Saratoga Springs, New York

"Saratoga Springs" redirects here. For other uses, see Saratoga Springs (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with the adjoining town of Saratoga.
Saratoga Springs
A view of downtown, looking south along Broadway from its intersection with Caroline Street.
Motto: Health, History, Horses
Nickname: The Spa City, 'Toga
Country  United States
State  New York
Region Capital District
County Saratoga
Landmark Saratoga Race Course
River Kayaderossas Creek
Elevation 300 ft (91 m)
Coordinates 43°4′31″N 73°46′57″W / 43.07528°N 73.78250°W / 43.07528; -73.78250Coordinates: 43°4′31″N 73°46′57″W / 43.07528°N 73.78250°W / 43.07528; -73.78250
Lowest point Kayaderosseras Creek
 - elevation 0 ft (0 m)
Area 29.0 sq mi (75 km2)
 - land 28.4 sq mi (74 km2)
 - water 0.6 sq mi (2 km2)
Population 26,586 (2010)
Density 920/sq mi (355/km2)
Founded ca. 1776
Incorporation as city April 7, 1915
Government Saratoga Springs City Hall
 - location 474 Broadway
 - coordinates 43°5′0.23″N 73°47′2.81″W / 43.0833972°N 73.7841139°W / 43.0833972; -73.7841139
Mayor Joanne Yepsen (D)
Timezone EST (UTC−5)
 - summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
Postal code 12866
Area code 518
FIPS code 36-65255
GNIS feature ID 0964489
Demonym Saratogian
Location within Saratoga County
Location within New York State
Wikimedia Commons: Saratoga Springs, New York
Stromatolite fossils west of Saratoga Springs, on east side of Lester Park Road (Petrified Sea Gardens Road), north of Rt. 29

Saratoga Springs is a city in Saratoga County, New York, United States, that is also widely known as simply Saratoga (though not to be confused with the nearby town of that name). The population was 26,586 at the 2010 census.[1] The name reflects the presence of mineral springs in the area, which has made Saratoga a popular resort destination for over 200 years. The city is just north of Albany in the heart of New York's Capital Region.

Saratoga Springs was ranked tenth in the list of the top 10 places to live in New York State for 2014 according to the national online real estate brokerage Movoto.[2]


The picturesque area was occupied by the Algonquian-speaking Mahican Indians before they were pushed out by European settlement, both Dutch and English colonists. They eventually moved east and became allied with other remnant peoples and became known as the Stockbridge Indians, as they settled near Stockbridge, Massachusetts.

The English built Fort Saratoga in 1691 on the west bank of the Hudson River. The current village of Schuylerville was settled about a mile south by English colonists shortly after the fort; it was known as Saratoga until 1831. In 1767, William Johnson, a British soldier who was a hero of the French and Indian War, was brought by Native American friends to springs about 10 miles (16 km) west of the village. They treated his war wounds, as the spring was thought to have medicinal properties. Now known as High Rock Spring, it may still be visited today. In 1756 Johnson had been appointed British Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the Northeast region due to his success in building alliances with the Mohawk and other Iroquois tribes. He had learned the language, and created many trading relationships. He achieved great wealth from trading and landholdings, and was knighted for his service to the Crown with the Iroquois.

The first permanent European-American settler built a dwelling about 1776. The springs attracted tourists, and Gideon Putnam built the first hotel for travelers. Putnam also laid out the roads and donated land for use as public spaces.

The Battle of Saratoga, the turning point of the Revolutionary War, did not take place in Saratoga Springs. Rather, the battlefield is 15 miles (24 km) to the southeast in the Town of Stillwater. A museum dedicated to the two battles is located on the fields where the battles were fought. The British encampment before the surrender at Saratoga took place 10 miles (16 km) east of the city, in Schuylerville, where several historical markers delineate points of interest. The surrender of the sword of battle took place where Fort Saratoga had been, south of Schuylerville.

Saratoga Springs was established as a settlement in 1819 from a western portion of the Town of Saratoga. Its principal community was incorporated as a village in 1826 and the entire region became a city in 1915. Tourism was greatly aided after 1832 by the arrival of the Saratoga and Schenectady Railroad, which brought thousands of travelers to the famous mineral springs. Resort hotels developed to accommodate them. Patronage of the railroad increased steadily after the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company assumed control in 1870 and began running the Empire State Express directly between New York City and the resort.[3]

In the 19th century, the noted doctor Simon Baruch encouraged developing European-style spas in the United States as centers for health. With its wealth of mineral waters, Saratoga Springs was developed as a spa, generating the development of many large hotels, including the United States Hotel[4] and the Grand Union Hotel. The latter was, in its day, the largest hotel in the world.[3]

In 1863, Saratoga Race Course opened, moving to its current location the following year. Horse racing and its associated betting greatly increased the city's attraction as a tourist destination at a time when horse racing was a popular national spectator sport. In addition, the Saratoga Springs area was known for its gambling, which after the first years of the 20th century was illegal, but still widespread. Most gambling facilities were located on Saratoga Lake, on the southeast side of the city.

During the 1950s, the state and city closed the famed gambling houses in a crackdown on illegal gambling. The closing and demolition in the 1950s of some premier hotels, including the Grand Union and United States left Saratoga Springs damaged as a destination.

The city started to prosper again in the 1960s with the completion of the Adirondack Northway (Interstate 87), which allowed visitors from the north and south much easier access. In addition, the construction of the Saratoga Performing Arts Center in the late 1960s, which features classical and popular music and dance, furthered the city's renaissance. The New York City Ballet and the Philadelphia Orchestra have summer residencies there, together with other high-quality dance groups and musicians. Since the early 1990s, there has been a boom of building, both residential and retail, in the west side and downtown areas of the city.


Saratoga Springs is located at 43°04′31″N 73°46′57″W / 43.075337°N 73.782422°W / 43.075337; -73.782422 (43.075337, -73.782422).[5]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.1 square miles (75 km2), of which 28.4 square miles (74 km2) is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km2) (2.17%) is water.

The Adirondack Northway (Interstate 87) and US Route 9 pass alongside and through the city, respectively. New York State Route 29, New York State Route 50, New York State Route 9N, and New York State Route 9P lead into Saratoga Springs. NY 9N has its southern terminus and NY 9P has its northern terminus in the city. US 9 and NY 50 overlap in the city, joined briefly by NY 29.

Saratoga Lake is southeast of the city.


Climate data for Saratoga Springs, New York
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 67
Average high °F (°C) 31
Average low °F (°C) 13
Record low °F (°C) −33
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.29
Source: (Monthly Averages for Saratoga Springs, NY (12866))[6]


Historical population
Census Pop.
Est. 201527,765[7]4.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[8]


According to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:

As of the census[1] of 2012, there were 26,711 people, 11,312 households, and 5,923 families residing in the city. The population density was 921.1 people per square mile (355.6/km2). There were 11,584 housing units at an average density of 407.5 per square mile (157.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 92.5% White, 1.7% African American, 0.1% Native American, 2.01% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.64% from other races, and 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.0% of the population.

There were 11,312 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.5% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.88.

In the city the age distribution of the population shows 19.4% under the age of 18, 15.5% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.1 males.

In 2012, the median income for a household was $91,392, while the mean income for a family was $114,560.[9] The median income for a household in the city was $62,766, while the mean income for a household was $81,807.[10] Males had a median income of $61,582 versus $47,759 for females. About 3.0% of families and 7.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.3% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over.[9]


The Broadway Historic District in Downtown Saratoga Springs.

Saratoga Springs relies heavily on tourism as its main source of income during the summer season while the Saratoga Race Course is open. Many residents commute daily to Albany via Interstate 87, Interstate 787, and Interstate 90. The business district in Saratoga increasingly contributes to the economy year round, as the city has attracted many national and international luxury-brand retailers, as well as local boutiques; it has become an upscale shopping destination for the Albany metropolitan area.

In industry, the Saratoga Spring Water Co. (a division of Anheuser-Busch InBev) is located on Geyser Road. Operating since 1872, the water has been served during many presidential inaugurations in Washington, D.C., including Barack Obama's in 2013.[11] Quad/Graphics, offset printers of Time, Newsweek, People, Sports Illustrated and many other magazines, has a plant here, and Ball Corporation, makers of the Mason Jar as well as aluminum cans, for companies such as Pepsi and Anheuser-Busch InBev, has a large manufacturing plant in the city. Stewart's Shops, a popular convenience store chain, which is an employee- and family-owned business, is headquartered in Saratoga Springs. Stewart's has more than 300 stores throughout New York and Vermont.


Thoroughbred racing

Gate A entrance to the Saratoga Race Course, at top; below is the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame, which honors achievements in this sport.

The city is perhaps best known for the Saratoga Race Course, which opened on August 3, 1863. The first track was located on East Avenue (at the present Oklahoma Training Track location) which is perpendicular to the present Saratoga Race Course, which opened the following year. Founded by John Hunter and William R. Travers, the thoroughbred track is the oldest continuously-operating sporting event of any kind in the United States. The track holds a summer meet lasting six weeks, from late July to Labor Day, that attracts the top horses, jockeys, and trainers in America. The meet features a number of major stakes races, with the Travers Stakes, a Grade I race, being one of the most prominent of America's summer horse races.

Harness racing

Saratoga Casino and Raceway, a harness (Standardbred) racetrack that includes a video gaming facility, the Racino, and a horse betting simulcast room.



Youth Sports

Saratoga YMCA offers many these and other sports and there are private programs offered in Saratoga. These are the public programs.



Columbian Spring, one of Saratoga's many public springs

Before racing began in Saratoga, the area's natural mineral springs had been attracting wealth for many decades. The springs occur on a line where the north-south Saratoga Fault allows water trapped in subsurface shale layers to reach the surface.

Believed to have healing powers, springs can be found all over town. Most of the springs are covered by small pavilions and marked by plaques; others, however, are less conspicuous, sometimes just a spigot in a rock. The springs are famous for their varied and distinct tastes: some are clear freshwater, others are saltier, and some taste strongly of a certain mineral such as sodium bicarbonate or sodium chloride. There is a sulfur odor, but mineral analysis of the water consistently shows almost no presence of dissolved sulfur. The sulfur is in the form of the gas hydrogen sulfide, which degasses from the water very quickly. Visitors are welcome to bottle the spring water for personal consumption.

Toward the end of the nineteenth century excessive pumping for commercial bottling was threatening to deplete the springs. In 1911 the New York State Reservation, now the Spa State Park, was created to protect the springs and the Lincoln and Roosevelt bath houses were built. Currently, luxury spa treatments with these waters are available in the Roosevelt Baths. [12] The springs include:

  • Big Red Spring
  • Charlie Spring
  • Columbian Springs
  • Congress Spring
  • Crystal Spring
  • Deer Park Spring
  • Empire Spring
  • Geyser Island Spouter           
  • Geyser Spring
  • Governor Spring
  • Hathorn #1

  • Hathorn #3
  • Hayes Well Spring
  • High Rock Spring
  • Old Iron Spring
  • Old Red Spring
  • Orenda Spring and Tufa Deposits
  • Patterson Springs
  • Peerless Spring
  • Polaris Spring
  • Rosemary Spring
  • State Seal

Other springs popular in the nineteenth century which are no longer in use include the Hamilton Spring, the Patterson Spring, and the Favorite Spring.[13]

Arts and entertainment

Superhorse, one of 34 fiberglass horses on display around downtown Saratoga Springs in the 2007 Horses, Saratoga Style exhibit of public art

The Saratoga Performing Arts Center (known by its acronym "SPAC") is a covered outdoor amphitheater located on the grounds of the Saratoga Spa State Park, with a capacity of 5,000 in reserved seating and 20,000+ on its general admission lawn area. SPAC is the summer home of the Philadelphia Orchestra and the New York City Ballet, and has hosted a weekend-long jazz festival since 1978.[14] Since 2006, the Saratoga Native American Festival has been held on SPAC grounds each fall.[15] SPAC is a stop for touring national recording artists: over 20 popular bands grace the stage every summer. Steps away on State Park grounds, the Spa Little Theater hosts the "Home Made Theater" as well as Opera Saratoga (formerly known as the Lake George Opera) during the summer.

Museums in the area include the National Museum of Dance and Hall of Fame, the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame, and the Saratoga Automobile Museum. There are more than 20 golf courses in the area. The city is notable for its vibrant night life. Caffè Lena was one of the first venues in the Eastern US at which Bob Dylan performed in 1961. Arlo Guthrie played at Caffè Lena early in his career and has returned for occasional benefit concerts, and the singer Don McLean was a frequent performer there early in his career. (Contrary to a popular legend, McLean has stated that his song "American Pie" was not composed at a table in the Tin & Lint, a bar on Caroline Street.[16]) Numerous other establishments are located on Broadway, Caroline Street (the Hamilton district), and the redeveloped Putnam Street.

Recently, Beekman Street (four blocks West of Broadway), once the center of a working-class residential neighborhood, has become an art district, housing four galleries, a restaurant, a pub and teahouse, and a bistro. Artists live and work in co-ops and arrange social events. While some take credit for "revitalizing" a "deteriorating" area, others consider such declarations an insult to the generations of minority and marginalized ethnicities who worked in the service jobs of the tourism economy, and were traditionally segregated to this once-remote quarter.

Saratoga Springs is home to Yaddo, a 400-acre (1.62 km2; 0.63 sq mi) artists' community, founded by Wall Street financier Spencer Trask and his wife, author Katrina Trask. Since its inception in 1900, Yaddo has hosted 68 authors who later won the Pulitzer Prize and one Nobel Prize winner, Saul Bellow. Leonard Bernstein, Truman Capote, Aaron Copland, Sylvia Plath, and David Sedaris have all been artists-in-residence.[17] The Yaddo grounds are adjacent to the backstretch of the Saratoga Race Course.

Saratoga's New Year's celebration First Night Saratoga is the largest New Year's Eve event in New York outside of New York City.[18]


Saratoga Springs centennial, 2015
A banner with the city's centennial logo
Another banner with a version of the city seal
Both versions of these banners flew along Broadway during the summer of 2015


  • Grid (formerly Saratoga Wire) daily online newspaper
  • The Saratogian newspaper (daily)
  • Saratoga Today newspaper (weekly)
  • Saratoga Business Journal newspaper (bi-weekly)
  • The Spotlight newspaper (weekly)
  • Eco Local magazine (monthly)
  • Saratoga Seasons magazine
  • Saratoga Living magazine (quarterly)
  • Simply Saratoga magazine
  • The Skidmore News
  • Skidmore Unofficial
  • Look TV television station


The Saratoga Springs charter specifies a "commission" form of city government. Recent efforts to amend the charter have not been successful. The most recent charter change proposal appeared on the ballot in the November 2012 election and was rejected.[19] The Saratoga Springs City Council members for 2014 are:[20]

The county supervisors for the city are Matthew Veitch and Peter Martin.[20]

The city is one of only three in the state of New York to have a three-tier tax district system, the inside district being what was originally the village of Saratoga Springs, and the outside district being the town of Saratoga Springs minus the village. The other two cities with three-tier tax system are Rome and Oneida.


Saratoga County Airport, in Saratoga Springs.

The closest scheduled air service is available at Albany International Airport (ALB). There is also a general aviation facility, Saratoga County Airport (5B2), located west of city limits in the Town of Milton.

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Saratoga Springs, operating its Adirondack daily in both directions between Central Station in Montreal and Penn Station in New York City and the Ethan Allen Express daily in both directions between Rutland, Vermont and New York City. The local station off of West Avenue was built in 1956, but dramatically rehabilitated in 2004. The 6,400-square-foot (590 m2) passenger area contains a coffee shop/newsstand, murals, an automated teller machine, a visitors information kiosk, an outside patio area with benches, and a children's play area. The station serves about 23,000 passengers every year.

Greyhound Bus Lines also serves the city frequently, sending buses every few hours towards Albany or Montreal. The city Amtrak station serves as the Greyhound Bus Lines and Adirondack Trailways Bus Lines station. The city is also served by the Capital District Transportation Authority, which provides bus service from Schenectady via Route 50 daily, and weekday service to Albany via the Northway Express line. Low-cost curbside bus service is also provided by Megabus, with direct service to New York City and Burlington, Vermont.

Long-distance motorists generally reach Saratoga via Interstate 87, which north of Albany is known as the Adirondack Northway. Three exits access the city. Exit 13-S is optimal for reaching Saratoga Lake, and 13-N for the Saratoga Performing Arts Center (SPAC) and the southern and western quadrants of the city. Visitors to the Saratoga Race Course use Exit 14, which is also arguably best for reaching downtown from the south. Exit 15 serves Skidmore College, downtown if coming from the north, and the shopping malls just north of city limits.

Education and recreation

Empire State College and Skidmore College are both located in Saratoga Springs; Verrazzano College (1969-1975)[21][22] was also located there. During the summer, Skidmore is one of several hosts for the Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth. Eastern Nazarene College, located in Quincy, Massachusetts, was founded in Saratoga Springs as the Pentecostal Collegiate Institute and Biblical Seminary at the turn of the 20th century.

The Saratoga Springs City School District[23] is made up of:

Private schools in Saratoga Springs include Saratoga Central Catholic High School, St. Clement's Regional Catholic School, The Waldorf School of Saratoga Springs, and Saratoga Independent School. Alternatively, some local children commute to Albany area schools such as The Emma Willard School, The Albany Academies, Doane Stuart School and La Salle Institute.

Saratoga Spa State Park

The Saratoga Spa State Park capitalizes on the culture and mineral springs that drove Saratoga Springs. This is a large state park and includes a hotel, 2 pool complexes, mineral baths, Saratoga Performing Arts Center (SPAC), picnic areas, hiking trails and numerous mineral springs. The Saratoga Performing Arts Center, located on the State Park grounds, has been the summer home of the Philadelphia Orchestra and New York City Ballet since 1966. Jazz and dance are featured at SPAC. The SPAC Amphitheater itself is 110 feet (34 m) high, sits in a natural, curved bowl that is bordered by large pine trees and a large lawn space, but is afflicted by the roar of nearby Geyser Creek, which creates serious acoustical problems. Inside the amphitheater is seating for 5100, the lawn can easily hold an additional 20,000 people. The park is also home to the National Museum of Dance and Hall of Fame, the Saratoga Automobile Museum, the Lincoln Mineral Baths and Spa, and the Gideon Putnam Resort & Spa.

Skateboard Park

A skateboarder skating in the pool at Saratoga Skatepark.

The Saratoga Skatepark (est. 1988), located in the center of the East Side Recreation area on Lake Avenue, is New York State's first municipal skatepark. The exercise facility is known for its concrete skateboard pool, installed with a state-of-the-art design in 2004 and has metal ramps as well. In 2010 the city filled the pool with dirt, citing problems with graffiti, vandalism and unconfirmed structural issues affecting the skating surface. In addition, the city said that they lacked funds to staff guards at the park and claimed it had spent nearly $200,000 on the park since it opened in 1988.[24] After a group of skateboarders lobbied the city and publicly offered to dig out the pool by hand, the city excavated it in November 2011.[25][26] The skatepark is now free, open to the public and endorses a skate-at-your-own-risk policy per the New York Recreational Use Statute.

Notable people


Sports figures




Saratoga Springs and Saratoga society are frequently featured on-screen and mentioned in films and television. Saratoga Springs is notable for its horse racing. Saratoga Race Course

Films shot in and around Saratoga Springs






Sister cities

See also


  1. 1 2 "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  2. "The 10 Best Places In New York - statistical analysis by Movoto". Movoto Blog.
  3. 1 2 R. F. Dearborn. "Saratoga and How to See It".
  4. Charles Newhall Taintor (1876). "United States Hotel". Saratoga Illustrated.
  5. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  6. "Monthly Monthly Averages". Retrieved 2014-05-12.
  7. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  8. "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  9. 1 2 Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder - Results".
  10. Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder - Results".
  11. "Saratoga Spring Water chosen as official water for Presidential Inauguration - Albany Business Review". Albany Business Review. 3 August 2012.
  12. Saratoga Springs Heritage Area Visitor Center. "History of Saratoga". Retrieved May 25, 2013.
  13. Kuenzel, Charlie; Patterson, Dave. "The Lost Kineral Springs of Saratoga Springs, part 2". Simply Saratoga (January/February 2015). Saratoga Today.
  14. McGuire, Mark (27 June 2012). "The first Saratoga Jazz Fest". The Times Union. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  15. Willman, Dale (30 September 2012). "Native American Festival Continues at SPAC: Photo Essay". Saratoga Wire. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  16. Dimopoulos, Thomas (26 November 2011). "Bye, bye local legend: Don McLean refutes tale of song's origin". The Post Star. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  17. "History". Yaddo. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  18. Saratoga Arts Council. "First Night Saratoga". Retrieved June 30, 2014.
  19. McCarty, Lucian (15 May 2012). "Saratoga Citizen-based charter change proposal to be on November ballot". The Saratogian. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  20. 1 2 "Saratoga Springs officials sworn in".
  21. "Verrazzano makes $3 million offer for Skidmore's Scribner Campus". Skidmore News. Sep 11, 1969. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
  22. "New York Colleges that have Closed, Merged, Changed Names". Westminster College. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
  23. Saratoga Springs City School District website,
  24. Donges, Patrick (24 March 2010). "Skateboarding bowl filled at Saratoga Springs' East Side Rec". The Saratogian. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  25. Jenks, Eric (5 November 2011). "Photos: Saratoga Springs' East Side Rec skate bowl reopens". The Saratogian. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  26. Yusko, Dennis (20 October 2011). "Skateboarder's moves may hit pay dirt". The Times Union. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  27. "David Hyde Pierce". IMDb. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
  28. Humphries, Shawn (2005-10-14). "How Bill Parcells Made Big Gains". Golf Online. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-14.
  29. Flass, Barbara (1991). "Pieces of the Past: Clarence Knapp". Eye on Saratoga. 6 (11): 19.
  30. Shulman, Lenny. "Sheikh Mohammed Buys Saratoga Farm". Retrieved May 25, 2013.
  31. 1 2 Invented in Saratoga County, Starr, Timothy, 2008
  32. Collins, Glenn (August 10, 2010). "In Saratoga Springs, Catering to the Horse Set". New York Times. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
  33. Aftermath at the Internet Movie Database
  34. "Ass Backwards (2013)". Internet Movie. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  35. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Bucciferro, Maria McBride. "Saratoga on the Silver Screen II: The Glory Days of Film Return to the Spa". Saratoga Living. Saratoga Living LLC. 17 (2).
  36. "Saratoga (1937)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2007-04-01.
  37. Post, Paul (25 July 2012). "Film shot in Saratoga Springs released on DVD; "Virgin Alexander" has won multiple awards". The Saratogian. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  38. Stradley, Linda (2004). "History of Club Sandwich". What's Cooking America?. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
  39. "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l'Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  40. Diakopoulos, Christopher (2006-04-27). "City looks to get new sister". The Saratogian. Journal Register Company. Retrieved 2006-09-07.

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saratoga Springs, New York.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Saratoga Springs.
Wikisource has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana article Saratoga Springs.
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