|Nickname(s): Turmeric City, City of Six Lanes|
|Coordinates: 16°51′11″N 74°34′59″E / 16.853°N 74.583°ECoordinates: 16°51′11″N 74°34′59″E / 16.853°N 74.583°E|
|Founded by||Harbhat Patwardhan|
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
Sangli-Miraj And Kupwad City Municipal Corporation (SMKMC)smkc|
|• Mayor||Harun Shikalgar ( Congress)|
|• Municipal Commissioner||Mr. A. Y. Karche|
|• Member of Parliament||Sanjaykaka Patil (Lok Sabha)|
|• Total||118.18 km2 (45.63 sq mi)|
|Elevation||549 m (1,801 ft)|
|• Density||4,300/km2 (11,000/sq mi)|
|• Official||Marathi (मराठी)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Sangli, Maharashtra|
|Climate||Dry and Arid (Köppen)|
Sangli ( pronunciation ) is a city and the district headquarters of Sangli District in the state of Maharashtra, in western India. It is known as the Turmeric City of Maharashtra due to its production and trade of the spice. Sangli is situated on the banks of river Krishna and houses many sugar factories. The Ganesha Temple of Sangli is a historical landmark of the city and is visited by thousands of pilgrims.
Sangli city- the district place - is situated on the bank of Krishna river. The valley of the River Krishna and its tributaries offer many irrigation and agricultural advantages which drives the economy of the district and the city. Other small rivers, such as the Warana and the Panchganga, flow into the River Krishna.
The region, known as Kundal (now a small village 40 km away from Sangli city) in medieval India, was the capital of the Chalukya Empire in 12th century AD. During the time of Shivaji, Sangli, Miraj and surrounding areas were captured from the Mughal Empire. Until 1801, Sangli was included in Miraj Jahagir. Sangli separated from Miraj in 1801, following a family quarrel between Chintamanrao Patwardhan, and his paternal uncle, Gangadharrao Patwardhan, who had succeeded his childless elder brother as the sixth chief of Miraj in 1782. Chintamanrao, a born soldier, commanded the Miraj cavalry in the Maratha armies that served with the British against the Nizam, Tipu Sultan and Dhondia Waugh. When he returned to Miraj in 1800, after his many campaigns, and having reached his majority, he found his uncle unwilling to yield control to him. Disgusted with this state of affairs, the young nephew seized the family idol and left the palace in a huff. In 1801 he established himself at a new capital at Sangli and set about taking control over as much of his patrimony as he was able. Continuing quarrels and disagreements threatened to cause fighting until the British Resident at the Peshwa's court decided to settle the matter by effecting an agreement in 1812. This Treaty of Pandharpur was formally recognised by the British authorities in 1817 and further augmented by separate treaties with the HEIC in 1819.
Chintamanrao reigned for fifty years, during which he maintained very close relations with the British. His participation in the southern campaigns included a close association with the Duke of Wellington, with whom he maintained a lifelong friendship. He served in several other campaigns, even offering to lead contingents to Persia and Afghanistan to fight the company's enemies. However, his interests ranged more widely than mere soldering. He encouraged industry and agriculture, took an interest in religious affairs, and promoted inter-communal and inter-faith understanding, more than a century before it became the norm. He died in 1851, aged seventy-five, full of honours and respect.
Dhundirajrao succeeded his father not merely as ruler, but also in continuing the good work begun by his father. However, he took a keener interest in education, building schools, colleges and vocational institutions. This interest extended to the fields of female education and the so-called backwards classes, for whom he built special schools. He even promoted education amongst his Muslim subjects, a community who until then were suspicious of modern innovations. Thanks to his efforts in promoting various agricultural enterprises, Sangli is today the centre of the world turmeric trade, has the largest sugar refinery in Asia and is the most important centre for grape production in India. Despite seven marriages, he only sired two daughters. The succession was left to a distant relative, chosen by the British authorities and adopted by his senior widow.
Vinayakrao Chintamanrao, who succeeded as Chintamanrao Dhundirajrao on adoption, was no less distinguished than his two predecessors. He also reigned for a long period of sixty-four years. During this time he vastly improved the material, educational, spiritual and political development of his people. He promoted industrial and agricultural development on an unprecedented scale, making his little state something of a powerhouse in the area. Educational facilities were expanded in many areas with the establishment of arts, science, engineering and medical colleges. Access to capital improved with the foundation of a state bank, which helped poor farmers and fledgeling industrialists to raise funds. Representative institutions at local and state level encouraged the growth of democracy. He took an active part in supporting the war effort, in the activities of the Chamber of Princes, the Indian Round Table Conferences in London, and on the committee established to create a federal structure for India. A friend of the British and Gandhi alike, he enthusiastically supported independence and acceded to the Dominion India in 1947, then merged his state with Bombay. Raja Vijaysinhrao Patwardhan succeeded his grandfather in 1965. In 1842 the first Marathi Drama named Sita Swayamvar had staged in the Patwardhan Wada Rajwada
Timeline of Sangli
1024 A.D.- Gonk (a shilahaar king) had Mirich (now Miraj) which included present Sangli city
1205 A. D.- Gangaditya (a shilahaar king) constructed a lake at Iskudi near Miraj
1250–1318 A.D.- Devgiri's Yadav kings ruled. Miraj area had 3000 villages.
1399–1347 A.D.- Muhammad Khilji and Tughlak ruled
1348–1489 A.D.- Bahamani Sultans ruled
1672 A.D.– Maratha Rule: Shivaji Maharaj conquered and then Sardar Kadam governed the area
1730 A.D.– Govind Hari Patwardhan received Phadnishi of Indroji Kadam's Paaga from Bajirao Peshwa
1736 A.D.– Death of Sardar Indroji Kadam
1741 A.D.– Govind Hari Patwardhan received Sardarki of Indroji Kadam's Paaga
1761 A.D.– Govind Hari Patwardhan received Miraj Fort and nearby army bases from Madhavrao Peshwa
1761 A.D.– Govind Hari Patwardhan established Haripur, a new village
1771 A.D.– Death of Govind Hari Patwardhan
1773 A.D.– Vaman Hari Patwardhan received charge of Miraj area
1776 A.D.– Death of Vaman Hari Patwardhan at Varangaon (Khandesh), Pandurang Govind Patwardhan took charge.
1777 A.D.– Pandurang Govind Patwardhan was defeated by Haider. Death of Pandurang Govind Patwardhan
1779 A.D.– Harihar Pandurang Patwardhan received charge
1782 A.D.– Death of Harihar Pandurang Patwardhan
1783 A.D.– Chintamanrao Patwardhan took charge
1786 A.D.– Nana Phadnavis visit to Miraj
1795 A.D.– Chintamanrao Patwardhan received grant of 25,521 Rs. as a reward from Peshwas. It was due to incredible performance of Patwardhan in war of Kharda against Nijam
1799 A.D.– Bajirao Peshwa II granted the permission for division of Miraj area
1801 A.D.– Sangli received status of Capital city. Chintamanrao Patwardhan started governance from Sangli. Construction of Ganesh Durg started
1807 A.D.– Plan of major roads and commercial establishments (Peth) started
1811 A.D.– Construction of Ganesh Durg completed
1818 A.D.– British Rule initiated: British ordered to work for them
1820 A.D.– Chintamanrao Patwardhan refused to work under British. Contract with East India Company at Belgaon by Chintamanrao Patwardhan (I)
1821 A.D.– Sangli stone Press established
1834 A.D.– Mint for coin production started
1838 A.D.– Birth of Dhundiraj Chintamanrao Patwardhan
1842 A.D.– Appointment of civil and crime Justice. Judgement was done based on old tradition and rules
1844 A.D.– Ganesha idol established at Ganesha Temple
1846 A.D.– Development of Gardens: Miraj Malaa, Ganpati Malaa, Gardens at Uplaavi and Kharshing.Development of Aamraai: Mango garden in city
1850 A.D.– Budhgaonkar Patwardhan took charge of Haripur
1851 A.D.– Death of Chintamanrao Patwardhan (I)
1853 A.D.– Major flood to Krishna river
1855 A.D.– Government Hospital started
1860 A.D.– Major drought
1861 A.D.– Public Literacy started
1853 A.D.– Marathi School and Library started
1864 A.D.– Sangli City Cleaning Office started
1865 A.D.– English medium school and Grammer School started. Vedashastra School started
1865 A.D.– Sangli Nagar Vachnalay (Library) started
1872 A.D.– First City Survey of Sangli. Appeal Court established
1876 A.D.– Sangli Municipal Corporation started
1877–78 A.D.- drought
1887 A.D.– Lord Ripon visits Sangli
1887 A.D.– Pune-Miraj Railway route started. Sangli gets water supply from Kakadwadi
1889 A.D.– Fire engine was purchased by Municipal Corporation
1891 A.D.– Miraj- Kolhapur Railway route and Post Office started
1893 A.D.– Plague took toll of 2159 people
1901 A.D.– Death of Dhundirao Patwardhan. Achyut Desai appointed as Administrator of Sangli
1903 A.D.– Chintamanrao (II) Pawardhan took charge of Sangli
1904 A.D.– Panjarpol: Animal Welfare House started
Sangli at present
The twin cities of Sangli and Miraj have merged to form an urban agglomeration. The cities have important education centers offering graduate and post graduate quality education in the areas of arts, science, management, medicine, and engineering. The twin cities offer infrastructure that includes railway junction, hotels, housing, public transport, telephone, high speed internet, a multiplex, shopping mall and a state-of-art sports complex.
Sangli is now emerging as one of the largest power generation hubs of India. Reliance Wind Energy (RWE), is setting up 150 MW wind power project worth Rs 900 crore with Suzlon Energy. Suzlon Energy will set up the wind farm in Sangli, one of the known wind zones in the state. Sangli has the largest trading centre for turmeric in Asia. The green city is inside what is called 'Sugar Belt' of Maharashtra. The district has more than thirteen sugar factories, which makes it among the highest sugar-producing districts of India. It also has oil seeds, commodities and fruit market. Sangli is also known for high quality grapes and houses many state and privately owned cold storage facilities. A grape wine park spread over 1.42 km² (350 acres) has been established at Palus, 30 km from Sangli city. A brand new Sangli Food Park, spread across 1.2 km² (300 acres) is under construction at Alkud ManeRajuri.
Sangli is also one of the largest Grape growing regions in Maharashtra. Government has established Krishna Valley Wine Park 30 km away from Sangli to promote wine industry also Pomegranates are cultivated in the north east region of the district. Recently, Sangli has come up as a major wind power generation location in India. Suzlon has set up large wind farms around Sangli city with a capacity to generate over 900 MW of power. Sangli has number of renowned education institutes which includes Walchand College of Engineering (established in 1947), Willingdon College (established in 1919), City High School (established in 1914) and Sangli High School (established in 1907). Still Sangli City expanding by its area and population though it signs many top companies have to be in the domestic industry causes needs and new employment.
The state government also has proposed a large phase of land for occupation of new Sangli Airport near the suburb Kavalapur which could beneficial in the growth of the City Business Development. The work is in the progress of the National Highway which is from Shirval to Chikkodi (Karnataka) via Lonand, Phaltan, Atpadi, Vita, Tasgaon, Sangli and ahead via Miraj, Belgum to Chikkodi which would be a standard transportation service from the city to another place. Sangli railway station under Pune Railway division serves Sangli city. Miraj Junction, a railway Junction is 7 km from the Sangli.
Princely State of Sangli
The Principality of Sangli covered an area of 1112 square miles (2942 square kilometers), and had a population of 226,128 in 1901, while the population of the town itself was 16,829 in that year. In 1911, the state had a revenue estimated at £10,000. Sangli joined the dominion of India on March 8, 1948 and is currently a part of the state of Maharashtra.
Sangli was one of the 11-gun salute princely states of British India, under the Kolhapur-Deccan Residency in the Bombay Presidency, and later the Deccan States Agency. It was one of the southern Maratha Jagirs. Its territory was widely scattered among other native states and British districts.
The Sangli-Miraj & Kupwad City Municipal Corporation (S.M.K.M.C.)is the local self-government body which looks after the development of the Sangli-Miraj twin cities,serving 0.5 million citizens. The corporation is continuously working in following aspects of development: Roads and Highways – construction, repair, widening, street lighting, drainage, slum eradication and waste management However, regarding Irrigation and Water Supply, the city is ill-famed for poor water quality for many years.
Civic officials and government body
- Mayor - Mr. Harun Shikalgar.
- Commissioner - Mr. Ravindra Khebudkar
- Collector - Mr. Shekhar Gaikwad
- Deputy Mayor - Mr. Vijaykumar GhadgeMunicipal Corporation
- Superintendent of Police - Mr.Dattatray Shinde
Turmeric Production and Trade
Turmeric production and trade in nearby areas of Sangli city follows a centuries-old practice—storing turmeric in pits. These pits stretch far out in the open fields of the villages of Haripur and Sangalwadi. It is possibly the most unusual agricultural commodity-storage system in the country.
After clearing the loose soil covering the pit, it is left open for about two to three hours. One cannot enter the pit until one finds out if there is any oxygen within. To ascertain this, a lantern is lowered into the pit. If the lantern does not go out, it is safe to enter the pit.
It was this ingenious storage system, devised over 200 years ago, that turned Sangli into a major trading centre for turmeric. Raw turmeric sold by farmers is stored in these pits, eighteen to twenty feet (five to six metres) deep, for three to four years. The pits provide the best storage facility for turmeric, as the quality of the commodity remains unchanged. The turmeric hardens and matures while in storage. Today, more than 80% of the turmeric trade in India takes place in Sangli.
Educational Institutes in Sangli
- Shri Ganapatrao Arawade High School and Junior College Sangli
- Shri Mahalaxmi Highschool Deshing-Haroli
- Bharti Vidyapeeth Educational Campus Sangli
- Mahaveer State Academy English Medium school Sangli
- City High School, Sangli
- Emmanuel English School
- H.H. Raja Chintamanrao Patwardhan High School
- LGR Purohit Kanya Prashala
- Martin's English School
- Mount Sinai English School
- Mount Sinai Marathi School
- Rani Saraswati Kanyashala
- Sangli High School
- Shantiniketan Junior College of Arts & Science
- Chintamanrao College of Commerce
- Shriram Ramdayal Malu High School
- Vasantdada Patil Institute of Research and Management
- Sangli Shikshan Sanstha
- Modern English School
- Santhome school ICSE Sangli.
- Shri Kantilal Purushottamdas Shah Prashala
- Svatantravir Savarkar Prathisthan's Pradnya Prabodhini Prashala
- Samaj Vikas Sec & High Sec Vidyalaya Sagaon (Warana
- Zilha Parishad Shala Haroli
- Ganpatrao Arvade College of Commerce, Sangli
The world record for largest lezim dance was achieved by Sangli Shikshan Sanstha in 2014 as a part of centenary year celebrations of the educational institute. A total 3066 girls and 4272 boys from 19 different schools situated across 14 towns and 5 villages participated. The attempt took place on 26 January 2014 the 65th Republic Day of India at Shivaji stadium.
Sangli is home to many colleges, most of which are affiliated to Shivaji University, Kolhapur.
- Sanjay Bhokare Group of Institutes College of Engineering, Tilaknagar,Miraj,Dist.- Sangli
- Annasaheb Dange College of Engineering & Technology
- Appasaheb Birnale College of Architecture, South Shivaji Nagar
- Bharati Vidyapeeth Institute of Technology, Palus, Sangli
- Government Polytechnic, Miraj, Sangli
- Latthe Education Society Polytechnic, MIDC, Kupwad, Sangli
- Nanasaheb Mahadik College of Engineering, Peth Naka
- Padmabhushan Vasantraodada Patil Institute of Technology, Budhgaon
- Rajarambapu Institute of Technology, Rajaramnagar
- Shree Jaywantrao Bhosale Polytechnic, Killemachindragad.
- Vishveshwarya Technical Campus, Faculty of Degree and Diploma Engineering, Patgaon, Miraj
- Walchand College of Engineering, Vishrambag, Sangli
- Bharati Vidyapeeth Dental College, Wanlesswadi, Miraj
- Bharati Vidyapeeth Medical College, Wanlesswadi,Miraj
- Government Medical College, Miraj
- Gulabrao Patil Homeopathy Medical College, Miraj
- Abasaheb Garware Institute of Management Studies, ST Stand Road
- Bharati Vidyapeeth Institute of Management and Rural Development Administration, Rajawada Chowk
- CSM Institute of Management
- Deccan Education Society Institute of Management, Vishrambaug
- V.P.Institute of Management Studies & Research, Wanlesswadi, Miraj
- Appasaheb Birnale College of Pharmacy, Sangli
- Gulabrao Patil College of Pharmacy, Miraj
- Eklavya College of pharmacy, Tasgaon
- Padmabhushan Vasantraodada Patil Mahavidyalaya Kavathemahankal
- Appasaheb Birnale College of Architecture
- Garware Women's College
- G.A. College of Commerce, Sangli
- Gulabrao Patil B.Ed & D.Ed College
- Smt. Kasturbai Walchand College Arts, Science, & Commerce
- Patangrao Kadam College, Sangliwadi (formerly known as Bhatrati Vidyapeeth's A.S.C. College, Sangli)
- Sangli highscool & junior college, Sangli
- Shantiniketan College, Sangli
- SNDT Women's College
- Willingdon College of Arts & Science, Vishrambaug
Sangli is the birthplace of many people notable for their contributions as social, cultural as well as political reformers.
- Vasantdada Patil, - Ex Chief minister of Maharashtra, Padmale
- Yashwantrao Chavan –1st chief minister of MAHARASHTRA State
- Pratik Patil- Ex. Minister of State, Govt of India
- Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Village Thembu
- Ramdas Athawale, Agalagaon
- Balgandharva, Village Nagthane
- Dhulappa Bhaurao Navale, Village Ankalkhop
- Armaan Jaffer - Cricketer
- Vishnudas Bhave
- Asha Bhosale
- Govind Ballal Deval, born in Konkan, brought up to Sangli (workplace)
- Vijay Hazare
- V. S. Khandekar
- G. D. Madgulkar
- R. R. Patil (Aaba), Village Anjani, Tasgaon
- Bhagyashree Patwardhan
- Annabhau Sathe, Walwa
- Sai Tamhankar
- Dadasaheb Velankar
- Krantisinha Nana Patil
- Jayant Patil
Sagareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary
The sanctuary is forested, but with grassy hill slopes. The forests are southern dry mixed deciduous and southern thorn forest. Protection from grazing and forest fire has resulted in good regeneration of dry deciduous species. The forest department introduced many plants in the area, including Tamarind, Neem, Nilgiri, Acacia, Agave, and Khair.
Flora and fauna: Large animals found in the sanctuary include several types of deer (Sambar Deer, Blackbucks, Muntjac, Chital) as well as wild boar and peacocks. Small carnivores like hyena, fox and porcupines are also found in the area. A large number of insects, birds and reptiles such as pythons and other snakes are also present.
Tourism: The sanctuary is a popular tourist destination, with the peak tourism season being from August to February. The most popular tourist activity is hiking to the top of a hill in the sanctuary, from which one can see the Krishna River flowing through fields of sugarcane and grapevines. Also in the area are numerous shrines to Shiva which were built during the Chalukya dynasty, and the Krishna Valley Wine Park in Palus.
About Sagareshwar: The Sagareshwar sanctuary has much religious, cultural and archaeological significance. The sanctuary derives its name from an ancient famous Shiva temple that attracts a large number of devotees. It actually consists of one large temple and a complex of 51 small temples, all from the Satvahana period. You will find the Kamal Bhairao temple, partially hewn from hard Basalt rock perched on the edge of a steep cliff. The entrance to the temple is through a narrow tunnel.
Ganesh temple is the greatest religious attraction in Sangli. It is the Kuldaivat of Patwardhans. Besides the main temple of Ganesh there are four more, but smaller ones, of Suryanarayan, Cintamanesvar, Laksmi-Narayan and Chinta−manesvari, which together with the chief deity forms the Ganapati panchayatan.
The construction of the temple was started by the late Sri Appasaheb Patwardhan. The basalt stone blocks used for the construction were brought from the Jyotiba hills near Kolhapur.
The whole structure stands on a fairly large quadrangular court. The Princely residence is close by and facing the river, on which side there is a wall flanked by two bastions and loopholed for musketry. Sri Chintamanrav Appahaheb Patvardhan built the mandap at a later date. The stone used is of the same type as that employed for the construction of the original temple and the sculptural work and the designs are also befitting the original shrine. It was completed in 1952 and was inaugurated by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.
A huge and massive gate of red sand−stone, recently constructed, leads into the spacious courtyard. The gate has grandeur of its own and is the work of skilled architects and artisans of great repute. It is composed of three arches for entry. The central arch is bigger than the side ones. In the courtyard two lotus shaped fountains can be seen.
A mandap hall is supported on eight polished and ornamented pillars supporting galleries on both sides. The ceiling of the mandap bears beautiful designs, a huge chandelier hanging from the centre of the ceiling. In addition to the main entrance there are four more doors, two on either side. On the wall are reproduced sacred hymns from the Bhagavad Gita. On the right side of the hall, the sandalwood-crafted chariot with the images of Arjuna and Krushna can be seen. It delineates Krishna preaching Bhagvadgita to Arjuna when he refused to right ihe Kauravas on the historic battle−field of Kuruksetra.
The 1.16 sq. m pedestal of black stone supports white marble idol of Ganesh, with Riddhi and Siddhi idols. This part is approached by steps fixed at both the extreme ends. The Garbhagriha is crowned by a shikhar with a brass spire plated with gold. It bears various designs and carvings and figure−filled niches, In the corners there are smaller replicas of the main Shikhara.
The shrine as a whole is one of the excellent specimen of stone carvings and polished stone−work. Of the remaining four temples of the panchayatan, two, viz., Chintamanesvar and Suryanarayan are on the right side, arranged one behind the other, placing one of the fountains mentioned above in the middle. The other two, viz., Lakshmi−Narayan and Chintamanesvari are on the left also arranged in the same manner. Behind the temple of Suryanarayan there is the stone sculpture of a baby elephant trampling a tiger.
Ganapati Panchayatan Trust maintains the temple. The trust receives grants from Patvardhans,as a part of tradition which continues till the present day. In the backyard of the Ganesha temple court there is a small black stone idol of Kuranesvari housed in a small arch of stone.
Nearby Religious Places
- Battis Shirala-
- Gorakhnath Shrine
- Ambbai Temple
- Bhairavnath Temple - Panumbre Tarf Shirala
- Bhuvneshwari Temple
- Brahmanand Swami Math
- Dandoba - The place of lord Shiva near Miraj at the top of a mountain surrounded by forest.
- Sangameshwar (Haripur) - on the confluenace of rivers Krishna and Warna
- Shree Ganapti Mandir Tasgaon
- Nrusimha Temple - Bahe
- Hanuman Temple Haroli, Tal- K.Mahankal
Cultural and Spiritual Heritage Ganesh Chaturthi The festival spares Happines to Everyone, Sangli is often visited by many saints, Yogis, tapaswis like Swami Vivekananda for their tapa, sādhanā and satsang. There are many places, known for their calm, soothing environment near Krishna river which attract devotees and Sadhus. Some of the saints belonging to this area are-
Sant shree Tatya Saheb Kotnis Maharaj, Mama Maharaj Kelkar, Dasram Maharaj Kelkar Shree Hanumandasji Maharaj etc.
Sangli has many local delicacies. Bhadang is a spicy puffed rice snack seasoned with garlic and peanuts, and it is very popular. Sangli also has grapes, pomegranates, and sugarcane fields. Sanglikar's are foodie about Bhel which is famous as well as Misal Paav .
Architecture and Places of Interest
- Sangli is home to the famous Ganapati Temple. Located on the banks of river Krishna, the view of the riverfront is very scenic. Many elements of the British era can still be found.
- The Irwin Bridge of Sangli built by the British still stands strong.
- The Rajwada (Royal Palace), now home to the court premises, reminds one of the early days.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Sangli has a semi-arid climate with three seasons, a hot, dry summer from the middle of February to the middle of June, a monsoon from the middle of June to late October and a mild cool season from early November to early February. The total rainfall is about 22 inches (580 mm). sangli has a chill climate all around winter.summers are dry but not so much dry like in the big metropolitan cities.rain is within its limits.
|Climate data for Sangli|
|Average high °C (°F)|| 31
|Average low °C (°F)|| 12
|Average precipitation mm (inches)|| 3.8
|Source: Government of Maharashtra|
As of the 2011 census, the population of the Sangli-Miraj area is as follows.
- "Fifteenth Lok Sabha Members Bioprofile". Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- Benzie, F. F.; Sissi Wachtel-Galo (2011). "13: Turmeric, The Golden Spice: From Traditional Medicine to Modern Medicine". In F. F. Benzie. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects (Second ed.). Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742, USA: CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group. p. 269. ISBN 978-1-4398-0713-2.
- "Largest Lezim dance". Retrieved 2015-10-04.