Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyám (Persian: رباعیات عمر خیام) is the title that Edward FitzGerald gave to his translation of a selection of poems, originally written in Persian and numbering about a thousand, attributed to Omar Khayyám (1048–1131), a Persian poet, mathematician and astronomer. A ruba'i is a two-line stanza with two parts (or hemistichs) per line, hence the word rubAYOT (derived from the Arabic language root for "a million"), meaning "quatrains".
Authenticity and analysis
The number of quatrains attributed to Khayyam varies from about 1,200 (according to Saeed Nafisi) to over 2,000. Many scholars believe that not all the attributed quatrains are authentic and some have been added to Khayyam's Diwan in later years for various reasons. A few literary researchers, for example, Mohammad-Ali Foroughi and Farzaneh Aghaeipour have selected and published a subset of the quatrains believed to be original using various research methods.
"Wine of the Mystic" by Paramahansa Yogananda is an illustrated interpretation of the FitzGerald translation. Each quatrain is accompanied with Persian text, a glossary of terms, Yoganada's spiritual interpretation, and practical interpretation. It won the 1995 Benjamin Franklin Award in the field of Religion. Yogananda makes an argument for the mystical basis of Khayyam's Rubaiyat.
In Who is the Potter? , Abdullah Dougan, a Naqshbandi Sufi, provides a verse-by-verse commentary of the Rubaiyat. Dougan says that while Omar is a minor Sufi teacher compared to the giants – Rumi, Attar and Sana’i, for us he is a marvelous man because we can feel for him and understand his approach. The work is much more accessible than Sana’i's for instance; "Every line of the Rubaiyat has more meaning than almost anything you could read in Sufi literature". Dougan says that the many critics of Fitzgerald miss the point as he is only an instrument for what Allah wanted to happen – there have been many more literally correct translations, but Fitzgerald's is divine inspiration, something far superior, a miracle. In Dougan's opinion, while many read the Rubaiyat literally and hence see Omar as a materialist, he is in fact a spiritual teacher and is much maligned because people do not understand him. Abdullah Dougan says the work is deeply esoteric and "if you approach the quatrains with that in mind, the poem will have a tremendous impact on you as you try to understand it."
Religious beliefs were deeply instilled in the people of the time, which gave much influence to the clergy, and the prosecution of poets who made statements contradictory to religious messages were prevalent, as was the case with Hafiz (whose house was raided several times, and was forced to burn some of his more liberal poems) and Ferdowsi (who was branded a heretic and was not permitted to be buried in the Muslims graveyard).
The mystic interpretation of themes in poetry which were contrary to Islamic teachings became popular after the Safavid dynasty rise to power and the establishing of Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of Iran. At this time poets such as Ferdowsi (who glorified the pre-Islamic Iran and patriotism), Hafiz (with his Epicurean view on life) and Khayyam (with openly agnostic themed poetry) had already found their roots among Iranian culture and their works were looked upon as masterpieces of Persian literature. In order to justify their popularity and lay "credence" to their messages, many Haram themes were interpreted as having hidden mystical meanings and parallels were drawn between verses and Shi'a themes and traditions. Some religious hardliners however repudiated Khayyam and the like altogether (and to a lesser extent still do today).
Everything aside, Khayyam never identified himself as a Sufi nor did anyone in his time. On several occasions, in fact, he mocks the devoutly religious who criticize the non-religious.
Like Shakespeare's works, Omar Khayyám's verses have provided later authors with quotations to use as titles:
- The title of Rex Stout's Nero Wolfe novel Some Buried Caesar comes from one of the Tentmaker's quatrains (FitzGerald's XVIII), for example.
- Eugene O'Neill's drama Ah, Wilderness! derives its title from the first quoted quatrain above.
- Agatha Christie used The Moving Finger as a story title, as did Stephen King. See also And Having Writ….
- Lan Wright used Dawn's Left Hand as the title of a science fiction story serialized in New Worlds Science Fiction (January–March 1963).
- The title of Allen Drury's science fiction novel The Throne of Saturn comes from a quatrain which appears as the book's epigraph.
Equally noteworthy are these works likewise influenced:
- The satirist and short story writer Hector Hugh Munro took his pen name of 'Saki' from Edward FitzGerald's translation of the Rubaiyat.
- The American author O. Henry humorously referred to a book by "Homer KM" with the character "Ruby Ott" in his short story "The Handbook of Hymen. " O. Henry also quoted a quatrain from the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam in "The Rubaiyat of a Scotch Highball."
- Oliver Herford released a parody of the Rubaiyat called "The Rubaiyat of a Persian Kitten" in 1904, which is notable for its charming illustrations of the kitten in question on his philosophical adventures.
- The American horror author H P Lovecraft created an Arab poet Abdul Alhazred to whom was attributed a couplet:
- That is not dead which can eternal lie
- And with strange aeons even death may die.
- Lovecraft was obsessed with the Arabian Nights and had no doubt read the Fitzgerald translation - the couplet follows Fitzgerald's metre and rhyme pattern for the first half of a Khayyam quatrain.
- The artist/illustrator Edmund Dulac produced some much-beloved illustrations for the Rubaiyat, 1909.
- The play The Shadow of a Gunman (1923) by Seán O'Casey contains a reference to the Rubaiyat as the character Donal Davoren quotes "grasp this sorry scheme of things entire, and mould life nearer to the heart's desire."
- The Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges discusses The Rubaiyat and its history in an essay, "The Enigma of Edward FitzGerald" ("El enigma de Edward FitzGerald") in his book "Other Inquisitions" ("Otras Inquisiciones", 1952). He also references it in some of his poems, including "Rubaiyat" in "The Praise of the Shadow" ("Elogio de la Sombra", 1969), and "Chess" ("Ajedrez") in "The Maker" ("El Hacedor", 1960). Borges' father Jorge Guillermo Borges was the author of a Spanish translation of the FitzGerald version of The Rubaiyat.
- Science fiction author Paul Marlowe's story "Resurrection and Life" featured a character who could only communicate using lines from the Rubaiyat.
- Science fiction author Isaac Asimov quotes The Moving Finger in his time-travel novel The End of Eternity when a character discusses whether history could be changed.
- Charles Schultz wrote a strip in which Lucy reads the Jug of Wine passage, and Linus asks "No blanket?".
- Wendy Cope's poem "Strugnell's Rubiyat" is a close parody of the FitzGerald translation, relocated to modern day Tulse Hill.
- One of the title pages of Principia Discordia (1965), a co-author of which went by the pen-name Omar Khayyam Ravenhurst, features its own spin on the quatrain most quoted above:
- The Lebanese writer Amin Maalouf based his novel Samarkand (1988) on the life of Omar Khayyam, and the creation of the Rubaiyat. It details the Assassin sect as well, and includes a fictional telling of how the (non-existent) original manuscript came to be on the RMS Titanic.
- In the opening chapter of his book God is Not Great (2007), Christopher Hitchens quotes from Richard Le Gallienne's translation of Khayyam's famous quatrain:
- And do you think that unto such as you
- A maggot-minded, starved, fanatic crew
- God gave the secret, and denied it me?
- Well, well--what matters it? Believe that, too!
- The title of Daphne du Maurier's memoir Myself when Young is a quote from quatrain 27 of Fitzgerald's translation:
- Myself when young did eagerly frequent
- Doctor and Saint, and heard great Argument
- About it and about: but evermore
- Came out by the same Door as in I went.
- Filmmaker D.W. Griffith planned a film based on the poems as a follow-up to Intolerance in 1916. It was to star Miriam Cooper, but when she left the Griffith company the plans were dropped; he would ultimately film Broken Blossoms instead.
- A canto was quoted and used as an underlying theme of the 1945 screen adaptation of The Picture of Dorian Gray: "I sent my soul through the invisible, some letters of that after-life to spell, and by and by my soul did return, and answered, 'I myself am Heaven and Hell.'"
- The Rubaiyat was quoted in the 1946 King Vidor Western film Duel in the Sun, which starred Gregory Peck and Jennifer Jones: "Oh threats of hell and hopes of paradise! One thing at least is certain: This life flies. One thing is certain and the rest is Lies; The Flower that once is blown for ever dies."
- The 1951 film Pandora and the Flying Dutchman, starring James Mason and Ava Gardner, opens with an illuminated manuscript of the quatrain beginning "The moving finger writes...".
- In the film The Music Man (based on the 1957 musical), town librarian Marian Paroo draws down the wrath of the mayor's wife for encouraging the woman's daughter to read a book of "dirty Persian poetry." Summarizing what she calls the "Ruby Hat of Omar Kayayayayay...I am appalled!!", the mayor's wife paraphrases FitzGerald's Quatrain XII from his 5th edition: "People lying out in the woods eating sandwiches, and drinking directly out of jugs with innocent young girls."
- The film Omar Khayyam, also known as The Loves Of Omar Khayyam, was released in 1957 by Paramount Pictures and includes excerpts from the Rubaiyat.
- In Back to the Future the character Lorraine Baines, played by Lea Thompson, is holding a copy of the book in 1955 at the high school when her son Marty McFly is trying to introduce her to his father.
- The Rubaiyat was quoted in the film 12 Monkeys (1995) around 11 minutes in.
- In Adrian Lyne's Unfaithful a copy of the text in French is quoted in English: "Drink wine, this is life eternal //This, all that youth will give to you//It is the season for wine, roses//And drunken friends//Be happy for this moment//This moment is your life." The book is a gift given flirtatiously to Diane Lane's character by Olivier Martinez who plays rare book dealer Paul Martel in the film.
- The British composer Granville Bantock produced a choral setting of FitzGerald's translation 1906–1909.
- Using FitzGerald's translation, the Armenian-American composer Alan Hovhaness set a dozen of the quatrains to music. This work, The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, Op. 308, calls for narrator, orchestra, and solo accordion.
- The Rubaiyat have also influenced Arabic music. In 1950 the Egyptian singer Umm Kulthum recorded a song entitled "Rubaiyat Al-Khayyam."
- The Comedian Harmonists in "Wochenend und Sonnenschein".
- Woody Guthrie recorded an excerpt of the Rubaiyat set to music that was released on Hard Travelin' (The Asch Recordings Vol. 3).
- The Human Instinct's album Pins In It (1971) opens with a track called "Pinzinet," the lyrics of which are based on the Rubaiyat.
- Elektra Records released a compilation album named Rubáiyát in 1990 to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Elektra Records record label.
- Coldcut produced an album with a song called "Rubaiyat" on their album Let us Play! (1997). This song contains what appears to be some words from the English translation.
- Jazz-soul harpist Dorothy Ashby's 1970 album The Rubaiyat of Dorothy Ashby quotes from several of the poem's verses.
- The famed "skull and roses" poster for a Grateful Dead show at the Avalon Ballroom done by Alton Kelley and Stanley Mouse was adapted from Edmund J. Sullivan's illustrations for The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.
- The work influenced the 2004 concept album The Rubaiyyat of Omar Khayyam by the Italian group Milagro acustico.
- The song "Beautiful Feeling" by Australian singer-songwriter Paul Kelly, on 2004 album Ways and Means, includes the lyrics "A jug of wine, a loaf of bread and thee, lying on a blanket underneath that big old spreading tree." This song was used as the theme song in the 2004 Australian television drama, Fireflies.
- The 1953 Robert Wright-George Forrest musical Kismet, adapted from a play by Edward Knoblock, contains a non-singing character, Omar (it is implied that he is the poet himself), who recites some of the couplets in the Fitzgerald translation.
- In one 6-episode story arc of The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, Bullwinkle finds the "Ruby Yacht of Omar Khayyam" in the town of Frostbite Falls (on the shores of Veronica Lake).
- A copy of the Rubaiyat plays a role in an episode of the TV series New Amsterdam and is shown to be the inspiration for the name of one of the lead character's children, Omar York.
- In the Australian 2014 television drama, Anzac Girls, Lieutenant Harry Moffitt reads from the Rubaiyat to his sweetheart, nurse Sister Alice Ross-King.
- In Cyberflix's PC game Titanic: Adventure Out of Time, the object is to save three important items, the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, one of Adolf Hitler's paintings, and a notebook that proves German officials were attempting to gain geo-political advantage by instigating communist revolution. Two passages from the book are also included in the game as clues to progress the narrative.
- Some versions of the computer game Colossal Cave Adventure feature a ruby-covered yacht called "Omar Khayyam" (a pun - the "ruby yacht" of Omar Khayyam).
- In Australia, a copy of FitzGerald's translation and its closing words, Tamam Shud ("Ended") were major components of the unsolved Tamam Shud case.
- The Supreme Court of the Philippines, through a unanimous opinion written in 2005 by Associate Justice Leonardo Quisumbing, quoted "The Moving Finger" when it ruled that the widow of defeated presidential candidate Fernando Poe Jr. could not substitute her late husband in his pending election protest against President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, thus leading to the dismissal of the protest.
- There was a real jewel-encrusted copy of the book on the Titanic. It was won at an auction and was being shipped to New York. The book remains lost at the bottom of the Atlantic to this day.
The nature of a translation very much depends on what interpretation one places on Khayyam's philosophy. The fact that the rubaiyat is a collection of quatrains—and may be selected and rearranged subjectively to support one interpretation or another—has led to widely differing versions. Nicolas took the view that Khayyam himself clearly was a Sufi. Others have seen signs of mysticism, even atheism, or conversely devout and orthodox Islam. FitzGerald gave the Rubaiyat a distinct fatalistic spin, although it has been claimed that he softened the impact of Khayyam's nihilism and his preoccupation with the mortality and transience of all things. Even such a question as to whether Khayyam was pro- or anti-alcohol gives rise to more discussion than might at first glance have seemed plausible.
Edward FitzGerald versions
The translations best known in English are those by Edward FitzGerald (1809–1883).
- 1st edition – 1859 [75 quatrains]
- 2nd edition – 1868 [110 quatrains]
- 3rd edition – 1872 [101 quatrains]
- 4th edition – 1879 [101 quatrains]
- 5th edition – 1889 [101 quatrains]
Of the five editions published, four were published under the authorial control of FitzGerald. The fifth edition, which contained only minor changes from the fourth, was edited after his death on the basis of manuscript revisions FitzGerald had left.
FitzGerald also produced Latin translations of certain rubaiyat.
As a work of English literature FitzGerald's version is a high point of the 19th century and has been greatly influential. Indeed, the term "Rubaiyat" by itself has come to be used to describe the quatrain rhyme scheme that FitzGerald used in his translations: AABA.
However, as a translation of Omar Khayyam's quatrains, it is not noted for its fidelity. Many of the verses are paraphrased, and some of them cannot be confidently traced to any one of Khayyam's quatrains at all. Some critics informally refer to the FitzGerald's English versions as "The Rubaiyat of FitzOmar", a nickname that both recognizes the liberties FitzGerald took with his source and also credits FitzGerald for the considerable portion of the "translation" that is his own creation.
In fact, FitzGerald himself referred to his work as "transmogrification". "My translation will interest you from its form, and also in many respects in its detail: very un-literal as it is. Many quatrains are mashed together: and something lost, I doubt, of Omar's simplicity, which is so much a virtue in him" (letter to E. B. Cowell, 9/3/58). And, "I suppose very few People have ever taken such Pains in Translation as I have: though certainly not to be literal. But at all Cost, a Thing must live: with a transfusion of one's own worse Life if one can’t retain the Original's better. Better a live Sparrow than a stuffed Eagle" (letter to E. B. Cowell, 4/27/59).
Perhaps the most famous of FitzGerald's verses is this one, of which the final version is much beloved:
Quatrain XI in his 1st edition:
Here with a Loaf of Bread beneath the Bough,
A Flask of Wine, a Book of Verse—and Thou
Beside me singing in the Wilderness—
And Wilderness is Paradise enow.
"A Book of Verses underneath the Bough,
A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread—and Thou
Beside me singing in the Wilderness—
Oh, Wilderness were Paradise enow!"
The following are several samples of Fitzgerald's translation, concluding with another well-known verse (FitzGerald's quatrain LI in his 1st edition):
Some for the glories of this world; and some
Sigh for The Prophet's Paradise to come;
Ah, take the cash and let the credit go,
Nor heed the rumble of a distant drum
And much as Wine has played the Infidel
And robbed me of my robe of honour, well ...
I often wonder what the vintners buy
One half so precious as the stuff they sell
For some we loved, the loveliest and best
That from His rolling vintage Time has pressed,
Have drunk their glass a round or two before,
And one by one crept silently to rest
But helpless pieces in the game He plays
Upon this chequer-board of Nights and Days
He hither and thither moves, and checks ... and slays
Then one by one, back in the Closet lays
"The Moving Finger writes: and, having writ,
Moves on: nor all thy Piety nor Wit
Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line,
Nor all thy Tears wash out a Word of it."
Graf von Schack
Adolf Friedrich von Schack (1815–1894) published a German translation in 1878.
Quatrain 151 (equivalent of FitzGerald's quatrain XI in his 1st edition, as above):
Gönnt mir, mit dem Liebchen im Gartenrund
Zu weilen bei süßem Rebengetränke,
Und nennt mich schlimmer als einen Hund,
Wenn ferner an's Paradies ich denke!
Friedrich Martin von Bodenstedt
Friedrich Martinus von Bodenstedt (1819–1892) published a German translation in 1881. The translation eventually consisted of 395 quatrains.
Quatrain IX, 59 (equivalent of FitzGerald's quatrain XI in his 1st edition, as above):
Im Frühling mag ich gern im Grüne weilen
Und Einsamkeit mit einer Freundin teilen
Und einem Kruge Wein. Mag man mich schelten:
Ich lasse keinen andern Himmel gelten.
Edward Henry Whinfield
Two English editions by Edward Henry Whinfield (1836–1922) consisted of 253 quatrains in 1882 and 500 in 1883.
Quatrain 84 (equivalent of FitzGerald's quatrain XI in his 1st edition, as above):
J. B. Nicolas
The first French translation, of 464 quatrains in prose, was made by J. B. Nicolas, chief interpreter at the French Embassy in Persia in 1867.
Prose stanza (equivalent of Fitzgerald's quatrain XI in his 1st edition, as above):
- Au printemps j’aime à m’asseoir au bord d’une prairie, avec une idole semblable à une houri et une cruche de vin, s’il y en a, et bien que tout cela soit généralement blâmé, je veux être pire qu’un chien si jamais je songe au paradis.
John Leslie Garner
An English translation of 152 quatrains, published in 1888.
Quatrain I. 20 (equivalent of FitzGerald's quatrain XI in his 1st edition, as above):
Yes, Loved One, when the Laughing Spring is blowing,
With Thee beside me and the Cup o’erflowing,
I pass the day upon this Waving Meadow,
And dream the while, no thought on Heaven bestowing.
Justin Huntly McCarthy
Quatrain 177 (equivalent of FitzGerald's quatrain XI in his 1st edition, as above):
In Spring time I love to sit in the meadow with a paramour
perfect as a Houri and goodly jar of wine, and though
I may be blamed for this, yet hold me lower
than a dog if ever I dream of Paradise.
Richard Le Gallienne
Richard Le Gallienne (1866–1947) produced a verse translation, subtitled "a paraphrase from several literal translations", in 1897. In his introductory note to the reader, Le Gallienne cites McCarthy's "charming prose" as the chief influence on his version. Some example quatrains follow:
Look not above, there is no answer there;
Pray not, for no one listens to your prayer;
Near is as near to God as any Far,
And Here is just the same deceit as There.
(#78, on p. 44)
And do you think that unto such as you;
A maggot-minded, starved, fanatic crew:
God gave the secret, and denied it me?—
Well, well, what matters it! Believe that, too.
(#85, p. 47)
"Did God set grapes a-growing, do you think,
And at the same time make it sin to drink?
Give thanks to Him who foreordained it thus—
Surely He loves to hear the glasses clink!"
(#91, p. 48)
Edward Heron-Allen (1861–1943) published a prose translation in 1898. He also wrote an introduction to an edition of Frederick Rolfe (Baron Corvo) 's translation into English of Nicolas's French translation.
Example quatrain (equivalent of FitzGerald's quatrain XI in his 1st edition, as above):
I desire a little ruby wine and a book of verses,
Just enough to keep me alive, and half a loaf is needful;
And then, that I and thou should sit in a desolate place
Is better than the kingdom of a sultan.
The English novelist and orientalist Jessie Cadell (1844–1884) consulted various manuscripts of the Rubaiyat with the intention of producing an authoritative edition. Her translation of 150 quatrains was published posthumously in 1899.
The best-known version in French is the free verse edition by Franz Toussaint (1879–1955) published in 1924. This translation consisting of 170 quatrains was done from the original Persian text, while most of the other French translations were themselves translations of FitzGerald's work. The Éditions d'art Henri Piazza published the book almost unchanged between 1924 and 1979. Toussaint's translation has served as the basis of subsequent translations into other languages, but Toussaint did not live to witness the influence his translation has had.
Quatrain XXV (equivalent of FitzGerald's quatrain XI in his 1st edition, as above):
Au printemps, je vais quelquefois m’asseoir à la lisière d’un champ fleuri. Lorsqu’une belle jeune fille m’apporte une coupe de vin, je ne pense guère à mon salut. Si j’avais cette préoccupation, je vaudrais moins qu’un chien.
A. J. Arberry
In 1959, Professor A. J. Arberry, a distinguished scholar of Persian and Arabic, attempted to produce a scholarly edition of Khayyam, based on thirteenth-century manuscripts. However, his manuscripts were subsequently exposed as twentieth-century forgeries.
Robert Graves and Omar Ali-Shah
While Arberry's work had been misguided, it was published in good faith. The 1967 translation of the Rubáiyat by Robert Graves and Omar Ali-Shah, however, created a scandal. The authors claimed it was based on a twelfth-century manuscript located in Afghanistan, where it was allegedly utilized as a Sufi teaching document. But the manuscript was never produced, and British experts in Persian literature were easily able to prove that the translation was in fact based on Edward Heron Allen's analysis of possible sources for FitzGerald's work.
Quatrains 11 and 12 (equivalent of FitzGerald's quatrain XI in his 1st edition, as above):
Should our day's portion be one mancel loaf,
A haunch of mutton and a gourd of wine
Set for us two alone on the wide plain,
No Sultan's bounty could evoke such joy.
A gourd of red wine and a sheaf of poems —
A bare subsistence, half a loaf, not more —
Supplied us two alone in the free desert:
What Sultan could we envy on his throne?
John Charles Edward Bowen
John Charles Edward Bowen (1909-1989) was a British poet and translator of Persian poetry. He is best known for his translation of the Rubaiyat, titled A New Selection from the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. Bowen is also credited as being one of the first scholars to question Robert Graves' and Omar Ali-Shah's translation of the Rubaiyat.
Peter Avery and John Heath-Stubbs
A modern version of 235 quatrains, claiming to be "as literal an English version of the Persian originals as readability and intelligibility permit", published in 1979 by Peter Avery and John Heath-Stubbs. Their edition provides two versions of the thematic quatrain, the first (98) considered by the Persian writer Sadeq Hedayat to be a spurious attribution.
I need a jug of wine and a book of poetry,
Half a loaf for a bite to eat,
Then you and I, seated in a deserted spot,
Will have more wealth than a Sultan's realm.
If chance supplied a loaf of white bread,
Two casks of wine and a leg of mutton,
In the corner of a garden with a tulip-cheeked girl,
There'd be enjoyment no Sultan could outdo.
In 1988, the Rubaiyat was translated by a Persian for the first time. Karim Emami's translation of the Rubaiyat was published under the title The Wine of Nishapour in Paris. The Wine of Nishapour is the collection of Khayyam's poetry by Shahrokh Golestan, including Golestan's pictures in front of each poem. Emami was an outstanding translator of English in Iran, who had also translated many contemporary Persian poems.
Example from Emami's work:
It's early dawn, my love, open your eyes and arise
Gently imbibing and playing the lyre;
For those who are here will not tarry long,
And those who are gone will not return.
Example quatrain 160 (equivalent of FitzGerald's quatrain XI in his first edition, as above):
In spring if a houri-like sweetheart
Gives me a cup of wine on the edge of a green cornfield,
Though to the vulgar this would be blasphemy,
If I mentioned any other Paradise, I'd be worse than a dog.
In 1991 Ahmad Saidi (1904–1994) produced an English translation of 165 quatrains grouped into 10 themes. Born and raised in Iran, Saidi went to the United States in 1931 and attended college there. He served as the head of the Persian Publication Desk at the U.S. Office of War Information during World War II, inaugurated the Voice of America to Iran, and prepared an English-Persian military dictionary for the Department of Defense. His quatrains include the original Persian verses for reference alongside his English translations. His focus was to faithfully convey, with less poetic license, Khayyam's original religious, mystical, and historic Persian themes, through the verses as well as his extensive annotations. Two example quatrains follow:
Quatrain 16 (equivalent of FitzGerald's quatrain XII in his 5th edition, as above):
Ah, would there were a loaf of bread as fare,
A joint of lamb, a jug of vintage rare,
And you and I in wilderness encamped—
No Sultan's pleasure could with ours compare.
The sphere upon which mortals come and go,
Has no end nor beginning that we know;
And none there is to tell us in plain truth:
Whence do we come and whither do we go.
- In 2015 it was translated into Romanian for the first time by orientalist philologist Gheorghe Iorga.
- Many Russian-language translations have been undertaken, reflecting the popularity of the Rubaiyat in Russia since the late 19th century and the increasingly popular tradition of using it for the purposes of bibliomancy. The earliest verse translation (by Vasily Velichko) was published in 1891. The version by Osip Rumer published in 1914 is a translation of FitzGerald's version. Rumer later published a version of 304 rubaiyat translated directly from Persian. A lot of poetic translations (some based on verbatim translations into prose by others) were also written by German Plisetsky, Konstantin Bal'mont, Ts. Banu, I. Tkhorzhevsky, L. Pen'kovsky, and others.
- In Polish, several collections of Rubaiyat have appeared, including one by Professor Andrzej Gawroński, which is regarded as the best.
- 172 Rubaiyat were translated into Belarusian by Ryhor Baradulin in 1989.
- Poet Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven (1873–1932, author of Die Stem van Suid-Afrika) produced the first translation in Afrikaans. Herman Charles Bosman wrote a translation in Afrikaans published in 1948.
- Eric Hermelin translated the Rubaiyat into Swedish in 1928.
- G. Sankara Kurup produced a translation into Malayalam (1932)
- Thirunalloor Karunakaran translated the Rubaiyat into Malayalam in 1989.
- Duvvoori Ramireddy translated the Rubaiyat into Telugu in 1935.
- Maithili Sharan Gupt and Harivanshrai Bachchan translated the book into Hindi in 1959.
- Kantichandra Ghosh, Muhammad Shahidullah (in 1942), Kazi Nazrul Islam (in 1958) and Shakti Chattopadhyay (in 1978) produced translations into Bengali
- D. V. Gundappa translated the work into Kannada as a collection of poems titled "Umarana Osage" in 1952
- Gopal Chandra Kanungo illustrated and translated the book into Odia in 1954. Devdas Chhotray adapted Edward Fitzgerald's work in Oriya and recorded it in musical form in 2011.
- Sir John Morris-Jones translated direct from Persian into Welsh in 1928.
- Thomas Ifor Rees produced a Welsh translation, published in Mexico City in 1939.
- Francesco Gabrieli produced an Italian translation (Le Rubaiyyàt di Omar Khayyàm) in 1944. Alessandro Bausani produced another translation in 1965.
- Fraînque Le Maistre produced a Jèrriais version (based on FitzGerald's 1st edition) during the German occupation of the Channel Islands 1940–1945.
- Robert Bin Shaaban produced a version in Swahili (dated 1948, published 1952)
- Kerson Huang based a Chinese version on FitzGerald's version. Other than that there are altogether 48 translations (partial or complete) into Chinese, the complete list can be found at Baidu Baike.
- In 1990, Jowann Richards produced a Cornish translation.
- Scottish poet Rab Wilson published a version in Scots in 2004.
- Fan Noli produced an Albanian translation, the melody and poetics of which are highly regarded.
- At least four versions exist in the Thai language. These translations were made from the work of Edward FitzGerald many years ago. Their respective authors are HRH Prince Narathip Prapanpong, Rainan Aroonrungsee (pen name: Naan Gitirungsi), Pimarn Jamjarus (pen name: Kaen Sungkeet), and Suriyachat Chaimongkol.
- Haljand Udam produced an Estonian translation.
- The poet J. H. Leopold (1865–1925) rendered a number of Rubaiyat in Dutch.
- Ahmed Rami, a famous late Egyptian poet, translated the work into Arabic. His translation was sung by Umm Kulthum.
- The Kurdish poet Hajar translated the Rubaiyat in his Chwar Parchakani Xayam, which is also available as an audiobook in which the narrator sings the verses.
- Armenian poet Kevork Emin has translated several verses of the Rubaiyat.
- The Assyrian journalist and poet Naum Faiq translated the Rubaiyat into the Syriac language.
- The Assyrian author Eshaya Elisha Khinno translated the Rubaiyat into Sureth (Assyrian Neo-Aramaic)
- In Finnish language first translations were made by Toivo Lyy in 1929. More recently Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila (1999 and 2008) and Kiamars Baghban with Leevi Lehto (2009) have translated Khayyam in Finnish.
- The earliest translation in Hungarian consisted of a few stanzas taken from the French version of Nicolas, by Béla Erődi in 1919-20. Lőrinc Szabó finalized his translation of the Fitzgerald version in 1943.
- First Czech translator is Josef Štýbr. At first he translated from English (from Fitzgerald's "translations") (1922), after that from original language (1931). Translation from original can be found on Czech wikisource (770 poems). Next translators are mentioned here.
- The first translator into Slovene was Alojz Gradnik, his translation being published in 1955. It was translated again by slovene translator and poet Bert Pribac in 2007 from the French Toussaint edition.
- The first translation of nine short poems into Serbo-Croatian was published in 1920, and was the work of Safvet beg Bašagić. In 1932, Jelena Skerlić-Ćorović re-published these nine, alongside 75 more poems. In 1964, a noted orientalist Fehim Bajraktarević published his translation of Rubaiyat.
- Hồ Thượng Tuy translated from English into Vietnamese (from FitzGerald's 1st edition) in 1990.
- Nguyễn Viết Thắng produced a Vietnamese translation of 487 rubaiyat, translated from English and Russian in 1995, published in Hanoi in 2003.
- Xabier Correa Corredoira published a Galician translation in 2010.
- Hemendra Kumar Roy translated the Rubaiyat into Bengali.
- Radha Mohan Gadanayak translated the Rubaiyat into Odia
- Upendra Nath Jha 'Vyas' translated the Rubaiyat into Maithili
- Christos Marketis translated 120 rubaiyat into Greek in 1975.
- It was translated into Latvian by Andrejs Kurcijs in 1970.
- Srimadajjada Adibhatla Narayana Das (1864–1945) translated the original Persian quatrains and Edward Fitzgerald's English translations into Sanskrit and pure-Telugu. Pandit Narayana Das claimed his translation was more literal than that of Fitzgerald. See: Ajjada Adibhatla Narayana Dasu
- In Japan, until 1949, more than 10 poets and/or scholars made translations into Japanese. The first complete translation from Persian into the modern Japanese language was made by Ryosaku Ogawa in 1949, which is still popular and has been published from Iwanami Shoten (it is now under public domain and also freely available from Aozora Bunko). Historically, the first attempt is 6 poems translated by Kambara Ariake in 1908. In 1910, Kakise Hikozo translated 110 poems from the 5th edition of FitzGerald's translation. The first translation from Persian into the classical Japanese language was made by a linguist Shigeru Araki in 1920. Among other various translations, Ogawa highly evaluates Ryo Mori (ja:森亮)'s one produced in 1931.
- Naum Faiq, A prominent Assyrian journalist and author translated the quatrains into Syriac. The translation exist in its manuscript form and remains unpublished.
- In Ethiopian all of Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam are under Amharic language on Ethiopian university. you could read itinerary of Houshang Shamee to Africa.
- In Icelandic Magnús Ásgeirsson translated the Rubaiyat in 1935. There was an earlier translation by Einar Benediktsson in 1921.
2009 marked the 150th anniversary of Fitzgerald's translation, and the 200th anniversary of Fitzgerald's birth. Events marking these anniversaries included:
- The Smithsonian's traveling exhibition Elihu Vedder's Drawings for the Rubaiyat at the Phoenix Art Museum, 15 November 2008 – 8 February 2009
- The exhibition Edward Fitzgerald & The Rubaiyat from the collection of Nicholas B. Scheetz at the Grolier Club, 22 January – 13 March 2009.
- The exhibition Omar Khayyám. Een boek in de woestijn. 150 jaar in Engelse vertaling at the Museum Meermanno, The Hague, 31 January – 5 April 2009
- The exhibition The Persian Sensation: The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam in the West at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at The University of Texas at Austin, 3 February – 2 August 2009
- An exhibition at the Cleveland Public Library Special Collections, opening 15 February 2009
- The joint conference, Omar Khayyam, Edward FitzGerald and The Rubaiyat, held at Cambridge University and Leiden University, 6–10 July 2009
- The Folio Society published a limited edition (1,000 copies) of the Rubáiyát to mark the 150th anniversary.
- "Omar Khayam (in Persian)" (PDF). Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- Paramhansa Yogananda (1 May 1996). Wine of the Mystic: The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam : a Spiritual Interpretation. Self-Realization Fellowship Publishers. ISBN 9780876122266.
- Abdullah Dougan Who is the Potter? Gnostic Press 1991 ISBN 047301064X
- "The Handbook of Hymen by O. Henry". Literaturecollection.com. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Old Fashioned American Humor". Old Fashioned American Humor. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "oldfineart.com". oldfineart.com. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Principia Discordia, the book of Chaos, Discord and Confusion". Principiadiscordia.com. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Cooper, Miriam (1973). Dark Lady of the Silents. Bobbs Merrill. p. 104. ISBN 0672517256.
- "See album". Amazon.com. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Selvin, Joel. "Alton Kelley, psychedelic poster creator, dies". San Francisco Chronicle. 3 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-25.
- "The Rubaiyyat of Omar Khayyam". Valley Entertainment-Hearts of Space Records. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- "Rubaiyat stanza". Merriam-Webster, an Encyclopædia Britannica Company. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- "Arabiannights.org". Arabiannights.org. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Omar Khayyam, Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, translated by Justin Huntly McCarthy MP. [London] : D. Nutt, 1889. (Source: Trinity College Dublin Library)
- Raza, Rosemary Cargill (2004). "Cadell, Jessie Ellen (1844–1884)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4300. (subscription required (. ))
- Irwin, Robert. "Omar Khayyam's Bible for drunkards". The Times Literary Supplement. Archived from the original on 18 March 2007. Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- Aminrazavi, Mehdi: The Wine of Wisdom. Oneworld 2005, ISBN 1-85168-355-0, p. 155
- Azarang, Abd-al Hussein. "Emami, Karim". Encyclopædia Iranica. iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Emami, Karim. Ups and Downs of Translation, Tehran, 1988, pp. 134-169
- "Logo". Meltha.dk. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Rubaiyat of Omar Khayam: A Translation Into Assyrian Language Plus Other ... - Omar Khayyam, Eshaya Elisha Khinno - Google Books. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Rubaije Omera Hajjama (Serbian)
- "Web of the Galician Culture Council". Culturagalega.org. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam". Odia Book Bazar. 2015. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
- Omar Khayyam. Rubaiyat. Translated by Ryosaku Ogawa (小川亮作 Ogawa Ryosaku). Iwanami Shoten, 1949 (revised ed. in 1979), pp. 167–73. ISBN 978-4003278314.
- "図書カード：ルバイヤート". Aozora.gr.jp. 21 July 2006. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Edward FitzGerald. "Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám | Folio Illustrated Book". Foliosociety.com. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
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- The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám public domain audiobook at LibriVox
- The illustrated Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám, translated by Edward Fitzgerald, at Internet Archive.
- The Persian Poet, contains the translations by Edward FitzGerald and a biography.
- Graves and Ali-Shah.
- Project Gutenberg: etext#246 (translation by Edward FitzGerald) and etext#5408 (a parody by Wallace Irvin)
- Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam a collection of rubaiyat in Persian, accompanied by several translations into English and German.
- The entire book in DNL E-Book format.
- Fitzgerald's translation as an app for Android mobile phones.
- The complete four edition translations by Edward FitzGerald, with illustrations by Blanche McManus at Kellscraft.com.
- A comparison between the translations by Heron-Allen and Talbot.
- Syracuse University's Special Collections Research Center has in its Rare Books holdings more than 300 different editions of the Rubaiyat
- The Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin holds over 1,500 items related to the Rubaiyat, including two copies of the first edition, hundreds of editions, translations, and parodies, several Persian manuscripts containing rubaiyat, and ephemera, manuscripts and correspondence documenting the phenomenon of "Omariana"
- Who is the Potter? - a commentary on the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam by Abdullah Dougan - a modern Sufi's understanding.
- at Baidu Baike can find a list of 48 Chinese translations.
- Welcome to the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam A growing collection of famous and obscure translations of the Rubaiyat.
- Toussaint's Translation (French)