLM Cityhopper and later KLM Cityhopper previously had their head offices in Schiphol Airport building 70.
Nippon Cargo Airlines has its Europe regional headquarters at Schiphol. The National Aerospace Museum Aviodome–Schiphol was previously located at Schiphol. In 2003 the museum moved to Lelystad Airport and was renamed the "Aviodrome."
The Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS), the national Dutch train operator, has a major passenger railway station directly underneath the passenger terminal complex that offers transportation into Amsterdam, Utrecht, The Hague, Rotterdam and many other cities. There are intercity connections to Lelystad, Amsterdam Centraal, Utrecht Centraal, both The Hague Centraal and The Hague HS, Rotterdam Centraal, Eindhoven, 's-Hertogenbosch, Leeuwarden, Groningen, Enschede, Arnhem, Nijmegen and Heerlen. Schiphol is also a stop for the Thalys international high-speed train, connecting the airport directly to Antwerp, Brussels, Lille and Paris Gare du Nord, as well as to Bourg St Maurice (winter) and Marseille (summer).
|Alphen aan den Rijn||370|
|Amstelveen||186, 187, 199, 300, night bus N30|
|Amsterdam, Leidseplein/Innercity||197, night bus N97 Airport Express Bus|| Leidseplein is the closest destination to Amsterdam's city centre |
that is served by bus from Schiphol.
|Amsterdam, Osdorp||69, 194|
|Amsterdam, Amsterdam–Zuid and Buitenveldert||310|
|Haarlem||300, night bus N30|
|Hoofddorp||300, 310, night bus N30|
|Keukenhof Gardens||858 (seasonal)|
|Ouderkerk aan de Amstel||300, night bus N30|
|Vijfhuizen||300, night bus N30|
The Taiwanese EVA Air provides private bus services from Schiphol to Belgium for its Belgium-based customers. The service, which departs from and arrives at bus stop C11, goes to Sint-Gillis, Brussels (near the Brussels-South (Midi) railway station) and Berchem, Antwerp (near Antwerp-Berchem bus station). The service is co-operated with Reizen Lauwers NV.
Incidents and accidents
- On 14 November 1946, a Douglas C-47 operated by KLM from London approached Schiphol during bad weather conditions. The first two attempts to land failed. During the third attempt, the pilot realized that the airplane was not lined up properly with the runway. The aircraft made a sharp left turn at low speed, causing the left wing to hit the ground. The airplane crashed and caught fire, killing all 26 people on board.
- On 4 October 1992, El Al Flight 1862, a Boeing 747-200F cargo jet en route to Tel Aviv, lost both right-wing engines (#3 and #4) just after taking off from Schiphol and crashed into an apartment building in the Bijlmer neighbourhood of Amsterdam while attempting to return to the airport. A total of 43 people were killed, including the plane's crew of three and a non-revenue passenger. Several others were injured.
- On 4 April 1994, Flight KL433 to Cardiff, a Saab 340 operated by KLM Cityhopper, returned to Schiphol after setting the number two engine to flight idle because the crew mistakenly believed that the engine suffered from low oil pressure because of a faulty warning light. On final approach at a height of 90 ft (27 m), the captain decided to go-around and gave full throttle on only the number one engine leaving the other in flight idle. The airplane rolled to the right, pitched up, stalled and hit the ground at 80 degrees bank. Of the twenty-four people on board, three were killed including the captain. Nine others were seriously injured.
- On 25 February 2009, Turkish Airlines Flight 1951, a Boeing 737-800 from Istanbul crashed on approach, just 1 km (0.6 mi) short of the airport's Polderbaan runway. The plane carried 128 passengers and 7 crew on board. 9 people were killed and a further 86 were injured, including six with serious injuries. Four of the dead were employees of Boeing, involved in an advanced radar deal with Turkey. An initial report from the Dutch Safety Board revealed that the left radio altimeter had failed to provide the correct height above the ground and suddenly reported −8 ft (−2.4 m). As a result of this the autothrottle system closed the thrust levers to idle, as it is programmed to reduce thrust when below 27 ft (8.2 m) radio altitude. This eventually resulted in a dropping airspeed that was not acted upon until it was too late to recover, and the aircraft stalled and crashed in a field.
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- Heuvel, Coen van den. Schiphol, een Wereldluchthaven in Beeld, Holkema & Warendorf, 1992, 978-9-0269-6271-4
- Official website
- Fire Brigade Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
- Schiphol airport webcams, flight timetables & pilot data
- Accident history for AMS at Aviation Safety Network