Russian military intervention in Syria

Russian military intervention in Syria
Part of the Syrian Civil War
and the military intervention against ISIL

A Russian Su-34 conducting an airstrike in Syria
Date30 September 2015 – present
(1 year, 2 months and 5 days)


  • Pro-government forces capture 586 settlements and 12,000 sq km of territory[1]
  • Major pro-government strategic gains in Latakia, Palmyra and Aleppo theaters[2]
  • Russian forces partially withdraw[3][4][5]
  • Russian airforce in indefinite deployment,[6] air-strikes to continue post-withdrawal[7]

In support of:

Syrian Democratic Forces[8][9][10][11]
 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

 Syrian opposition

Supported by:

Army of Conquest[23]

Supported by:

Commanders and leaders
Russia Vladimir Putin
Russia Sergey Shoygu
Russia Valery Gerasimov
Russia Sergey Rudskoy[28]
Russia Viktor Bondarev
RussiaAlexander Zhuravlev[29]

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
Abu Mohammad al-Adnani   (Spokesperson)
Abu Suleiman al-Naser   (Replacement Military Chief)[30]
Abu Ali al-Anbari   (Deputy, Syria)

Abu Omar al-Shishani   (Field commander in Syria) [31][32]

Syrian opposition Basil Zamo  (1st Coastal Division chief of staff)[33]
Zahran Alloush  (emir of Jaysh al-Islam)

Abu Mohammad al-Julani (Leader of al-Nusra Front)
Abu Hajer al-Homsi  (al-Nusra Front top military commander)[34]

Abu Yahia al-Hamawi[35] (Leader of Ahrar ash-Sham)
Units involved

Russian Armed Forces:

Foreign Intelligence Service:

Military of ISIL

Syrian opposition Free Syrian Army

Army of Conquest


Troop strength
4,000 personnel[46]
Naval ships
3 Buyan-M class corvettes[47]
1 Gepard-class frigate[47]
1 Admiral Grigorovich-class frigate
[48] 1 Vishnya-class intelligence ship
1 Improved Kilo-class submarine[49]
1 Slava-class cruiser[50]
Kuznetsov aircraft carrier battlegroup
1 Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier
1 Kirov-class battlecruiser
2 Udaloy-class destroyers
support vessels
Strategic bombers
14 Tu-22M3[52]
6 Tu-95MSM[52]
5 Tu-160[52]
Tactical bombers
12 Su-24M2
8 Su-34[53]
Attack bombers
12 Su-25SM[54]
Fighter aircraft
4 Su-30SM[55]
4 Su-35S[56]
Interceptor aircraft
Reconnaissance aircraft
Attack helicopter
12 Mi-24P [60]
2 Mi-28N[61]
2 Ka-52[61]
Utility helicopter
4 Mi-8AMTSh
Ground equipment
3 SA-22[64]

Other anti-aircraft and anti-missile weapons,[65] including S-400[66] and S-300VM[67]

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant:
30,000–100,000 fighters (per the CIA and the Iraqi Kurdistan Chief of Staff)[68]

Small numbers of tanks and assorted armored vehicles[69][70]

Free Syrian Army:
Between 45,000 and 60,000 fighters (disputed)[71]
Islamic Front :

al-Nusra Front:
Ahrar ash-Sham:

Casualties and losses
20 soldiers killed[76]
1 Su-24 M2 shot down by Turkey[77]
2 Mi-8 destroyed[78]
1 Mi-28 crashed[79]
4 Mi-24 and 20 supply trucks lost[80][81] (denied by Russia)[82]
9[83]–15[84][85] PMCs killed (denied by Russia)[86]
1 MiG-29K crashed[87]
2,746 killed (per SOHR)[88] 2,814 killed (per SOHR)[88]
c. 3,800 civilians killed (per SOHR)[88]

The Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War began in September 2015 after an official request by the Syrian government for military help against rebel and jihadist groups.[89][90] The intervention initially consisted of air strikes fired by Russian aircraft stationed in the Khmeimim base at targets primarily in north-western Syria, against militant groups opposed to the Syrian government, including Syrian National Coalition, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), al-Nusra Front (al-Qaeda in the Levant) and the Army of Conquest.[91][92][93] Besides, Russian military advisors and special operations forces were stationed in Syria.[94] Prior to the intervention, Russian involvement in the Syrian Civil War had mainly consisted of supplying the Syrian Army.[95]

Shortly after the operation began, Russian officials were cited as saying that, apart from fighting terrorist organisations such as ISIL, Russia′s goals included helping the Syrian government retake territory from various anti-government groups that are labelled by the U.S. and its coalition as ″moderate opposition″, a broader geopolitical objective being to roll back U.S. influence.[96] In his televised interview broadcast on 11 October 2015, Russian president Vladimir Putin said the military operation had been thoroughly prepared in advance; he defined Russia′s goal in Syria as "stabilising the legitimate power in Syria and creating the conditions for political compromise"[97] According to the U.S. State Department, the Russian government has also been concerned that "if the government fell, that there would be chaos and that would allow terrorist groups to consolidate",[98] a claim which the Russian government has been using to justify their intervention. The intervention has produced significant gains for the Syrian government,[99][100] including the recapture of Palmyra from ISIL in March 2016[101] and according to the U.S. State Department, one year after the start of their intervention the Russians "have succeeded in bolstering the [Syrian] regime."[98]

The pro-opposition[102][103] Syrian Observatory for Human Rights has stated that between the initiation of the intervention in September 2015 and end of February 2016, Russian air strikes have killed at least 1,700 civilians, including more than 200 children. The Syrian Network for Human Rights puts the number even higher, and in its report stated that Russian attacks have killed more civilians than either ISIS or Assad's army.[104][105][106][107] Used weapons included unguided bombs, cluster bombs, incendiaries similar to white phosphorus and thermobaric weapons.[108][109][110] By end of September 2016, the pro-rebel Syrian Observatory for Human Rights stated that Russian airstrikes have killed around 3800 civilians, about a quarter of them children, along with 2,746 ISIS fighters, and 2,814 rebels.[111]

Background and preparation phase

The Syrian Civil War has been waged since 2011 between multiple opposition (anti-government) groupings and the government as well, as their local and foreign support bases. Since 2014, a significant part of Syria′s territory had been claimed by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, an entity internationally recognised as terrorist. In the north-west of the country, the main opposition faction is the al-Qaeda-affiliated al-Nusra Front, allied with numerous other smaller Islamist groups, some of which operated under the umbrella of the Free Syrian Army (FSA) that was supported and armed by the United States and its regional allies. Since September 2014, the U.S.-led coalition had conducted airstrikes in Syria against ISIL, which was widely seen as unsuccessful in achieving their goals.[112][113]

According to Russian and Syrian officials, in July 2015, the Syrian President Bashar al-Assad made a formal request to Russia for air strikes combating international terrorism, while laying out Syria’s military problems.[114][115] According to media reports with reference to anonymous sources,[114] after a series of major setbacks suffered by the Syrian government forces in the first half of 2015, a political agreement was reached between Russia and Syria to intensify the Russian involvement; Qasem Soleimani, commander of the Iran′s Quds Force visited Moscow in July to work out the details of the joint campaign (Soleimani′s visit was denied by Russian officials[116][117]).

In August 2015, Russia began to send Russian-operated warplanes, T-90 tanks and artillery, as well as combat troops to an airbase near the port city of Latakia in Syria.[118][119]

On 26 August 2015, a treaty was signed between Russia and Syria that stipulated terms and conditions of use by Russia of Syria's Hmeimim airport, free of charge and with no time limit.[120] The treaty, ratified by Russia′s parliament in October 2016, grants Russia′s personnel and their family members jurisdictional immunity and other privileges as envisaged by Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.[121]

In September 2015, Russia′s warships of the Black Sea Fleet reached the area of eastern Mediterranean.[122]

At the end of September, a joint information centre in Baghdad was set up by Iran, Iraq, Russia and Syria to coordinate their operations against ISIL[123] (in the newsmedia the centre is also referred to as "Joint Operations Room in Baghdad known as the 4 + 1" implying the Lebanese Shia militia Hezbollah, in addition to the 4 states[124]). According to Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov′s statement made in mid-October 2015, prior to the start of its operations in Syria, Russia invited the United States to join the Baghdad-based information center but received what he called an "unconstructive" response.[125][126][127] According to Alexander Yakovenko, Ambassador of Russia to the United Kingdom, the Russian government received a similar rebuttal from the UK government.[128] In late December 2015, Turkey′s president Recep Erdogan claimed that he had declined Russian president′s offer to join this alliance as he "could not sit alongside a president [Assad] whose legitimacy" was dubious to him".[129]

On 30 September 2015, the upper house of the Russian Federal Assembly, the Federation Council, granted the request by Russian President Vladimir Putin to deploy the Russian Air Force in Syria.[130] On the same day, the Russian representative to the joint information centre arrived at the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad and requested that any United States forces in the targeted area in Syria leave immediately.[131] An hour later, the Russian aircraft based in the government-held territory began conducting airstrikes ostensibly against ISIL and other rebel targets.[132]

Prior to the start of the Russian operation in Syria as well as afterwards, Russian analysts believed that Russia′s military build-up in Syria was aimed inter alia at ending the de facto political and diplomatic isolation that the West had imposed on Putin in connection with the situation in Ukraine.[133][134][135][136]

Operations by Russian military forces

September–October 2015

The first series of air strikes took place on 30 September 2015 in areas around the cities of Homs and Hama, targeting the mainstream opposition.[89] Russian warplanes attacked rebel positions "in al-Rastan, Talbiseh and Zafaraniya in Homs province; Al-Tilol al-Hmer in Quneitra province; Aydoun, a village on the outskirts of the town of Salamiya; Deer Foul, between Hama and Homs; and the outskirts of Salmiya".[137] In total, 20 flights were made.[138] Most of the initial airstrikes targeted positions of the Chechen fighters, Islamic Front's Jaysh al-Islam (Army of Islam),[16] and Free Syrian Army.[139][140][141]

According to Hezbollah media outlet Al Mayadeen, the Saudi/Turkish-backed Army of Conquest[24] around Jisr ash-Shugour was bombed on 1 October by Russian planes; at least 30 air strikes were carried out.[142] Another series of Russian airstrikes carried out that same day hit ISIL positions in Raqqa governorate.[143]

A Russian Su-24 jet aircraft in Latakia, government-held Latakia Governorate.
Preparation of an aircraft of the Russian Air Force for combat sorties in Syria.

In the morning of 2 October, the Russian air force launched four airstrikes on ISIL in the ancient Syriac city of Al-Qaryatayn, and the T4-Palmyra highway, Homs province. An ISIL command and control center was destroyed in a single airstrike in Al-Qaryatayn, while an ISIL convoy on their way to the Teefor-Palmyra highway was attacked. Following the airstrikes, the Syrian Army and National Defence Forces pushed ISIL out of the town of Mheen towards Al-Qaryatayn after a two-hour engagement that killed 18 militants and destroyed two technicals mounted with ZU-23-2s. Syrian forces then launched a counter-attack south-west of Al-Qaryatayn to recover the main road.[144]

In the same day, the Russian Air Force began bombing Al-Nusra Front[145] positions in al-Rastan and Talbiseh in the Homs province. Later, they proceeded with bombing Al-Nusra in Kafr Zita, Al-Ghaab Plains, Kafr Nabl, Kafr Sijnah, and Al-Rakaya in the Hama province. The Syrian Air Force and the Russian Air Force jointly bombed Al-Nusra in Jisr al-Shughur. At night, the Russian Air Force targeted ISIL with 11 airstrikes over Al-Raqqah while targeting electrical grids outside it, two airstrikes over Shadadi-Hasakah highway, and three airstrikes in Al-Mayadeen, Deir ez-Zor province. The primary ISIL military base in Tabaqa Military Airport was also attacked, with the barracks being destroyed in two airstrikes. Near the Military Airport, an ISIL weapons supply depot in Al-'Ajrawi Farms was also bombed. At the same time, the ISIL primary headquarters in Tabaqa National Hospital was heavily damaged in a Russian airstrike.[146][147] In Al-Hasakah province, the Russian Air Force targeted ISIL in Al-Shadadi and Al-Houl, while the Syrian Air Force attacked an ISIL convoy along the Deir ez-Zor-Hasakah highway.[147]

In March 2016 a group of Russian sappers cleared the liberated areas of Palmyra, which was previously mined by invaders from the Islamic state.

On 3 October, reports indicated that Hezbollah and Iranian fighters were preparing major ground offensives to be coordinated with Russian airstrikes.[148] According to CNN, the Russian defense ministry said its soldiers bombed nine ISIL positions near the group's de facto capital in Raqqa. At least 11 were killed in an alleged double strike by Russia in Syria's Idlib province, according to opposition groups.[149] During the day, the Russian Air Force made four airstrikes over Al-Nusra controlled Jisr al-Shughur, and additional ones in Jabal Al-Zawiya, and Jabal al-Akrad.[150] One of the targets was an Al-Nusra reinforcement convoy heading from Jisr al-Shughur to the northeast countryside of Latakia province.[150]

Russian Navy produced a massive cruise missiles attack from the Caspian Sea on Islamic State targets in Syria

On the morning of 7 October 2015, according to the Russian officials, four warships from the Russian Navy's Caspian Flotilla launched 26 3M-14T from Kalibr-NK system[151] cruise missiles that hit 11 targets within Syrian territory. The missiles passed through Iranian and Iraqi airspace in order to reach their targets at a distance of well over about 1,500 kilometers (930 miles).[152] The same day, Syrian ground forces were reported to carry out an offensive under Russian air cover.[153][154] According to CNN citing unnamed United States military and intelligence officials, 4 of 26 cruise missiles on 8 October crashed in Iran, well before reaching their targets in Syria.[155] Russia claimed all of its missiles hit their targets.[156][157] Iran also denied any missile crash on its territory.[158][159] Iranian defence ministry rejected any reports alleging that four of the 26 cruise missiles crashed in Iran saying the CNN reports are part of the West's "psychological warfare".[158]

On 8 October 2015, the number of air raids increased significantly up to over 60 sorties a day, a tempo maintained for the next 2 days. [160] The Russian defense ministry announced on 9 October that up to sixty ISIL targets were hit in the past 24 hours, supposedly killing 300 militants in the most intense strikes so far. One of the raids targeted a Liwa al-Haqq base in the Al-Raqqah Governorate using KAB-500KR precision-guided bombs, in which allegedly two senior ISIL commanders and up to 200 militants were killed, despite the lack of any connection between Liwa al-Haqq and ISIL. Another assault destroyed a former prison near Aleppo that was used by ISIL as a base and munitions depot, also killing scores of militants. Rebel training sites in the Latakia and Idlib provinces were allegedly hit as well.[161] Meanwhile, ISIL militants made advances in the Aleppo area on 9 October, seizing several villages, including Tal Qrah, Tal Sousin, and Kfar Qares, in what the Associated Press called a "lightning attack". The attacks were unencumbered by either Russian or United States-led coalition airstrikes. The ISIL advance came at the expense of rebel groups also targeted by Russian and Syrian forces.[162] In mid-October 2015, a joint Russian-Syrian-Iranian-Hezbollah offensive targeting rebels in Aleppo went ahead.[163][164][165] According to citizen journalist group Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently, who started out opposing the Syrian Government, Russia lied about targeting ISIL in the early airstrikes and missiles around Raqqa. Between 17 September and 13 October they counted 36 Russian strikes against only 2 ISIL targets (with 4 ISIL deaths) and 22 civilian targets (with 70 civilian deaths plus injuries) included hospitals, a fire hall, at least one school and a highway fueling station.[166]

November 2015

Su-30SM fighters met and escorted Tu-160s, which launched cruise missiles over the Mediterranean.
Military developments in Syria from 10 November until 30 November 2015 (the animation according to the "Tsar'grad TV"). Red area — the territory under the control of Syrian government

On 17 November 2015, in the wake of the Russian jet crash over Sinai[167][168][169][170] and the Paris attacks, according to the Russian defence minister′s public report to the president of Russia Vladimir Putin, Russia employed the Russia-based Tu-160, Tu-95MSM, and Tu-22M3 long range strategic bombers firing air-launched cruise missiles to hit what he claimed were the IS targets in Raqqa, Deir ez-Zor as well as targets in the provinces of Aleppo and Idlib.[171][172] The Russian minister of defence said that, pursuant to Putin′s orders, the Russian aviation grouping that at the time comprised more than 50 aircraft was intensifying their campaign.[173] Besides, Putin said he had issued orders for the Moskva cruiser that had been in eastern Mediterranean since the start of the Russian operations to "work as with an ally",[171][174][175] with the French naval group led by flagship Charles De Gaulle that had been on its way to eastern Mediterranean since early November.[176] The following day, according to the Russian Defence ministry, strikes by long-range bombers firing cruise missiles in the same areas in Syria continued.[177][178] The mass cruise missile strikes carried out against ISIS in Deir Ezzor province on 20 November resulted in the death of more than 600 militants according to the ministry.[179]

A Russian Sukhoi Su-24 strike aircraft was shot down by a Turkish Air Force F-16 on 24 November 2015.[180][181] The pilot was shot and killed by Syrian rebels while descending by parachute, and the weapon systems officer was later rescued by Russian forces. A Russian marine was injured during the rescue operation and later died en route to a medical center.[182][183] In the video the rebels shout "Allah Akbar" over the dead body of a Russian pilot.[184] According to Turkey’s claims presented to the UN Security Council, two planes, whose nationalities were unknown to them at the time, violated Turkish airspace over the Yayladağı province up to 1.36 miles for 17 seconds.[185] According to Turkey, the planes disregarded the multiple warnings and were subsequently fired upon by Turkish F-16s patrolling the area. After the Turkish fire, one of the planes left Turkish airspace and the other crashed into Syrian territory.[185] The Russian Ministry of Defense denied that any of their planes had violated Turkey's airspace, claiming they had been flying south of the Yayladağı province[186] and provided two maps showing two different alleged routes of the airplane (one of them with "impossible" turns and maneuvers).[187]

Unloading of anti-aircraft missile systems S-400 (air base "Hmeymim" Syrian Arab Republic)

The incident followed incremental tensions between Russia and Turkey over alleged repeated violations of Turkish airspace by Russian military jets[188] (one of which Russia admitted[189]) and the Turkish prime minister′s statement of 17 October that Turkey would not hesitate to shoot down airplanes violating its airspace.[190][191]

The cruiser Moskva operating as part of the Russian Navy task group providing air defence cover in the Eastern Mediterranean; January 2016

Russia in response announced it would deploy additional air defense weapons in the area and accompany its bombers with fighter jets.[192] On 26 November 2015, deployment of S-300 and S-400 anti-aircraft systems was reported by Russia′s official news media,[66] to Latakia and on board the cruiser Moskva.[193]

On 29 November 2015, Russian aircraft were reported to have struck targets in the Syrian Idlib province, including the town of Ariha that had been captured by the Army of Conquest 6 months prior, causing multiple casualties on the ground.[194][195] Other targets hit included the Turkistan Islamic Party's office in Jisr al-Shughur and a relief office of Ahrar ash-Sham group in the town of Saraqib.[196]

December 2015 – February 2016

On 1 December 2015, The Times, citing local sources and news media, claimed that Russia was preparing to expand its military operations in Syria by opening the al-Shayrat airbase near the city of Homs, already home to Russian attack helicopters and a team that had arrived about a month prior.[197][198]

On 8 December, the Russian defence minister announced that a Kilo-class submarine, Rostov-on-Don, had launched 3M14K cruise missiles while submerged, against targets in Al-Raqqah Governorate, the first such strike from the Mediterranean Sea.[199][200] He also reported to the president that pursuant to Putin′s order, since 5 December the Russian military had intensified airstrikes in Syria: it was claimed that over the 3 days, Russian aircraft, including Tu-22M3 strategic bombers, had performed over 300 sorties engaging over 600 targets of different type.[201]

On 11 December, in a televised meeting at the Defence ministry Vladimir Putin ordered the military in Syria to destroy any threatening targets: "I order you to act as tough as possible. Any target that poses a threat to Russian [military] grouping or ground infrastructure has to be destroyed immediately."[202] He also appeared to suggest that the Russian military was now supporting the anti-government Free Syrian Army forces; however, the Kremlin spokesman later clarified that Russia was only supplying weapons to "the legitimate authorities of the Syrian Arab Republic".[202][203]

A Russian air defense battery in December 2015. A Pantsir-S1 close-range defense system and two launch vehicles for S-400 long-distance flight missiles at Latakia.

On 16 December, Russia′s Defence minister Sergey Shoigu speaking to the members of the State Duma behind closed doors, mentioned a possible option of the Russian forces "reaching the Euphrates" in Syria.[204] On 19 December, Russian president Putin commended the performance of the Russian armed forces in Syria; he said that "so far not all of our capabilities have been used" and that "more military means" might be employed there "if deemed necessary".[205][206]

On 25 December 2015, Chief of the Main Operational Directorate of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces Lt. Gen. Sergey Rudskoy said that since 30 September 2015 Russian air force had conducted 5,240 sorties in Syria, including 145 sorties by long-range aviation.[207][208] On 27 December 2015, Chief Commander of the Russian Aerospace Force Col. Gen. Viktor Bondarev stated that Russian pilots had never once attacked civilian targets in Syria.[209][210]

On 30 December 2015, heavy fighting was reported as the Syrian government forces backed by Russian air strikes advanced into the southern city of Al-Shaykh Maskin,[211] which had been held by the rebel Southern Front since the First Battle of Al-Shaykh Maskin in December 2014. The Syrian government′s offensive operation that had started on 28 December 2015[212] and completed by the end of January 2016 was said to be the government's first major assault in southern Syria since Russia joined the fight.[211]

In early January 2016, regional diplomats who had assumed Moscow had an understanding with Jordan and Israel not to extend into their sphere of influence were reported to be surprised by the growing Russian role in Syria′s south; so were rebels from Syria’s Southern Front alliance whose forces are directly supplied by the Military Operations Command, an operations room staffed by Arab and Western military forces, including the US.[213]

On 9 January 2016, UK-based monitoring group Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that Russian air strikes in the northwester town of Maarrat al-Nu'man had killed about 60 persons, including 23 members of the Nusra Front.[214]

In January 2016, the cruiser Varyag was deployed off Syria′s shore replacing sister ship Moskva[215] and was named flagship of the Russian naval task force positioned in the eastern Mediterranean.[216]

On 14 January 2016, the Russian defence ministry said that the first joint bombing mission had been performed by Russian air force Su-25 fighters and Syrian air force MiG-29 aircraft.[217]

Russia′s role was said to be essential in the government′s capture, on 24 January 2016, of the town of Rabia, the last major town held by rebels in western Latakia province.[218] The capture of Rabia, part of the government′s Latakia offensive, was said to threaten rebel supply lines from Turkey.[218][219]

Russian multirole fighter Su-30 at the Hmeymim air base.

At the end of January 2016, Russia, for the first time, deployed four Su-35S fighter jets, presumably equipped with the Khibiny electronic countermeasures (ECM) systems,[56] to the Khmeimim base; on 1 February the Russian defence ministry said the aircraft had begun conducting missions in Syria.[56][220]

A Russian military adviser died in a hospital in Syria on February 1 after suffering severe wounds when a Syrian army training center in Homs Province was shelled.[221]

The Russian military has been preparing parachute platform P-7 with humanitarian aid for landing in Deir ez-Zor.

Speaking shortly after the formal start of the UN-mediated Geneva Syria peace talks on 1 February, Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov said Russia would not stop its air strikes until Russia truly defeated "such terrorist organisations as Jabhat al-Nusra and ISIL″.[222][223]

In early February 2016, intensive Russian strikes contributed to the success of the Syrian army and its allies′ offensive operation to the northwest of Aleppo that severed a major rebel supply line to Turkey.[224][225]

March 2016–mid-October 2016

On 1 March 2016, Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov said that the truce, formally referred to as a "cessation of hostilities",[226] that had been in effect from 27 February 2016 at 00:00 (Damascus time),[227][228] was largely holding and becoming more stable.[229] According to the state–run RIA Novosti′s report of 1 March 2016, all the planes at the Russian Khmeimim base had been grounded for four days.[230]

On 1 March, the Russian defense ministry said it had deployed to the Khmeimim base additional radars and drones: three sets of surveillance equipment which included drones and two radar stations.[231]

On 14 March 2016, Russian president Vladimir Putin announced that the mission which he had set for the Russian military in Syria was "on the whole accomplished" and ordered withdrawal of the "main part" of the Russian forces from Syria.[232][233] The move was announced on the day when peace talks on Syria resumed in Geneva.[234] The Russian leader, however, did not give a deadline for the completion of the withdrawal.[234] He also said that both Russian military bases in Syria (naval base in Tartus and airbase in Khmeimim) will continue to operate in "routine mode", as the Russian servicemen there will be engaged in monitoring the ceasefire regime.[235]

In mid-March 2016, intensive operations by the Russian forces resumed to support the Syrian government′s bid to recapture the city of Tadmur that includes the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Palmyra,[236][237] which were fully recaptured from ISIS on March 27.[238] Following the recapture of the city, Russian de-mining teams engaged in the clearing of mines planted by ISIS in the ancient site of Palmyra.[239]

In early May 2016, news media reported that Russian ground forces had set up what Jane's Information Group called a ″forward operating base″ (officially a base for the mining crews) just to the west of the city of Tadmur, and installed an air-defence system to protect the site.[240][241]

In mid-May 2016, Stratfor reported that a Russian air base was attacked and four Russian attack helicopters, 20 supply trucks and one Syrian Mig-25 were destroyed.[81][242][243] However, United States media cited intelligence community sources as believing the destruction was caused by an accidental fuel tank explosion, that the Stratfor analysis was wrong and that there were no indications of an ISIS attack on the airport.[80]

On 8 July 2016, a Syrian[244] Mi-25 (a Russian Mi-35, according to other unofficial military sources[245]) was destroyed on the ground from a United States-made BGM-71 TOW[246] east of Palmyra, with two Russian pilots confirmed dead.[247] A few days after, Russia announced it had employed strategic Tu-22M3 bombers, for the first time since the partial ceasefire came into force, to deliver airstrikes on terrorist targets east of the towns of Palmyra and Al-Sukhnah, and the village of Arak.[248]

On 1 August 2016, a Russian Mi-8AMTSh transport helicopter was shot down on its way back to the Khmeimim base from a humanitarian mission to Aleppo by ground fire over Jabhat Fateh al-Sham-controlled area in Idlib province. Three crew members and two officers from Russia's Reconciliation Center in Syria were killed in the crush, then their corpses were desecrated by the rebels arrived on the scene.[249][250]

On 16 August 2016, Russian Tu-22M bombers and Su-34 strike fighters began to use Iran′s Hamedan Airbase for conducting raids over Syria.[251] [252]

Russia′s air force took active part in the Syrian government′s re-newed Aleppo offensive that began in late September 2016, one of the consequences being the U.S. government in early October suspending talks on Syria with Russia.[253] The Russian tactics and weapons used in the offensive have been compared to those used in Grozny against Chechen separatists.[254][255][256][257] The U.S. government publicly accused Russia of ″flagrant violations of international law″ in Syria and urged investiagation of war crimes.[258]

Since mid-October 2016

The Admiral Kuznetsov departed for the Mediterranean on 15 October 2016

On 15 October 2016, the aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov sailed from Kola Bay at the centre of a task group, which included the Kirov class missile cruiser Pyotr Velikiy, a pair of Udaloy class destroyers and other vessels, to deploy to the Mediterranean in support of Russian forces operating in Syria.[259][260] Admiral Kuznetsov′s jets were reported to be flying off the Syrian coast on 8 November.[261] On 14 November, a MiG-29K crashed en route back to the carrier following a planned mission over Syria.[87]

On 17 November 2016, the Russian ministry of defence said that three “well-known” commanders of Al-Qaeda’s Syria affiliate formerly known as Al-Nusra Front, among other “terrorists”, had been killed in Russian strikes fired by Su-33 fighter jets based on Admiral Kuznetsov, in the province of Idlib.[262] Other ships as well as K-300P Bastion-P were also reported to have taken part in a renewed bombing campaign,[263] after a partial hiatus in the raids since 18 October.[264]

In late November, satellite images emerged showing several of the Admiral Kuznetsov's fixed wing aircraft operating from Hmeimim Air Base in Latakia, with suggestions made that the number of sorties flown from the carrier is less than has been suggested by the Russian Ministry of Defence. Problems with the ship's arrestor cables was cited as being part of the reason for the crash of the MiG-29K, which was circling the ship when it suffered an engine failure.[265] At around the same time, an image was released by the Dutch frigate HNLMS De Ruyter showing the Nanuchka-class corvette Mirazh being towed back to the Black Sea.[266]

Assessments of effectiveness

By late February, the Russian airstrikes conducted around 60 airstrikes daily, while the American-led coalition averaged seven.[267] These Russian airstrikes have proven particularly effective against ISIS oil trade and supply routes in the Syrian Desert.[268] An estimated 209 Syrian oil facilities were destroyed by the airstrikes, along with 2,000 petroleum transport equipment. By the time of the ordered withdrawal of the "main part" of its forces in mid-March, Russia had conducted over 9,000 airstrikes over the course of five and a half months, while helping the Syrian army capture 400 towns and acquire 10,000 square kilometers of territory.[269]

In January 2016, a few months after Russia's involvement in Syria, diplomat Ranjit Gupta wrote, in an article published by the The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, that the Russian reinforcement was "godsend for Assad, greatly boosting the regime’s sagging morale and that of its armed forces."[270] Gupta continued:

With robust air cover provided by Russian airstrikes Assad's forces can start liberating and holding territory, particularly in the extremely strategically vital corridor connecting Damascus and Aleppo. Russian help provides Assad’s military the distinct possibilities to regain the upper hand in the conflict, particularly in northwestern and western Syria at least.[270]

In February 2016 professor Fawaz A. Gerges of the London School of Economics opined the Russian military intervention had turned out to be a game-changer in the Syrian Civil War:[271] ″Mr Putin's decision to intervene in Syria and shore up Mr Assad with new fighter jets, military advisers and advanced weapons stopped the bleeding of the Syrian army and allowed it to shift from defence to offence.″[271]

Vincent R. Stewart, the Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency stated in February 2016 that the "Russian reinforcement has changed the calculus completely" and added that Assad "is in a much stronger negotiating position than he was just six months ago."[272]

In the week following the start of combat missions, the website RealClear Defense, part of the RealClearPolitics group, published an assessment of the effectiveness of the Admiral Kuznetsov as a platform for air strikes, noting the small size of its air group (estimated at a total of 8 Su-33 and 4 MiG-29K aircraft), the difficulties with the MiG-29K, which is seen as the more effective platform for strike missions, the lack of smart weapons for the Su-33 (which is primarily a fleet air defence aircraft),[273] and the lack of catapults on the carrier, which limits the take-off weight of its aircraft.[274] These factors are seen as showing that the carrier deployment is of limited military value, an analysis mirrored by the United States Naval Institute, which sees the use of the ship more as a propaganda tool.[275][276]

Weapons and munitions employed

Russian air group engineers in Syria hang guided bombs on the Su-34 based in Hmeymim

Russian forces in Syria were reported to have used a mix of precision-guided munitions and unguided weapons.[277][278] The October 2015 airstrikes were Russia's first operational use of precision-guided munitions, whose development in Russia lagged behind other nations due to economic instability in the 1990s. The majority of weapons employed, however, were unguided.[279] Russia also utilized cruise missiles launched from corvettes and a frigate.[280] Russian artillery has also been used in the form of howitzers and multiple rocket launchers.[281] The air campaign was estimated to cost between $2.3 and $4 million a day in its early phase.[282] Additionally, the 3M-14T cruise missiles that Russia has used extensively, cost roughly $1.2 million per unit.[283]

"Exploding suicide drones" have allegedly been deployed by Iran and Russia, according to some American media sources.[284] While officially denied, the Russian army has been shown to use incendiary cluster bombs on numerous occasions.[109][110]


According to the pro-opposition SOHR, Russian airstrikes in Syria killed 8,139 people, of which: 2,574 were ISIS fighters, 2,476 militants from the Al-Qaeda affiliate al-Nusra Front and other rebel forces and 3,089 civilians. The air strikes occurred in the period between 30 September 2015 and 20 August 2016.[285] According to the Syrian Network for Human Rights, Russia has killed more civilians in Syria than ISIS.[286][287][288]

During Russia's military operations, 20 Russian soldiers were officially confirmed as having died.[76]

Reports of war crimes and attacks on civilians

See also: Omran Daqneesh

According to Amnesty International, in late February 2016 Russian warplanes deliberately targeted civilians and rescue workers during their bombing campaign.[289] The human rights group has documented attacks on schools, hospitals and civilian homes. Amnesty International also said that "Russia is guilty of some the most egregious war crimes" it had seen "in decades". The director of Amnesty's crisis response program, Tirana Hassan, said that after bombing civilian targets, the Russian warplanes "loop around" for a second attack to target the humanitarian workers and civilians who are trying to help those have been injured in the first sortie.[107][289]

Human Rights Watch reported extensive use of cluster munitions by Syria and Russia, in violation of United Nations resolution 2139 of February 22, 2014, which demanded that all parties end "indiscriminate employment of weapons in populated areas". Human Rights Watch said that "Russian or Syrian forces were responsible for the attacks" and that the munitions were "manufactured in the former Soviet Union or Russia" and that some were of a type that had "not been documented as used in Syria" prior to Russia's involvement in the war, which they claimed, suggested that "either Russian aircraft dropped them or Russian authorities recently provided the Syrian government with more cluster munitions, or both".[109] Human Rights Watch also noted that while neither Russia nor Syria are parties to the Cluster Munitions Convention, the use of such munitions contradicts statements issued by the Syrian government that they would refrain from using them.[109]

Médecins Sans Frontières has said that either Syrian regime or Russian warplanes deliberately attacked a hospital in Maarat al-Numan.[290] The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights stated that it was Russian warplanes that destroyed the hospital.[291]

Opposition activists and local witnesses have reported that Russia has used white phosphorus against targets in Al-Raqqah[292] and Idlib,[293] causing civilian casualties with the weapons.[294]

The United Kingdom-based[295] Syrian Observatory for Human Rights has also reported that since the initiation of the intervention in September 2015, Russian air strikes have killed 1,000 civilians, including 200 children, by the middle of February, 2016.[296] In March Amnesty International reported "compelling evidence" of at least six such attacks.[297]

These reports, including the bombing of two hospitals by Russian Air Force planes, have been denied by Russian officials.[298][299] In May 2016 the Russian delegation to the UN Security Council vetoed a statement condemning the air strikes on a refugee camp in Idlib on May 5.[300]

In June 2016 Russia Today, while reporting minister Shoigu visit to Hmeymim air base, shown incendiary cluster bombs being loaded onto Russian airplanes, identified as RBK-500 ZAB-2.5SM thanks to clearly visible markings. After this information, inconsistent with official Russian statements, hit the news, the channel has removes these specific cadres from their footage.[110]

Russian airplanes targeted the M10 hospital, one of the largest hospitals in Aleppo, which killed about 30 people.

According to eyewitnesses, the hospital was bombarded twice in two days by at least two barrel bombs and one rocket.

UNICEF says that the ceasefire started on September 19 was broken by both Russian and Syrian troops which destroyed a UN convoy with medical supplies on its way to Aleppo.

The breakdown of the ceasefire put Syrian civilians at risk and killed 320 people, including 100 children.

Russia has rejected U.S demand of a longer ceasefire to deliver humanitarian aids to Aleppo because it allows rebels advance to the city.

According to the UN, Syrian civil war has caused death of over 250,000 and forced 4,8 million refugees to leave the country since 2011.[301]

Cooperation with Iran

Vladimir Putin meets Iranian President Hassan Rouhani in New York, 29 September 2015.

Iran continues to officially deny the presence of its combat troops in Syria, maintaining that it provides military advice to President Assad's forces in their fight against terrorist groups.[302] It is believed that the Syrian Arab Army receives substantial support from the Quds Force; in June 2015, some reports suggested that the Iranian military were effectively in charge of the Syrian government troops on the battlefield.[303]

After the loss of Idlib province to a rebel offensive in the first half of 2015, the situation was judged to have become critical for Assad's survival. High level talks were held between Moscow and Tehran in the first half of 2015 and a political agreement was achieved;[114] on 24 July, ten days after the signing of the nuclear agreement between Iran and the P5+1 countries, General Qasem Soleimani visited Moscow[304] to devise the details of the plan for coordinated military action in Syria.[114][305]

In mid-September 2015, the first reports of new detachments from the Iranian Revolutionary Guards arriving in Tartus and Latakia in western Syria were made. With much of the Syrian Arab Army and National Defence Force units deployed to more volatile fronts, Russian Marines and the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) have relieved their positions by installing military checkpoints inside the cities of Slunfeh (east Latakia Governorate), Masyaf (East Tartus Governorate) and Ras al-Bassit (Latakia coastal city).[306] There were also further reports of new Iranian contingents being deployed to Syria in early October 2015.[307] After the start of the Russian operation, it was generally thought that Iran will be playing a leading role in the ground operations of Syria's army and allies, whilst Russia will be leading in the air in conjunction with the Syrian Arab Air Force, thereby establishing a complementary role.[308]

After the meeting between Vladimir Putin and Ali Khamenei in Tehran on 23 November 2015, Iran was said to have made a decision to unify its stance vis-a-vis the Syrian leadership with Russia's.[309]

The use of Iran′s Hamedan Airbase by Russian military aircraft that began in mid-August 2016 marked a new level of cooperation between the countries in their support for the Syrian government[310][311]


For further Russian comments on Syria and Russian initiatives since 30 September not part of this military operation, see: Russian involvement in the Syrian Civil War





United Nations – On 31 October 2015, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon said in an interview with Spanish daily El Mundo "The future of Assad must be decided by the Syrian people," and "The Syrian government insists that President Assad takes part (in any transitional government) but others, especially Western countries, say there is no place for him, but because of that we have lost three years, there have been more than 250,000 dead, more than 13 million displaced within Syria... more than 50 percent of hospitals, schools and infrastructure have been destroyed. There's no time to lose." [312]

War crimes prosecutor Carla Del Ponte, who is researching rights abuses in Syria stated "I think the Russian intervention is a good thing, because finally someone is attacking these terrorist groups" while adding however that Russia is not distinguishing enough between terrorist and other groups.[313]

 NATO – NATO has condemned Russian air strikes[314] and urged Russia to stop supporting Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. On 8 October 2015, they renewed assurances to defend the allies in view of the "escalation of Russian military activities."[315]

U.S.-led coalition – On 1 October 2015, participants in the United States-led anti-ISIL coalition called on Russia to curtail its air campaign in Syria, saying the airstrikes had hit Syrian opposition groups and civilians. Such strikes would "only fuel more extremism", the statement issued by the United States, UK, Turkey and other coalition members declared.[316] "We call on the Russian Federation to immediately cease its attacks on the Syrian opposition and civilians and to focus its efforts on fighting ISIL."[317] United States President Barack Obama, at a news conference on 2 October, underscored the coalition statement by saying the Russian action was driving moderate opposition groups underground, and would result in "only strengthening" ISIL.[318]

National governments

 Armenia provides support for the Russian operations in Syria by providing operational and logistical support.[319][320] As a member of the CSTO, Armenia supports the Russian military intervention.[321]

 Belarus, also a member of the CSTO, supports the Russian military intervention in Syria, said the country's acting foreign minister Vladimir Makei in October 2015.[322]

 China has reacted positively to Russia’s military intervention in Syria. The Chinese government perceives it as an element of the global fight against terrorism.[323] China has no interest in getting involved militarily in Syria, but China's special envoy for the crisis in Syria praised Russia's military role in the war. In August 2016, Guan Youfei, director of the Office for International Military Cooperation of China's Central Military Commission, was in Damascus and said that "China and Syria's militaries have a traditionally friendly relationship, and China's military is willing to keep strengthening exchanges and cooperation with Syria's military".[324]

 Egypt voiced support of the Russian air operation. On 3 October 2015, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry said the Russian entry into war in Syria was bound "to have an effect on limiting terrorism in Syria and eradicating it."[325]

 Iraq supports the Russian intervention in Syria and has permitted Russia to fly over Iraq with its war planes.[326]

Benjamin Netanyahu meets Vladimir Putin in Moscow, 21 September 2015

 Israel – Shortly prior to the Russian intervention, the Israel Defense Forces and Russian military had set up a joint working group to coordinate their Syria-related activities in the aerial, naval, and electromagnetic arenas.[327] The Israeli government was primarily concerned about ensuring that the potential alliance between Hezbollah and Russia is not detrimental to its security.[328] According to Zvi Magen, former ambassador to Moscow, "Israel made clear to him [Putin] that we have no real problem with Assad, just with Iran and Hezbollah, and that message was understood."[329] An Israeli military official stated that Israel would not shoot down any Russian aircraft which overflew Israeli territory because "Russia is not an enemy".[330]

 Jordan – On 23 October 2015, Jordan agreed to set up a "special working mechanism" in Amman to coordinate military actions with Russia in Syria. Russian foreign minister, Sergey Lavrov called for continued expansion of the alliance, saying "We think that other states that participate in the anti- terrorist fight can join this mechanism as well."[331][332]

 Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz President Almazbek Atambayev said that his country (also a member of the CSTO) supports the intervention.[333]

 Saudi Arabia – On 1 October 2015, Saudi Arabia′s senior diplomat at the UN demanded that Russia cease its intervention, repeating claims made by Western diplomats that Russia was targeting the unnamed "moderate" anti-government opposition rather than ISIL.[334]

Erdoğan visited Moscow to discuss Syria and to attend the opening of the newly built Cathedral Mosque, 23 September 2015

 Turkey – President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, after a series of alleged violations of the country′s airspace by Russian military aircraft in early October 2015, warned that Russia's military operation in Syria could jeopardise the bilateral ties between the countries.[335] On 23 December, co-leader of Turkey's pro-Kurdish Peoples' Democratic Party Selahattin Demirtaş criticized Ankara's stance regarding a Russian jet shot down by Turkey in November 2015.[336]

 United Arab Emirates – Initially, the UAE did not comment on the Russian intervention.[337] Foreign Minister Anwar Mohammed Qarqash later expressed support for the intervention, claiming they were against a "common enemy".[338]

 United Kingdom – Prime Minister David Cameron said "It's absolutely clear that Russia is not discriminating between ISIL and the legitimate Syrian opposition groups and, as a result, they are actually backing the butcher Assad and helping him".[339] British troops will be sent to the Baltic states and Poland following Russia's intervention in Syria "to respond to any further provocation and aggression".[340]

Russian and American representatives meet to discuss the situation in Syria on 29 September 2015

 United States – In early October 2015, President Barack Obama was reported to have authorised the resupply—against ISIL—of 25,000 Syrian Kurds and 5,000 of the armed-Syrian opposition, emphasising that the United States would continue this support now that Russia had joined the conflict.[341][342]

The U.S. ruled out military cooperation with Russia in Syria.[343] Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter and other senior U.S. officials said Russia's campaign was primarily aimed at propping up Assad, whom Obama has repeatedly called upon to leave power.[344] On 8 October 2015, he said, at a meeting of NATO defence ministers in Brussels, that he believed Russia would soon start paying the price for its military intervention in Syria in the form of reprisal attacks and casualties.[345] He added that he expected "in the next few days the Russians will begin to lose in Syria."[343][346] He further said Russia's campaign was primarily aimed at propping up Assad.[344]
On 9 October, the Obama administration abandoned its efforts to build up a new rebel force inside Syria to combat the Islamic State, acknowledging the failure of its $500 million campaign to train thousands of fighters and announcing that it will instead use the money to provide ammunition and some weapons for groups already engaged in the battle.[347]
The body of the pilot of the Russian Su-24 that was shot down by Turkey at Chkalovsky Airport in Russia, 30 November 2015
On 24 November, Obama said that Turkey "has a right to defend its territory and its airspace" after it shot down a Russian bomber for allegedly violating Turkish airspace for 17 seconds, near the Syrian border. Obama also said "[Russians] are going after moderate opposition that are supported by not only Turkey but a wide range of countries."[348] Syrian government forces supported by the Russian air force were fighting against an alliance that included the Turkish-backed Syrian Turkmen Brigades and al-Qaeda's Syrian affiliate the al-Nusra Front.[349]

Militias and religious agents

Representatives of the Kurdish YPG and PYD expressed their support for Russian air strikes against Islamic State, al-Nusra Front and Ahrar ash-Sham. They also asked for Russian help in weaponry and for the cooperation with Russia in the fight against Islamic State.[350][351] Shortly after the Russian air strikes started, Salih Muslim, co-chair of the PYD, has said in an interview that he doesn't believe "that America will object because [Jabhat] al-Nusra and Ahrar al-Sham are no different than Daesh. They are all terrorist organizations and share the same radical mentality."[350]

On 30 September, Russian Orthodox Church spokesman Vsevolod Chaplin, said the fight against terrorism was a "moral fight, a holy fight if you will".[352][353][354] Leader of the Central Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Russia, Chief Mufti Talgat Tadzhuddin stated: "We fully back the use of a contingent of Russian armed forces in the battle against international terrorism."[355] According to The Washington Post, "Russian Muslims are split regarding the intervention in Syria, but more are pro- than anti-war."[356]

Over 40 anti-government groups, including factions such as Ahrar ash-Sham, Jaysh al-Islam and the Levant Front, were reported, on 5 October, to have vowed to attack Russian forces in retaliation for Moscow's air campaign.[357]

Flag of Saudi-supported Syrian branch of al-Qaeda[25]

Al-Qaeda's Syrian affiliate al-Nusra Front[25] has set a reward for the seizure of Russian soldiers of 2,500,000 Syrian pounds (approximately US$13,000).[358] Abu Ubaid Al-Madani, who speaks Russian, released a video addressed to the Russians warning that they would massacre Russian soldiers.[359] Abu Mohammad al-Julani called for Russian civilians to be attacked by former Soviet Muslims and called for attacks on Alawite villages in Syria.[360][361][362]

The Syria-based, Al-Qaeda linked Saudi cleric Abdallah Muhammad Al-Muhaysini threatened that Syria would be a "tomb for its invaders" or "graveyard for invaders" in response to the Russian intervention and brought up the Soviet–Afghan War.[363][364][365] Muhaysini had foreign fighters of multiple backgrounds repeated the phrase "The Levant is the graveyard of the Russians", in a video message.[366]

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant declared Jihad upon the Russians in a recorded vocal communiqué by Abu Mohammed al-Adnani.[367] On November 12,ISIL published published via its media branch, al-Hayat Media Center a music video in which they threatened that they would attack Russia very soon and "blood would spil like an ocean".

The Muslim Brotherhood of Syria issued a statement declaring Jihad against Russia obligatory (Fard 'ayn) upon all who are able to carry weapons.[13][368][369][370] They cited the Russian Orthodox Church's call of the operation as a Holy War.[371][372][373][374][375][376][377]

Fifty-five Saudi religious scholars signed a statement against the Russian intervention, first addressing the Russians as "Oh Russians, oh extremist people of the Cross", reminding them of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and addressing Orthodox Russia as the heir of the Soviet Communists, accusing them of "supporting the Nusayri regime" and invading "Muslim Syria", accusing the leaders of the Russian Orthodox Church of declaring a "Crusade" and telling them they will meet the fate of the Soviet Union and suffer "a shameful defeat in the Levant". The statement also addressed "Our people in the Levant", telling the able-bodied and those who are able to contribute to join the "Jihad" instead of emigrating. The statement also called for all factions against the government in Syria to unite. Further, addressing "Arab and Muslim countries", telling them that there is a "real war against Sunnis and their countries and identity" at the hands of the "Western-Russian and Safavid and Nusayri alliance", calling for the termination of all relations with Iran and Russia with Muslim countries and to "protect the land and people of the Levant from the influence of the Persians and Russians", especially calling upon Qatar, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia to support the Levant.[378][379][380][381][382][383][384][385][386][387][388][389]

The Free Syrian Army's "Homs Liberation Movement" threatened suicide bombings against Russians in Syria.[390]

Photos of Uyghur fighters of the Turkistan Islamic Party were released with captions in Arabic that said "standing up strongly to the Nusayri army and the Russians." (المجاهدين التركستانيين يتصدى بقوة للجيش النصيري ومن قبل الروس).[391]

A Turkmen opposition group allied with the Free Syrian Army and al-Nusra Front[349] claimed that Russian air forces conducted simultaneous air strikes against Turkmen villages and positions in the Turkmen Mountain area.[392][393][394] More than 40 civilian casualties were reported in one incident.[395][396]

See also


  2. Genevieve Casagrande; Christopher Kozak; Jennifer Cafarella (24 February 2016). "Syria 90-Day Forecast: The Assad Regime and Allies in Northern Syria" (PDF). Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  3. Laura Pitel, Nadia Beard (14 March 2016). "Vladimir Putin orders Russian military to begin withdrawal from Syria". The Independent. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  4. "Putin orders Russian troops to begin pulling out of Syria". Fox News. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  5. "Obama, Putin discuss Russia's 'partial withdrawal' from Syria". The Express Tribune. 15 March 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  6. Russian Air Force considers indefinite deployment in Syria
  7. "Syria conflict: Russia 'to continue air strikes' after withdrawal". BBC News. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  8. "Syrian Kurds use Russian and US support to make rapid advances". Middle East Eye. 17 February 2016.
  9. "Russian support for PKK's Syrian arm PYD". Anadolu Agency. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08.
  10. "Kurds attack Turkish-backed Syrian opposition forces with Russian help". i24 News. 28 November 2015.
  11. "YPG advances near Turkey's border". Rudaw Media Network. 28 November 2015.
  12. "Russia unleashes first wave of airstrikes in Syria". Al Arabiya. 30 September 2015.
  13. 1 2 3 "Syrian rebel groups call for unity, attacks on Russia". Deutsche Welle. 5 October 2015.
  14. "Who are the Turkmen in Syria?". BBC. 24 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  15. "Syrian rebels fired on parachuting Russian pilots, killing at least one after Turkey shot down warplane: official". National Post. 24 November 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  16. 1 2 Fisk, Robert (4 October 2015). "Syria's 'moderates' have disappeared... and there are no good guys". The Independent. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  17. 1 2 Tom Kutsch (8 October 2015). "Gulf states increase arms to Syrian rebels in counter to Russia airstrikes". Al Jazeera America. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  18. "Saudi Arabia just replenished Syrian rebels with one of the most effective weapons against the Assad regime". Business Insider. 9 October 2015.
  19. "Turkey supports Free Syrian Army". Anadolu Agency. 25 October 2014. Archived from the original on 2015-11-20.
  20. "U.S. Weaponry Is Turning Syria into Proxy War With Russia". The New York Times. 12 October 2015.
  21. "US drops ammunition to rebels fighting ISIL in Syria". Al Jazeera. 13 October 2015.
  22. "U.S. weapons reaching Syrian rebels". Washington Post. September 11, 2013.
  23. "US and Russian military to hold urgent talks over Syria crisis after Putin defies West". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  24. 1 2 3 Gareth Porter (28 May 2015). "Gulf allies and 'Army of Conquest'". Al-Ahram Weekly.
  25. 1 2 3 Kim Sengupta (12 May 2015). "Turkey and Saudi Arabia alarm the West by backing Islamist extremists the Americans had bombed in Syria". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2015-05-13.
  26. "'Army of Conquest' rebel alliance pressures Syria regime". Yahoo News. 28 April 2015.
  27. "Syria peace talks end in Lausanne without significant progress". Daily Sabah. 15 October 2016.
  28. "Russian General Staff: Syrian opposition actively helped in freeing one of IS strongholds". TASS. 15 January 2016.
  29. Источник: назначен новый командующий российской группировкой войск в Сирии RIA, 22 July 2016.
  30. Alessandria Masi (11 November 2014). "If ISIS Leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Is Killed, Who Is Caliph of the Islamic State Group?". International Business Times.
  31. "Kadyrov Claims Red-Bearded Chechen Militant al-Shishani Dead". ElBalad. 14 November 2014.
  32. "Kadyrov Says Islamic State's Leader From Georgia Killed". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 14 November 2014.
  33. "Third Russian air strike on Syrian rebel group kills leader". Reuters. 20 October 2015.
  34. "Air strike kills top commander of former Nusra group in Syria". Reuters. 9 September 2016.
  35. "Abu Yahia al-Hamawi, Ahrar al-Sham's New Leader". Syria Comment. 12 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  36. 1 2 Leith Fadel (30 September 2015). "Russian Air Force Pounds Al-Qaeda in Latakia and Hama". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  37. Anne Bernard, Andrew E. Kramer (7 October 2015): Escalating Syria Attack, Russia Fires Missiles From Warships, The New York Times.
  38. "Russia turns to backwater navy for Syria missile strikes". Reuters. 9 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-27. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  39. "Russia Said to Redeploy Special-Ops Forces From Ukraine to Syria". The Wall Street Journal. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  40. "Iran troops to join Syria war, Russia bombs group trained by CIA". Reuters. 1 October 2015.
  41. "Rebels say US-made missiles turning tide against regime". Agence France-Presse. 13 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-19. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  42. "US accuses Russia of 'throwing gasoline on fire' of Syrian civil war". The Guardian. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  43. "Syrian war's al-Qaida affiliate calls for terror attacks in Russia". The Guardian. 13 October 2015.
  44. "Russian strikes kill 18, wound dozens, according to Syrian opposition". Fox News.
  45. "Islamic State closes in on Syrian city of Aleppo; U.S. abandons rebel training effort". Reuters. 9 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-14. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  46. "Russian soldiers geolocated by photos in multiple Syria locations", MARIA TSVETKOVA, 8 November 2015, Reuters. "U.S. security officials and independent experts told Reuters last week that Moscow had increased its forces in Syria to 4,000 personnel from an estimated 2,000. A U.S. defense official said multiple rocket-launcher crews and long-range artillery batteries were deployed outside four bases the Russians were using".
  47. 1 2 "4 Russian warships launch 26 missiles against ISIS from Caspian Sea". RT English. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  49. "Rosyjskie rakiety manewrujące uderzyły w IS. Wystrzelone z okrętu podwodnego". Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  50. "Russian missile cruiser ordered to work with French in Syria". New York Daily News. 17 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  51. Голландская подлодка опасно приблизилась к кораблям ВМФ в Средиземном море RIA Novosti, 9 Nov 2016.
  52. 1 2 3 "Russia Pounds ISIS With Biggest Bomber Raid in Decades". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  53. "Russian Marines Position Themselves in Eastern Latakia". The Aviationist. 29 September 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-09-29. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  54. Thomas Gibbons-Neff (21 September 2015). "This is the airpower Russia has in Syria". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  55. "Russian Fighter Aircraft Arrive in Syria". Stratfor. 21 September 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  56. 1 2 3 Птичкин, Сергей (1 February 2016). "Россия перебросила в Сирию новейшие Су-35С". Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Retrieved 1 February 2016. (Russian)
  58. Аналитики обнаружили в Сирии секретный российский самолет-разведчик NEWSru, 16 Feb 2016.
  59. Cenciotti, David (15 February 2016). "Russia has just deployed its most advanced spyplane to Syria". The Aviationist. Archived from the original on 2016-02-16. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  60. "Russian Fighter Aircraft Arrive in Syria". Stratfor. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  61. 1 2 Илья Щеголев (30 November 2015). "В Сирии заметили Ка-52 и Ми-28Н". Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  62. ""Форпост" замечен в небе над Сирией". Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  63. ""Уран-6" используют российские военные для разминирования Пальмиры". Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  64. Schmitt, Eric; MacFarquhar, Neil (21 September 2015). "Russia Expands Fleet in Syria With Jets That Can Attack Targets on Ground". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  65. Главком ВКС РФ признал: в Сирию были переброшены зенитные ракетные системы NEWSru, 5 Nov 2015.
  66. 1 2 "Россия развернула в Сирии ЗРК С-400". Kommersant. 26 November 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  67. Истерика США от размещения С-300ВМ в Сирии имеет исчерпывающее объяснение
  68. Cockburn, Patrick (16 November 2014). "Islamic State has 200,000 fighters, claims Kurdish leader". The Independent. Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  69. "US-led forces drop nearly 5,000 bombs on ISIS". Al Arabiya. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  70. "Fears of massacre as Isis tanks lead assault on Kurdish bastion". The Times. 4 October 2014.
  71. "Who is Russia bombing in Syria? The militant groups determined to fight to the death". The Independent. 1 October 2015.Patrick Cockburn stated that "The Free Syrian Army was always a mosaic of fractions and is now largely ineffectual."
  72. Richard Hall (9 January 2014). "Factbox: Syria's rebel groups". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2014-01-09.
  73. "Front to Back". Foreign Policy.
  74. "Syria crisis: Spooked by rebel gains, Jordan doubles down on Islamic State". The Christian Science Monitor. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  75. "Competition among Islamists". The Economist. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  76. 1 2 "Глава Кабардино-Балкарии подтвердил гибель двадцатого российского военного в Сирии". Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  77. "Turks Shoot Down a Russian Fighter, Raising Cold War Fears". Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  78. Thomas Grove (24 November 2015). "Russia Says Marine Killed During Mission to Find Downed Pilots". WSJ. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  79. "Two Russian pilots killed in Syria helicopter crash". Al Arabia. AFP. 12 April 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  80. 1 2 "Russian attack helicopters destroyed in Syria; US officials say 'accident' to blame". Fox News Channel. 25 May 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  81. 1 2 "Syria conflict: IS 'destroyed helicopters' at Russian base". BBC. 24 May 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  82. "The Latest: Russia Denies Losing Helicopters at Syrian Base". ABC News. 24 May 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  83. "Three Russians killed in Syria: pro-government source". Yahoo News. 20 October 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  84. Thomas Grove (18 December 2015). "Up to Nine Russian Contractors Die in Syria, Experts Say". WSJ. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  85. Fellow Russian Servicemen Report Death of 6th Russian Soldier in Syria; Widow Denies
  86. "Минобороны опровергает данные о гибели российских военных в Сирии [Defense Ministry denies information on death of Russian troops in Syria]". РИА Новости (in Russian). Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  87. 1 2 Newton, Jennifer (14 November 2016). "Russian fighter jet crashes into the Mediterranean close to Putin's flagship aircraft carrier sent to support Assad in Syria". Daily Mail. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  88. 1 2 3 SOHR Retrieved 30 September 2016. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  89. 1 2 Patrick J. McDonnell; W.J. Hennigan; Nabih Bulos (30 September 2015). "Russia launches airstrikes in Syria amid U.S. concern about targets". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
  90. "Russia carries out first air strikes in Syria". Al Jazeera. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  91. "Clashes between Syrian troops, insurgents intensify in Russian-backed offensive". U.S. News & World Report. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  92. "Officials: CIA-Backed Syrian Rebels Under Russian Blitz". The New York Times. 10 October 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  93. Dearden, Lizzie (8 October 2015). "Syrian army general says new ground offensive backed by Russian air strikes will 'eliminate terrorists'". The Independent. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  94. "Сирия: русский гром". Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 23 March 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  95. "Russia Arming Syria to Counter Terrorism". Sputnik. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  96. "Putin Officials Said to Admit Real Syria Goal Is Far Broader". Bloomberg Business. 19 October 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  97. "Путин назвал основную задачу российских военных в Сирии". Interfax. 11 October 2015.(Russian)
  98. 1 2 "Daily Press Briefing - September 30, 2016". U.S. Department of State. 30 September 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2016. You’re right, it is a grim anniversary since – one year since they began supporting the Assad regime in earnest with airstrikes. It is hard not to assess that they have succeeded in bolstering the regime and that, at least at the purely tactical level or the short term, was – as a short-term goal, was clearly their intent. They’ve been clear about that. And one of their concerns was that if Assad fell, if the government fell, that there would be chaos and that would allow terrorist groups to consolidate. Our argument has consistently been, while recognizing that we don’t want a vacuum, that there is a democratic – or – democratic – that there is a diplomatic way to get there: ceasefire, parties negotiate, work out a plan; we don’t throw the baby out with the bath water, the government – certain government infrastructure remains, civilian infrastructure remains. There’s a way to get there without doing what they’re doing right now. So if they succeeded in propping up and creating some kind of stalemate, okay, so be it. Then we were able to put a cessation of hostilities in and then create that negotiating process. But it becomes increasingly evident that they may have broader or greater aims than that.
  99. "Russian Intervention in Syrian War Has Sharply Reduced U.S. Options". New York Times. 10 February 2016.
  100. "Putin left important military tasks 'unfinished' in Syria, and it shows that he is 'at the top of his game'". Business Insider. 21 March 2016. Analysts have been scrambling to make sense of Putin's curveball, particularly in light of how effective Russia's campaign has been in bolstering Assad's Syrian Arab Army and regaining territory from rebels on behalf of the regime.
  101. "How Russian special forces are shaping the fight in Syria". Washington Post. 29 March 2016.
  102. "Report: Almost 6,000 Dead in Syria During Geneva Talks". TIME Magazine. 17 February 2014.
  103. "Syrian rebels 'killed in army ambush near Damascus'". BBC. 7 August 2013.
  104. Russian airstrikes in Syria killed 2,000 civilians in six months The Guardian, 15 march 2016.
  105. "Russian warplanes kill 5081 civilians 40% of them were civilians". 31 March 2016.
  106. 1 2 "Russia Guilty Of Syria War Crimes, Says Amnesty". 2016-02-21. Retrieved 2016-02-28.
  107. Russia unleashes lethal aerial arsenal on Aleppo by Tom Parfitt, June 22, 2016, The Times.
  108. 1 2 3 4 "Russia/Syria: Extensive Recent Use of Cluster Munitions | Human Rights Watch". Retrieved 2016-02-28.
  109. 1 2 3 "Russia Today covering up war crimes in Syria | Conflict Intelligence Team". Retrieved 2016-06-20.
  110. "Activists: 3,800 Syrian civilians killed in a year of Russian airstrikes". CNN.
  111. Nissenbaum, Dion (14 January 2015). "Months of Airstrikes Fail to Slow Islamic State in Syria". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  112. "If British planes fly in Syria it will be for political, not military, reasons". The Guardian. 15 October 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  113. 1 2 3 4 "How Iranian general plotted out Syrian assault in Moscow". Reuters. 6 October 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  114. 1 2 Manal. "Syria's ambassador to Russia urges all countries to join Syria and Russia against terrorism". Syrian Arab News Agency. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  115. "Ъ – Иранский генерал потерялся между Тегераном и Москвой". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  116. "МИД России: иранский генерал Сулеймани в Москве не был". Радио Свобода. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  117. "Россия в Сирии: вид сверху". Kommersant. 3 October 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  118. Alec Luhn (14 September 2015). "Russia sends artillery and tanks to Syria as part of continued military buildup". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  119. "Договор о размещении авиагруппы РФ в САР заключен на бессрочный период" [The agreement on depolyment of RF air force group is concluded for a limitless period]. RIA Novosti. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2016. (Russian)
  120. "Дума ратифицировала соглашение о бессрочном размещении авиагруппы в Сирии" [Duma ratified agreement on limitless deployment of aviation group in Syria]. TASS. 7 October 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2016. (Russian)
  121. "Russian Warships in Eastern Mediterranean to Protect Russian Strike Fighters in Syria". USNI News. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  122. "Russia, Iran, Iraq & Syria setting up 'joint information center' to coordinate anti-ISIS operations". RT English.
  123. "Why Russia is pressing the 'accelerate' pedal in Syria". CNN. 15 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  124. "Russia's Lavrov says Washington declines deeper military talks on Syria". NEWSru. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  125. "US refuses to receive PM Medvedev's delegation to coordinate anti-terrorist actions in Syria". RT English. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  126. ""Это обидно": Лавров сообщил, что США отказались принять делегацию РФ для обсуждения сирийского кризиса". NEWSru. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  127. "Britain has frozen us out, says Russian envoy". The Times. 26 October 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  128. "Erdogan warns against Mideast sectarian divisions". Al Arabiya. 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  129. Shaun Walker (30 September 2015). "Russian parliament grants Vladimir Putin right to deploy military in Syria". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  130. "Syria bombing: Russian three star general warned US officials 'we request your people leave'". The Independent. 30 September 2015.
  131. "Syria crisis: Russia begins air strikes against Assad foes". ВВС News. 30 September 2015.
  132. "View from Moscow: Syria Move Aimed at Ending International Isolation". Voice of America. 29 September 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  133. "An odd way to make friends". The Economist. 10 October 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  134. "Putin Sees Path to Diplomacy Through Syria". The New York Times. 16 September 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  135. "Ввяжемся в бой, а там смотрите сами: Россия изобретает новый тип дипломатии". Vedomosti. 15 September 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  136. "Russia launches first airstrikes in Syria". CNN. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  137. "8 ISIS targets hit during 20 combat flights in Syria – Russian military". RT. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  138. "Russian air strikes hit CIA-trained rebels, commander says". Reuters. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  139. "Obama says Putin wrong on Syria but no 'proxy war'". Associated Press. 2 October 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  140. "Officials: CIA-backed Syrian rebels under Russian blitz". Associated Press. 10 October 2015. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
  141. "After Denying Claims They're Killing Civilians, Russia Has Launched Fresh Airstrikes in Syria". Vice News. 1 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-01. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  142. "Russia jets strike Islamic State in northern Syria: al-Mayadeen TV". Reuters. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  143. Leith Fadel (3 October 2015). "Russian Air Force Destroys a Large ISIS Convoy in East Homs Amid the Syrian Army's Counter-Attack". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  144. "U.S. Places Militant Syrian Rebel Group on List of Terrorist Organizations". The New York Times. 10 December 2012.
  145. Leith Fadel (2 October 2015). "Russian Air Force Begins Massive Aerial Campaign Against ISIS in East Syria". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  146. 1 2 Leith Fadel (2 October 2015). "ISIS Rocked in Al-Raqqa: Russian Air Force Strikes Tabaqa Airport". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  147. Dagher, Sam; Fitch, Asa (2 October 2015). "Iran Expands Role in Syria in Conjunction With Russia's Airstrikes". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  148. Karimi; Faith (3 October 2015). "Russia bombs Syrian targets for 4th day as international concerns grow". CNN. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  149. 1 2 Leith Fadel (3 October 2015). "Breaking: Russian Air Force Strikes Al-Qaeda in Jisr Al-Shughour and Northeast Latakia". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  150. "Analysis: Is Russia flexing its missiles in Syria?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  151. Brian Walker; Don Melvin (7 October 2015). "Russia launches naval bombardment of targets in Syria". CNN.
  152. "Russian missiles 'hit IS in Syria from Caspian Sea'". BBC. 7 October 2015.
  153. "Russia has ground troop battalion, advanced tanks in Syria: U.S. NATO envoy". Reuters. 7 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-11.
  154. "First on CNN: U.S. officials say Russian missiles heading for Syria landed in Iran". CNN. 8 October 2015.
  155. "Syria crisis: Russian Caspian missiles 'fell in Iran'". BBC News. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  156. Slawson, Nicola (8 October 2015). "Russian cruise missiles fired at Syrian targets 'have landed in Iran'". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  157. 1 2 "URGENT: Iran Rejects Russian Missile Crash". Farsnews. Archived from the original on 2015-10-09. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  158. "اصابت چند موشک روسی به مواضع داعش درخاک ایران تکذیب شد". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  159. "Сирийская армия не оправдывает надежд российских военных". Vedomosti. 12 October 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  160. "Russian air force hits 60 Islamic State targets in Syria, kills 300 jihadists". The Times of India. 7 October 2015.
  161. "Islamic State advances near Syria's Aleppo despite Russian strikes". USA Today. 9 October 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  162. "Syria and allies Iran and Russia prepare for Aleppo offensive". euronews. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  163. "Syria's army, allies plan offensive against insurgents in Aleppo". Reuters. 14 September 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-15. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  164. "Syrian Army, Hezbollah, Russian Air Force Coordinating for Aleppo Liberation Operation". Farsnews. 14 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-15. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  165. Abu Ibrahim Raqqawi. "Russia lied about targeting ISIS". Raqqa is Being Slaughtered Silently. Archived from the original on 2015-10-21. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  166. "Russian Warplanes Destroy 140 Terrorist Targets in Syria". Sputnik. 17 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  167. Cenciotti, David (17 November 2015). "25 Russian long-range strategic bombers in action over Syria for the very first time". The Aviationist. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  168. Oliphant, Roland; Akkoc, Raziye; Steafel, Eleanor (17 November 2015). "Paris attacks: Cameron to make case for Syria military action as EU troops could be sent to France – latest news". The Daily Telegraph. Online. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  169. "Russia's Bombers Tu-160, Tu-95MS Go Through Baptism of Fire in Syria". Sputnik. 18 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  170. 1 2 "Long-range bombers to fly anti-ISIS missions from Russia, Putin orders Navy to work with France". RT English. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  171. Cenciotti, David (20 November 2015). "Russian Air Force Strategic Bomber Fleet in Action Over Syria 17–20 November 2015". The Aviationist. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  172. "TASS: Military & Defense – Russia involves strategic missile carriers in operation against Islamic State in Syria". TASS. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  173. "Russia steps up attacks against IS with missile bombardment". BBC. 18 November 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  174. Путин поручил ВМФ РФ установить контакт с военно-морской группой Франции Interfax, 17 November 2015.
  175. "France to deploy largest warship in mission against IS". BBC. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  176. "Авиация РФ нанесла второй массированный удар по объектам ИГ в Сирии". RIA Novosti. 18 November 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  177. "Минобороны РФ опубликовало видео пусков крылатых ракет с борта Ту-160". РИА Новости. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  178. "Russia says eliminated 600 rebels in Syria". The Daily Star. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  179. "Warplane crashes near Syria-Turkey border -". CNN. Retrieved 2015-11-24.
  180. "Turkish F-16s shoot down Russian warplane near Syrian border". ABC News. Retrieved 2015-11-24.
  181. MacFarquhar, Neil (25 November 2015). "Navigator Rescued After Turkey Shot Down Warplane, Russia Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  182. "Syria: Photos of Alparslan Celik, rebel leader from Turkey who shot Russian pilot, go viral". International Business Times. 27 November 2015.
  183. "Russian pilot 'killed' and another feared to be in rebel hands after plane is downed over Syria by Turkey". The Independent. 24 November 2015.
  184. 1 2 "Turkey's statement to the United Nations Security Council". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2015-11-24.
  185. "Turkey 'downs Russian warplane on Syria border'". BBC News. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  186. Вадим Лукашевич. "Гибель российского Су-24 в Сирии: некоторые вопросы". Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  187. "Турция выразила России новый протест на нарушение воздушного пространства". РБК. Retrieved 2015-11-24.
  188. "Минобороны объяснило нарушение воздушного пространства Турции". Retrieved 2015-11-24.
  189. Reuters Editorial (18 October 2015). "Turkey would shoot down planes violating its air space: PM". Reuters. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  190. "Турция будет сбивать самолеты, нарушившие воздушное пространство страны". ТАСС. Retrieved 2015-11-24.
  191. "Выступление начальника Главного оперативного управления Генштаба ВС РФ генерал-лейтенанта Сергея Рудского по факту провокационных действий ВВС Турции : Министерство обороны Российской Федерации". Retrieved 2015-11-24.
  192. "Turkey Takes Action Against Russia's Syrian Air War". Aviation International News. 26 November 2015.
  193. "Deadly 'Russian airstrike' hits market in Syria's Idlib". Al Jazeera. 29 November 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  194. "Российская авиация в Сирии разбомбила овощной рынок: минимум 40 погибших". NEWSru. 29 November 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  195. "Syrian Opposition: Russian Strikes Kill 18, Wound Dozens". Associated Press. 29 November 2015 via The New York Times.
  196. "Russia builds new base for more jets in Syria". The Times. 1 December 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  197. "The Times: Россия готовится развернуть в Сирии вторую авиабазу, увеличив число самолетов и военных". NEWSru. 1 December 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  198. "Russia strikes ISIS targets in Syria from sub in Mediterranean for first time (VIDEO)". RT International. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  199. "Russia hits targets in Syria from Mediterranean submarine". BBC. 8 December 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  200. Встреча с главой Минобороны Сергеем Шойгу The Kremlin website, 8 December 2015.
  201. 1 2 "Putin vows 'extremely tough' action on Syria threats". BBC. 11 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  202. В Кремле уточнили, что Россия не поставляет оружие ССА, и попросили "не цепляться" к формулировкам NEWSru, 12 December 2015.
  203. "Шойгу рассказал депутатам о плане "дойти до Евфрата" в Сирии". RBC. 16 December 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  204. Путин: Вооруженные силы РФ показали в Сирии не все свои возможности RIA Novosti, 19 Dec 2015.
  205. Reuters Editorial (19 December 2015). "Putin: Russia ready to use 'more military means' in Syria if need be – agencies". Reuters UK. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  206. Генштаб РФ: самолеты ВКС совершили уже более 5 тысяч вылетов в Сирии и уничтожили больше 2 тысяч бензовозов с нефтью ИГ NEWSru, 25 Dec 2015.
  207. Начальник Главного оперативного управления Генерального штаба Вооруженных Сил Российской Федерации подвел итоги деятельности российских ВКС в Сирии в 2015 году Russian Defence ministry website, 25 Dec 2015.
  208. Russian Aerospace Force never attack civil facilities in Syria – commander TASS, 27 Dec 2015.
  209. "Новости :: Российская авиация ни разу не атаковала гражданские объекты в Сирии, заявил главком ВКС". Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  210. 1 2 "Syrian army backed by jets clashes with rebels holding southern town". Reuters. 30 December 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  211. "Сводка контртеррористических операций Сирийской армии за 6 января". Сирийское арабское информационное агентство САНА. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  212. "Russia helps shift balance against rebels in southern Syria". FT. 7 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  213. "Air strike kills dozens in Syria as U.N. envoy visits Damascus". Reuters. 9 January 2016.
  214. Крейсер "Варяг" вышел в Средиземное море, где сменит у берегов Сирии крейсер "Москва" TASS, 3 Jan 2016.
  215. "Russian warships make Soviet-era display of might off coast of Syria". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  216. "ВКС РФ и ВВС Сирии впервые выполнили совместную боевую задачу в небе" [RF Air Force and Air Force of Syria have conducted a joint combat mission for the first time]. RIA Novosti. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2016. (Russian)
  217. 1 2 "Syria conflict: Major rebel town 'seized' in boost for Assad". BBC. 24 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  218. Syria regime advances in northwest ahead of peace talks AFP, 24 Dec 2016.
  219. Turkish artillery shells Syrian territory – Russian military presents video proof RT, 1 Feb 2016.
  220. Nechepurenko, Ivan (2016-02-04). "Shelling Kills Russian Military Adviser in Syria". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-02-04.
  221. "Lavrov: Russia won't stop Syria strikes until 'terrorists' defeated". Reuters. 3 February 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  222. Лавров назвал условия прекращения операции РФ в Сирии NEWSru, 3 Feb 2016.
  223. "Backed By Russian Jets, Syrian Army Closes In On Aleppo". Reuters. 4 February 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  224. Tom Perry, Jack Stubbs and Estelle Shirbon (5 February 2016). "Russia and Turkey trade accusations over Syria". Reuters UK. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  225. "Temporary truce comes into effect". BBC News. 26 February 2016.
  226. "U.N. demands Syria parties halt fighting, peace talks set for March 7". Reuters. 26 February 2016.
  227. "Syria 'cessation of hostilities': full text of the support group's communique". the Guardian. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  228. "Лавров: перемирие в Сирии становится более устойчивым". RIA Novosti. РИА Новости. 1 March 2016.
  229. "Тишина в эфире: четвертый день на базе "Хмеймим" без вылетов". RIA Novosti. РИА Новости. 1 March 2016.
  230. "Минобороны России дополнительно перебросило в Сирию беспилотники и РЛС". RIA Novosti. РИА Новости. 1 March 2016.
  231. "Syria conflict: Russia's Putin orders 'main part' of forces out". BBC World Service. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  232. "Putin orders start of Russian military withdrawal from Syria, says 'objectives achieved'". RT. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  233. 1 2 Dyomkin, Denis (14 March 2016). "Putin orders start of Russian forces' withdrawal from Syria". Reuters. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  234. "Putin orders to begin withdrawal of Russian forces from Syria from March 15". TASS. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  235. "Отбить Пальмиру у террористов сирийцам помогла российская авиация". Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  236. ВКС РФ за сутки уничтожили более 100 боевиков в районе Пальмиры RIA Novosti, 26 March 2016.
  237. "Assad hails Syrian regime's capture of Palmyra from Isis". The Guardian. 27 March 2016.
  238. "Palmyra's dynamited temple can be restored, de-miners use robots". Reuters. March 21, 2016.
  239. Russia's military in Syria: Bigger than you think and not going anywhere CNN, 9 May 2016.
  240. Russia sets up Palmyra base Jane′s, 10 May 2016.
  241. "Discerning Damage to a Crucial Syrian Air Base". Stratfor. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
  242. Eremenko, Alexey; Ortiz, Erik (24 May 2016). "Blasts Hit Syria's Strategic Tiyas Base Used by Russians: Stratfor". NBC News. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  243. Вертолет с российскими летчиками в Сирии сбили из американского оружия Interfax, 9 July 2016.
  244. "Коммерсант": российские летчики погибли вблизи Пальмиры не на том вертолете, о котором сообщили в Минобороны NEWSru, 11 July 2016.
  245. Противостояние США и РФ в Сирии только начинается
  246. Two Russian helicopter pilots shot down, killed in Syria: Interfax
  247. Long-range bombers flying from Russia destroy ‘major’ ISIS camp in central Syria RT, 12 July 2016.
  248. "Russian helicopter on Aleppo aid mission shot down, all 5 aboard dead (VIDEO)". RT. 1 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  249. "Syria war: Russian helicopter shot down, killing five on board". BBC News. 1 August 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  250. Syrian conflict: Russian bombers use Iran base for air strikes
  251. Russia uses Iran as base to bomb Syrian militants for first time Reuters, 16 August 2016.
  252. "Syria′s war:US suspends". Al Jazeera. 4 October 2016.
  253. "The agony of Aleppo". The Economist. 1 October 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  254. "Putin Is Playing by Grozny Rules in Aleppo". FP. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  255. David Gardner (28 September 2016). "Russia aims to turn Aleppo into another Grozny". The Financial Times. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  256. Alan Philps (29 September 2016). "Memories of Grozny drive Putin's Aleppo campaign". The National. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  257. US-Russian Feud Over Syria Escalates with Talk of War Crimes VOA, 7 October 2016.
  258. "Авианосная группа кораблей Северного флота начала поход в Средиземное море". RIA Novosti. 15 October 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  259. Ripley, Tim (17 October 2016). "Russian carrier sails for the Mediterranean". IHS Jane's 360. Jane's. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
  260. Над Сирией замечены истребители с "Адмирала Кузнецова" RG, 8 November 2016.
  261. 3 Nusra commanders, dozens of jihadists killed in airstrikes from Russian aircraft carrier – MoD RT, 17 November 2016.
  262. Russian Admiral Grigorovich Frigate Targets Terrorists in Syria With Missiles
  263. МИД: Авиация России и Сирии не наносит удары по восточному Алеппо с 18 октября
  264. O'Connor, Sean; Binnie, Jeremy; Ripley, Tim (28 November 2016). "Russian carrier jets flying from Syria, not Kuznetsov". IHS Janes 360. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  265. "#NATO flagship SNMG2 HNLMS De Ruyter encounters Russian guided missile corvette Mirazh (Nanuchka class) towed back to Black Sea.". Zr.Ms. De Ruyter. 18 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  266. "Russia Is Launching Twice as Many Airstrikes as the U.S. in Syria". Daily Beast. 22 February 2016.
  267. "Russian Air Force paralyzes ISIS in southeast Homs". Al-Masdar News. March 31, 2016.
  268. McDermott, Roger (15 March 2016). "Putin the 'Peacemaker' Ends Operations in Syria". Eurasia Daily Monitor. Jamestown Foundation. 13 (51). The VKS flew more than 9,000 sorties using precision weapons, with targets including energy infrastructure, weapons and supply routes. Russian bombers assisted in reclaiming 400 settlements and 10,000 square kilometers of Syrian territory. Furthermore, Russian aircraft destroyed 209 Syrian oil facilities and over 2,000 means of delivery of petroleum products.
  269. 1 2 Gupta, Ranjit (Jan 2016). "Understanding the War in Syria and the Roles of External Players: Way Out of the Quagmire?". The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs. 105 (1): 6. doi:10.1080/00358533.2016.1128630.
  270. 1 2 Gerges, Fawaz A. (13 February 2016). "Syria war: Tide turns Assad's way amid ceasefire push". BBC World Service. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  271. "U.S. officials: Russian airstrikes have changed 'calculus completely' in Syria". Washington Post. 9 February 2016.
  272. Williams, Mel, ed. (2002). "Sukhoi 'Super Flankers'". Superfighters: The Next Generation of Combat Aircraft. Norwalk, Connecticut: AIRtime Publishing. p. 128. ISBN 1-880588-53-6. OCLC 51213421.
  273. "Russian carrier aviation joins Syria campaign". Combat Aircraft. Key Publishing. 14 November 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  274. Wan Beng, Ben Ho (22 November 2016). "Assessing the Admiral Kuznetsov Deployment in the Syrian Conflict". RealClear Defense. RealClear Media Group. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  275. Fink, Andrew (26 October 2016). "Analysis: Russian Carrier Deployment to Syria is Propaganda, not Practical". USNI News. United States Naval Institute. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  276. Majumdar, Dave (6 October 2015). "Russia's Half-Baked Air War in Syria". The National Interest. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  277. "Syria: Russia's shameful failure to acknowledge civilian killings | Amnesty International". Retrieved 2015-12-25.
  278. Bodner, Matthew (18 October 2015). "Russia Shows Early Success, New Capabilities in Syria". Defense News. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  279. "4 Russian warships launch 26 missiles against ISIS from Caspian Sea". 7 October 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  280. Martinez, Luis (7 October 2015). "Russian Troops Fire Artillery and Rockets in Syria". ABC News. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  281. How Much Is Intervention in Syria Costing Russia?, "Fiscal Times", 26 October 2015.
  282. Calculating the Cost of Russia's War in Syria, 20 October 2015.
  283. Scarborough, Rowan (22 October 2015). "Syrian forces unleash 'suicide' drones on rebels – Washington Times". The Washington Times. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  284. "More than 12500 civilians including more than 4528 child killed by Aerial bombardment by Syrian and Russian warplanes in 22 months". SOHR. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  285. "Russia kills more Syrian civilians than ISIL – report". Ukraine Today. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  286. "Russia has killed more civilians than Isis". The Times. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  287. "Report: In less than a year, Russia has killed more civilians than ISIS". Business Insider. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  288. 1 2 Peter Yeung. "Russia committing war crimes by deliberately bombing civilians and aid workers, says Amnesty International | Middle East | News". The Independent. Retrieved 2016-02-28.
  289. Tomkiw, Lydia (2016-02-15). "Who Bombed Doctors Without Borders Hospital In Syria? MSF Slams 'Deliberate' Airstrike". Retrieved 2016-02-28.
  290. "UN: Nearly 50 civilians killed in Syria by airstrikes on hospitals, schools". 2016-02-16. Retrieved 2016-02-28.
  291. "Syria: Kurds close in on Isis capital of Raqqa as ceasefire looms". International Business Times. February 26, 2016.
  292. "An internal struggle: Al Qaeda's Syrian affiliate is grappling with its identity". Brookings Institution. 31 May 2015.
  293. Withnall, Adam (23 November 2015). "Chemical weapon white phosphorous [sic] 'being used in Raqqa air strikes'". The Independent. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  294. "A Very Busy Man Behind the Syrian Civil War's Casualty Count". New York Times. 9 April 2013.
  295. Edward. "Russia's airstrike on a Syrian hospital was no accident. It was a cold-blooded, targeted attack". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  296. "Syrian and Russian forces have deliberately targeted hospitals near Aleppo". Retrieved 2016-06-20.
  297. "Минобороны России: штурмовики США в среду нанесли удары по Алеппо". РИА Новости. Retrieved 2016-03-03.
  298. "Russian defence ministry says Amnesty report on Syria biased, ungrounded". Reuters. 23 December 2015.
  299. "Russia blocks UN statement on Syria airstrikes". Retrieved 2016-05-07.
  300. "Bombs fall on Aleppo's largest hospital as Russia sends more warplanes to Syria | VICE News". VICE News. Retrieved 2016-11-17.
  301. "Two more Iranian commanders killed in Syria". Al Jazeera. 14 October 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  302. "Iran is taking over Assad's fight in crucial parts of Syria". Business Insider. 8 June 2015.
  303. Jay Solomon; Sam Dagher (21 September 2015). "Russia, Iran Seen Coordinating on Defense of Assad Regime in Syria". The Wall Street Journal.
  304. "Israeli official: Iran mastermind went to Russia – Business Insider". Business Insider. 10 September 2015.
  305. Leith Fadel. "Russian Marines and Iranian Revolutionary Guardsmen Build a Protectorate in Western Syria". Al-Masdar News.
  306. "Iranian troops prepare to aid Russia with Syrian ground assault, officials say". Fox News Channel. Archived from the original on 2015-10-04.
  307. "Iranian troops join ground offensive in Syria". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015.
  308. "Exclusive: Iran to match stance with Russia in push for Syria deal". Reuters. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
  309. "Syrian conflict: Russian bombers use Iran base for air strikes". BBC. 16 August 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  310. Российско-иранский прорыв: крылатые ракеты и аэродром Хамадан
  311. "Flash – UN's Ban says Syrian talks 'hostage' to Assad's future – France 24". France 24. Archived from the original on 2015-10-31. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  312. "Russian air strikes in Syria 'good thing': Del Ponte". Yahoo News. 8 February 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  313. "NATO Condemns Russian Bombings in Syria". The Wall Street Journal. 8 October 2015.
  314. "Syria crisis: Nato renews pledge amid Russia 'escalation'". BBC. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  315. "Syria conflict: Russia strikes 'will fuel extremism'". BBC. 2 October 2015.
  316. "U.S., allies demand Russia halt Syria strikes outside IS areas". Reuters. 2 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-02.
  317. "Syrian crisis: Russia air strikes 'strengthen IS'". BBC. 2 October 2015.
  318. "Resurgent Russia takes on tenacious Turkey". Al Jazeera. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  319. Armen Grigoryan: Russia Expands Military Presence in Armenia, Deepens Confrontational Rhetoric, Jamestown Foundation, Eurasia Daily Monitor, Volume: 12, Issue: 222, 11 December 2015.
  320. "Страны ОДКБ поддержали действия ВКС России в Сирии и осудили Турцию". TASS. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  321. "Belarus 'Naturally' Backs Russia's Anti-Terror Campaign in Syria". Sputnik. 27 October 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  322. "China on Russia's intervention in Syria". 19 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  323. "China says seeks closer military ties with Syria". Reuters. 3 October 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  324. "Egypt says Russia's intervention in Syria will counter terrorism". Reuters. 3 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-08. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  325. NRC Handelsblad, 22 October 2015.
  326. "Russia gave Israel advance notice of its airstrikes in Syria". The Jerusalem Post –
  327. "Israel, Russia to coordinate military action on Syria: Netanyahu". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2015-09-21.
  328. "The Syria crisis: Russia and Israel cosy up over Syria". The Economist. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  329. "'Israel won't down a Russian warplane if it enters its air space'". The Jerusalem Post. 26 November 2015.
  330. "Russia, Jordan agree on military coordination on Syria". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2015-10-24. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  331. "Russia, Jordan to coordinate actions on Syria via Amman-based center, others invited". RT English. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
  332. "Caught in the Middle: Central Asia and the Russia-Turkey Crisis". Carnegie Moscow. 16 December 2015. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  333. "Saudi Arabia demands Russia end Syria raids, criticizes Iran". Reuters. 1 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-02. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  334. "Turkey warns Russia of fallout over Syria". Financial Times. 6 October 2015.
  335. "Russia hosts pro-Kurdish Turkish politician who condemns Ankara". Reuters. 23 December 2015.
  336. "Russia's holy war in Syria". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  337. "UAE Says Ready To Commit Troops To Fight Syria Jihadists". Defense News. 30 November 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  338. "David Cameron condemns Russia's strikes in Syria". BBC. 3 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  339. "UK troops heading to Baltic states following Russia's intervention in Syria". Yahoo News. 8 October 2015. Archived 22 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  340. Down but not yet out, The Economist.
  341. "Obama authorizes resupply of Syrian opposition". CNN. 5 October 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  342. 1 2 "As Russia escalates, U.S. rules out military cooperation in Syria". Reuters. 7 October 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  343. 1 2 "Russians Strike Targets in Syria, but Not ISIS Areas". The New York Times. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  344. "Russia will pay price for Syrian airstrikes, says US defence secretary". The Guardian. 8 October 2015.
  345. "Proof please? CNN claims Russian missiles crashed in Iran, Moscow refutes, US can't confirm". RT English.
  346. Cooper, Michael D. Shear, Helene; Schmitt, Eric (2015-10-09). "Obama Administration Ends Effort to Train Syrians to Combat ISIS". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  347. "Obama points finger at Russia over jet shoot-down by Turkey". Fox News. 24 November 2015.
  348. 1 2 "After shooting down Russian jet, what's next for Turkey?". Al-Monitor. 26 November 2015.
  349. 1 2 "PYD leader: Russia will stop Turkey from intervening in Syria". Al-Monitor. 1 October 2015.
  350. "U.S. Kurdish allies welcome Russian airstrikes in Syria". McClatchyDC. 2 October 2015.
  351. "Всеволод Чаплин об операции ВВС РФ в Сирии: Борьба с терроризмом – священна". РЕН ТВ.
  352. "Новости :: В РПЦ объяснили разницу между "священной борьбой" и джихадом". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  353. Tom Parfitt (1 October 2015). "Russian Orthodox church backs 'holy war' against Isis". The Times.
  354. "Church Says Russia Fighting 'Holy Battle' in Syria". Newsmax. 30 September 2015.
  355. "Are Russia's 20 million Muslims seething about Putin bombing Syria?". The Washington Post. 7 March 2016.
  356. "Syrian insurgent groups vow to attack Russian forces". US News & World Report. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  357. "Al-Qaeda Affiliate Issues Bounty for Capture of Russian Soldiers in Syria". Newsweek. 2 October 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  358. "Syria's Russian Jihadists Vow To Slaughter Putin's Invading Army".
  359. "Russian Embassy shelled in Syria as insurgents hit back". Yahoo News. 13 October 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  360. "Syria's Nusra Front leader urges wider attacks on Assad's Alawite areas to avenge Russian bombing". The Daily Telegraph. 13 October 2015.
  361. "Head of al Qaeda's Syrian branch threatens Russia in audio message". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  362. "Syria to be 'another Afghanistan for Russia' – General news –".
  363. "Morning Star :: Syria: US tells Russia to end its bombing".
  364. "Russia strikes Syria as world leaders warn against escalating conflict". NewsComAu. 3 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-04.
  365. "Foreign Fighters in Syria: Syria Will Be the Graveyard of the Russians". The Middle East Media Research Institute TV Monitor Project. 13 October 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  366. "Islamic State, Al-Nusra Front Call For 'Jihad' Against Russia". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  367. "جماعة اخوان سوريا تستنفر المسلمين لرد "العدوان" الروسي"". Rudaw.
  368. "إخوان سوريا يعلنون الجهاد ضد ( الاحتلال الروسي )". زيم الاخباري.
  369. عرب نيوز. "روسيا وقعت في فخ كبير". شبكة عرب نيوز.
  370. "55 داعية وهابي يدعون إلى "أفغنة" الجهاد بسوريا ضد روسيا".
  371. "إخوان سوريا يحذرون: روسيا وقعت في فخ كبير". @Elaph.
  372. abojwad. "إخوان سوريا: الاحتلال الروسي لسوريا لا يمكن تبريره وجهاد الدفع أصبح فرض عين". شبكة رصد سوريا الإخبارية.
  373. Mohamed Alabdallah. "جماعة الإخوان المسلمين في سورية: الاحتلال الروسي لسورية لا يمكن تبريره – وكالة مسار برس". وكالة مسار برس.
  374. "جماعة الإخوان المسلمين "سورية" :-: إحتلال روسي سوف يدفعه الشعب السوري بالجهاد".
  375. أنباء اليوم. ""إخوان سوريا" يعتبرون التدخل الروسي "احتلالا" ويرفعون "راية الجهاد" – أنباء اليوم المغربية". أنباء اليوم المغربية.
  376. "الإخوان: جهاد "الدفع" في مواجهة الروس "فرض عين" اخبار سورية – زمان الوصل (Brotherhood: Jihad "payment" in the face of the Russians "duty")". اخبار سورية – زمان الوصل (Syria News – Zaman Al Wasl). Archived from the original on 2015-10-05.
  377. "خمسون عالمًا سعوديًا يدعون قادة الفصائل السورية إلى الوحدة وجمع الكلمة – موقع المسلم". Archived from the original on 2015-10-06.
  378. "أكثر من 50 عالمًا وداعية سعودي يدعون الفصائل السورية للتوحد". الدرر الشامية.
  379. Al Qabas – جريدة القبس. "جريدة القبس :: العربى و الدولى :: 55 عالماً سعودياً يدعون "أهل الشام" إلى "الجهاد" ضد الروس". Archived from the original on 16 October 2015.
  380. "Saudi opposition clerics make sectarian call to jihad in Syria". Reuters. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  381. "Saudi Clerics Call for Jihad Against Iran and Russia in Syria". VICE News. Archived from the original on 2015-10-08. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  382. Donna Abu-Nasr (6 October 2015). "Russia Shuns No-Fly Zone for Syria as Clerics Urge Reprisals". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  383. "Saudi Clerics Call For Jihad Against Assad, Russia and Iran in Syria". Newsweek. 6 October 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  384. "Saudi clerics make call to jihad in Syria". The Nation. 6 October 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  385. "Sunnis Rage Over Russian Backing for Shi'ite Foes". CNS News. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  386. Madawi Al-Rasheed Columnist  (2015-10-07). "Saudi religious scholars enraged over Moscow's recent Syria strikes – Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
  387. Al-Saleh, Huda (5 October 2015). "52 Saudi clerics, scholars call to battle Russian forces in Syria". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  388. "52 محرضاً سعودياً يدعون إلى النفير في سوريا". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  389. "Syria Rebels Plan Suicide Attacks on Russians". The Daily Beast.
  390. "Turkistan Islamic Party shows fighters on frontlines in northwestern Syria". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  391. Çelik, Mehmet (19 November 2015). "Assad forces, Russian air strikes target Turkmen villages in Syria". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  392. "Russia hit Bayırbucak Turkmen as well: Syrian Turkmen Council head – INTERNATIONAL". Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  393. "Russian airstrikes target Turkmen villages, head of Syrian Turkmen Assembly says". DailySabah. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  394. "Syrian Turkmen group says Russian strikes kill over 40 civilians". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2015-11-20. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  395. "Syrian Turkmen Group: Russian Airstrikes Kill Over 40 Civilians – Arts and Ideas". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 20 November 2015.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Russian Forces in the Syrian Civil War (2011-present).
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/4/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.