Roman Republican governors of Gaul
Roman Republican governors of Gaul were assigned to the province of Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy) or to Transalpine Gaul, the Mediterranean region of present-day France also called the Narbonensis, though the latter term is sometimes reserved for a more strictly defined area administered from Narbonne (ancient Narbo). Latin Gallia can also refer in this period to greater Gaul independent of Roman control, covering the remainder of France, Belgium, and parts of the Netherlands and Switzerland, often distinguished as Gallia Comata and including regions also known as Celtica (Κελτική in Strabo and other Greek sources), Aquitania, Belgica, and Armorica (Britanny). To the Romans, Gallia was a vast and vague geographical entity distinguished by predominately Celtic inhabitants, with "Celticity" a matter of culture as much as speaking gallice ("in Celtic").
The Latin word provincia (plural provinciae) originally referred to a task assigned to an official or to a sphere of responsibility within which he was authorized to act, including a military command attached to a specified theater of operations. The assignment of a provincia defined geographically thus did not always imply annexation of the territory under Roman rule. Provincial administration as such originated in efforts to stabilize an area in the aftermath of war, and only later was the provincia a formal, preexisting administrative division regularly assigned to promagistrates. The provincia of Gaul therefore began as a military command, at first defensive and later expansionist. Independent Gaul was invaded by Julius Caesar in the 50s BC and organized under Roman administration by Augustus; see Roman Gaul for Gallic provinces in the Imperial era.
Early Republican wars with the Gauls
The early history of Romano-Celtic relations begins during a period of Gallic expansionism on the Italian peninsula, with the capture of Rome by Gauls in 390 BC (or more likely 387) and the suspiciously fortuitous rescue of the city by Camillus after the Romans had already surrendered. The Gauls who fought at the Battle of the Allia and captured Rome are most often identified as Senones. Over the next hundred years, the Gauls appear in classical sources as allies of the Etruscans and Samnites, but sometimes as invaders. Battles occur on Roman territory and on that held by Etruscans; by Italic peoples who later become Roman allies (socii) willingly or under compulsion; and by the Gauls themselves. The defeat of the Senonian stronghold Sena (or Senigallia) in 283 leads to nearly fifty years of mostly peaceful relations between Romans and Celts.
The accounts of these early military conflicts, written by Greek and Roman historians, are complicated by overlays of legend and moralizing. Although stereotypes of impetuous barbarians prevail, among the various historians the Gauls are sometimes portrayed as acting with honor, bravery, or respect, even in the face of Roman treachery. A priest named Fabius Dorsuo is said to have been allowed by the Gauls to carry out religious rituals during the siege of Rome; three Fabii occasioned outrage on both sides when they abused their responsibilities as ambassadors to the Gauls, and were even accused of having brought about the attack through their actions. Romans cast themselves as underdogs in hand-to-hand combat with physically superior Celts, to such an extent that guile or divine aid is seen as the most likely explanation when a Roman manages to win: T. Manlius earns the nickname (cognomen) Torquatus by outsmarting a Gaul in single combat and stripping him of his torque; M. Valerius Corvus got his cognomen when a divinely-sent raven (corvus) distracted his opponent. Regardless of factuality, these stories contributed to the fashioning of a distinctly Roman identity in relation to a Gallic "Other."
As the only foreign enemy to have taken the city, the Gauls represented a "Celtic threat" that loomed large in the Roman imagination for more than 300 years. Cicero could still malign Catiline in 63 BC with an accusation of plotting the overthrow of the government with the aid of Celtic armed forces. The fear and dread of inferiority engendered by the Gallic sack of Rome became enshrined in Roman foreign policy and myth as a virtually infinite quest to secure an ever-larger periphery; in his war against the Gauls and invasion of Celtic Britain, Caesar as proconsul could present himself as pursuing the old grudge to what Romans saw as literally the end of the world.
Dictatores and Celtic Italy
The following table shows Early Republican military commanders against the Gauls on the Italian peninsula. These men were granted imperium as consuls and praetors, the highest elected offices in Roman government, and also as dictatores. The dictatorship most likely originated as a military office; both Cicero and Livy thought that its purpose was to ensure strategic oversight and unified command in wartime — the dictator is he who gives the word (dictum). The Roman custom that a commander had to lay down arms outside the city limits (pomerium) before entering also suggests how the powers of the dictator originally might have been restricted within the civil realm; he could not, for instance, override the people's tribunes. The dictator was nominated by a consul, not elected, and he was expected to step aside when the job was done, with a limit of six months considered standard. In contrast to the annual magistracies set by the religio-astronomical calendar, this six-month term coincides with the usual length of the military campaigning season, given its seasonality in antiquity. In 332 (see table), for instance, a dictator was nominated specifically in anticipation of a Gallic war, which in the event never materialized. In 360, a dictator had been named to quell the Celtic crisis (Gallicus tumultus); one of the consuls that year had the specific task (provincia) of dealing with the Gallic alliance based in Tibur (modern-day Tivoli). Both commanders succeeded in their missions, but only the constitutionally elected consul was granted the honor of a triumph. The dictatores continued most often to have a military role into the Middle Republic, but when Sulla revived the office in the late 80s, it had fallen into disuse for more than a century, in part because a system had developed for assigning provincial commands with administrative oversight as a result of permanent annexations of territories.
Table of commanders in Italo-Gallic wars
|390 (or 387)||M. Furius Camillus||dictator||contradictory versions exist for the sack of Rome by the Gauls; in one tradition Camillus snatches a victory from the jaws of defeat and celebrates a triumph; in another, the triumph is blocked by tribunes of the plebs|
|367||M. Furius Camillus||dictator||again awarded a triumph for defeating a Gallic force that had penetrated to the Anio in Latium|
|361||T. Quinctius Poenus Capitolinus Crispinus||dictator||celebrates a triumph over the Gauls for a battle near the Anio, also famously the occasion for T. Manlius to earn the cognomen Torquatus in single combat|
|360||Q. Servilius Ahala||dictator||defeated Gallic forces near the Colline Gate|
|360||Q. Poetelius Libo (Visolus or Balbus)||consul||followed up Ahala's victory at Tivoli (ancient Tibur), which had allied with the Gauls; earned a triumph|
|359||C. Sulpicius Peticus||dictator||triumphed with a major victory over Gauls who had reached Praeneste and Pedum|
|349||M. Furius Camillus||consul||victorious against the Gauls in Latium; on this occasion also M. Valerius Corvus received his cognomen by defeating a Gaul in single combat with the aid of a raven|
|332||M. Papirius Crassus||dictator||"appointed in fear of a Gallic war which proved unfounded"|
|295||Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus||consul||co-commander (see following) at Sentinum against a force of Samnites, Gauls, and Etruscans; victorious after his colleague's death|
|295||P. Decius Mus||consul||joined his consular colleague (see preceding) at Sentinum; underwent the rite of devotio and sacrificed his body in battle|
|283||P. Cornelius Dolabella||consul||fought the Senones and ravaged their territory; wiped out a combined army of Gauls and Etruscans at the Battle of Lake Vadimo|
|283||Cn. Domitius Calvinus Maximus||consul||defeated the Senones in Etruria while Dolabella (see preceding) destroyed their homeland; perhaps celebrated a triumph|
|283||L. Caecilius Metellus Denter||praetor||defeated at the Battle of Arretium and killed by the Senones|
|283||M'. Curius Dentatus||praetor suffectus||succeeded Caecilius (preceding) and drove out the Gauls; a Roman colony was then planted at the Senonian town Sena in the occupied territory (ager Gallicus)|
|282||Q. Aemilius Papus||consul||defeated allied forces of Etruscans and Boii at the Battle of Lake Vadimo|
Annexing Cisalpine Gaul
The Roman takeover of Cisalpine Gaul, or "Gaul on this side of the Alps," was a gradual process of long duration. "It was in Liguria, in the Celtic lands of the Po Valley, and in Venetia and Histria," notes Fergus Millar in his classic essay "The Political Character of the Classical Roman Republic, 200–151 B.C.," "that the Romans of this period exhibited a consistent and unremitting combination of imperialism, militarism, expansionism, and colonialism." Although sources for much of the period are sketchy, with the exception of Polybius, it becomes nearly impossible to argue that Rome acted only defensively: "Rome's wars in the north of the Italian peninsula" — not only against the Gauls, but the Etruscans and the Italic peoples — "were largely of her own devising." Provincial assignments and military actions involving Liguria, Venetia, and Istria (Histria) are included in the table below when related directly to Gaul.
The Ager Gallicus
The defeat of the Senones and Boii in the late 280s had brought the occupation of the Ager Gallicus along the Adriatic and the establishment of the first Roman colony in previously Gallic territory. The ager Gallicus, formerly in the possession of the Senones, was the land between Ariminum and Picenum, and was the first territory acquired by Rome in Cispadane Gaul.
Since that time, good relations between Rome and its Gallic neighbors had extended into a fifth decade. Polybius says that the lex Flaminia agraria of 232, which provided for the distribution of land in the Ager Gallicus to Roman citizens, threatened the existing peace with Gauls such as the Boii who bordered the ager. Ostensibly, this land had been ager publicus, that is, owned by the public; in practice, it was exploited for the benefit of the senatorial elite, who objected vehemently to the redistribution program.
The first Roman colonies in northern Italy were established in 218, but not until the end of the 2nd century could the Romans claim firm control of the region all the way to the Alps. After a series of decisive victories against Gauls and Ligurians in 200, provinciae pertaining to the Gauls take on an increasingly diplomatic and administrative character.
The province of Cisalpina at first was one of the military commands that might be assigned to the two consuls and six praetors before the territory had been annexed. A military command (imperium) was sometimes extended past a magistrate's one-year term of elected office for a year or two (see prorogatio); this prorogation allowed Rome to maintain continuity in ongoing military operations under experienced officers while still controlling and limiting the number of individuals authorized to hold command.
After major military operations had ceased, the commander's abilities as an administrator were put to the test. In the absence of an ideal leader who was both a bold and experienced general and a masterful diplomat and meticulous administrator, provincial governorships were liable to exploitive practices of self-enrichment that damaged the legitimacy of Roman rule. Governed peoples had recourse through Roman courts for unjust acts committed against them by their governors, but because the case had to be presented by a Roman citizen, usually a patronus with a family history of relations to the offended parties, these prosecutions were almost always politicized. As the number of citizens in a province increased, so too their connections to powerful families in Rome and the network of mutual obligations from which they could expect to benefit.
By the late Republic, Cisalpina of all the Roman provinces had the greatest number of citizens in its population; although the difficulties of travel might stand in the way of participating in Roman elections, northern Italy offered significant blocs of voters for Romans who cultivated their clients well. Popularist politicians in particular were associated with the cause of extending citizenship to the disenfranchised, and were accused by the conservative oligarchs of doing so merely to build loyalty and acquire votes. Toward the end of the Social War in 89, all free men in Cisalpine Gaul south of the Po River (Latin Padus) — that is, Cispadane Gaul, "Gaul on this side of the Po" — had become entitled to Roman citizenship.
Many Transpadanes, or residents of Cisalpina north of the Po, were Romans or held Latin rights, but the issue of blanket citizenship was not fully resolved until 49, with the passage of a law by Caesar. After 42 BC, Cisalpina was so thoroughly incorporated into the Roman system of government that it was no longer assigned as a province; the region was administered directly from Rome and by the same forms of municipal government as the rest of the Italian peninsula.
In Latin sources before ca. 100 BC, Gallia is a flexible word that refers often to Cisalpine Gaul alone, but sometimes to Gaul as an indefinite totality and sometimes in a very limited sense to only Cispadane Gaul. The following table lists consuls, praetors and promagistrates — no dictatores are recorded against the Gauls — assigned to Gallia until 125 BC, when the administration of Cisalpina should be considered in light of actions in Transalpine Gaul. After 197 BC, commanders of praetorian rank are no longer assigned to Liguria or against the Gauls; military operations in northern Italy are usually conducted by both consuls during this period, or one consul if another war was being waged abroad.
Table of Gallic provinciae through 126 BC
|238||Ti. Sempronius Gracchus||consul||campaigned in Liguria|
|238||P. Valerius Falto||consul||fought the Boii and other Gallic forces|
|236||P. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus||consul||fought the Boii and other Gauls, some of whom may have been allies from Transalpina; later fought the Ligurians and celebrated a triumph|
|236||C. Licinius Varus||consul||fought against the Boii and other Gallic forces|
|233||Q. Fabius Maximus Verrucosus ("Cunctator")||consul||triumphed over the Ligurians and built a temple to Honos|
|230||M. Aemilius Barbula||consul||campaigned in Liguria with his consular colleague (following)|
|230||M. Junius Pera||consul||campaigned in Liguria with Aemilius Barbula|
|225||unknown||praetor||defeated by an army of Gauls in Etruria (see following)|
|225||L. Aemilius Papus||consul||first sent against Gauls at Ariminum, but after the defeat of the praetor's army (preceding) went to Etruria, where he and Atilius Regulus (following) joined against the allied Gallic forces at the Battle of Telamon and defeated them; celebrated a triumph De Galleis; ravaged the country of the Boii and Ligurians|
|225||C. Atilius Regulus||consul||joined Aemilius after campaigning in Sardinia; died at the Battle of Telamon.|
|224||T. Manlius Torquatus||consul||with his consular colleague Fulvius Flaccus obtained the surrender of the Boii and became the first Roman commanders to cross the Po, where they fought the Insubres|
|224||Q. Fulvius Flaccus||consul||acted jointly with Manlius Torquatus (see preceding)|
|223||C. Flaminius||consul||with his consular colleague (following) won major victory over the Insubres, with a triumph De Galleis celebrated by vote of the people when the senate refused his on religio-political grounds.|
|223||P. Furius Philus||consul||celebrated a triumph De Galleis et Liguribus|
|222||M. Claudius Marcellus||consul||with his consular colleague Scipio (following) fought the Insubres and Gaesates at Acerrae; followed a Gallic force across the Po and besieged Clastidium, where he won the spolia opima; rejoined Scipio in the capture of Mediolanum, thereby ending the war; celebrated a triumph over the Insubres and Germans, and vowed a temple (aedes) to Virtus|
|222||Cn. Cornelius Scipio Calvus||consul||with Marcellus, fought at Acerrae and Mediolanum|
|218||L. Manlius Vulso||praetor peregrinus||sent as military commander to Cisalpina and besieged by the Celtic Boii|
|218||M. Atilius Serranus||praetor urbanus||sent to Cisalpina to aid Manlius against the Boii|
|217||C. Flaminius||consul||a "dubious tradition" has Flaminius entering his consulship in Gaul; dies in the Battle of Lake Trasimene|
|217||C. Centenius||propraetor||sent to the aid of Flaminius but destroyed by Hannibal|
|215–214||M. Pomponius Matho||propraetor||in the ager Gallicus (Gallic territory)|
|213–211||P. Sempronius Tuditanus||praetor||captured the town of Atrinium; imperium prorogued in Gaul|
|210–211||C. Laetorius||praetor peregrinus||sent to Ariminum; propraetor in Gaul|
|209–208||L. Veturius Philo||praetor peregrinus||imperium in Cisalpina, then as propraetor in Gaul|
|207||M. Livius Salinator||consul||sent to Gaul against Hasdrubal, whom he defeated at the Battle of the Metaurus|
|207||C. Claudius Nero||consul||joined Livius at Sena|
|207||L. Porcius Licinus||praetor||sent with Livius Salinator|
|206||Q. Mamilius Turrinus||praetor peregrinus||later sent to Gaul to protect colonies at Cremona and Placentia|
|205–202||Sp. Lucretius||praetor||imperium prorogued in Gaul (Ariminum); reported Mago's landing in Liguria and fought against him with Livius Salinator; his mission in 203–202 was to rebuild Genoa|
|204||L. Scribonius Libo||praetor peregrinus||imperium in Gaul|
|204–203||M. Cornelius Cethegus||proconsul||imperium prorogued in Gaul; joined with Quinctilius (following) against Mago|
|203||P. Quinctilius Varus||praetor||fought Mago near Ariminum in Gaul|
|202||M. Sextius Sabinus||praetor||assigned to Gaul|
|200||L. Furius Purpurio||praetor||defeated a "serious" uprising of Gauls and Ligurians; celebrated a triumph over the Gauls|
|199||Cn. Baebius Tamphilus||praetor||assigned to Gaul; defeated by the Insubres at Ariminum and ordered back to Rome|
|199–198||L. Cornelius Lentulus||consul||assigned Italy as his province, but went to Gaul after the defeat of Baebius; command prorogued until he was relieved by the consular army of 197|
|198||C. Helvius||praetor||assigned to Gaul|
|197||C. Cornelius Cethegus||consul||both consuls were assigned Italy as their province; Cethegus fought against Gauls, celebrating a triumph over the Insubres and Cenomani|
|197||Q. Minucius Rufus||consul||fought against Gauls and Ligurians; denied a triumph by the senate for victories over the Boii and Ligurians, but celebrated a private one on the Alban Mount|
|196||L. Furius Purpurio||consul||both consuls assigned provinces in Italy; Furius fought against Gauls and Ligurians|
|196||M. Claudius Marcellus||consul||see preceding: fought the Boii and celebrated a triumph|
|195–194||L. Valerius Flaccus||consul||assigned Italy as province; warred against the Gauls; as proconsul won a victory over the Insubres at Mediolanum|
|195||P. Porcius Laeca||praetor||command created to launch an attack from the rear on the Ligurians|
|194||Ti. Sempronius Longus||consul||both consuls sent against the Boii and the Ligurians, with Sempronius taking the lead|
|194||P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus||consul||see preceding: Scipio returned to Rome to hold elections|
|193||L. Cornelius Merula||consul||assigned the province of Gaul; made war on the Boii but was refused a triumph|
|193–191||Q. Minucius Thermus||consul||based in Pisa; warred against the Ligurians with little success the first year; in 192 won a victory; remained proconsul in 191|
|192||L. Quinctius Flaminius||consul||assigned Italy, Gaul, and holding the elections; warred against the Ligurians|
|192–191||Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus||consul||assigned provincia outside Italy in case of war with Antiochus, but Italy and the Gauls if not; fought against the Boii|
|191–190||P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica||consul||succeeded Domitius and defeated Boii; after dispute was allowed to triumph; as proconsul removed Boii from the territory taken from them|
|190–189||C. Laelius||consul||assigned Italy and held command in Gaul|
|189||L. Baebius Dives||praetor||assigned Hispania Ulterior, he was ambushed and wounded by Ligurians on his way; fled through Transalpina to Massilia but died there|
|188||M. Valerius Messalla||consul||assigned to Pisa and Liguria|
|188||C. Livius Salinator||consul||assigned to Gaul and founded Forum Livii|
|187||M. Furius Crassipes||praetor||illegally disarmed the Cenomani and consequently forced by Lepidus (following) to leave his province|
|187||M. Aemilius Lepidus||consul||restored arms to the Cenomani (see preceding) and built the Via Aemilia; both consuls were assigned to Liguria "which they actively ravaged"|
|187||C. Flaminius||consul||ravaged Liguria with Lepidus (preceding) and brought the Friniates and Apuani to subjection; built road from Bononia to Arretium|
|186||Sp. Postumius Albinus||consul||both consuls assigned Liguria but occupied with the investigation of the Bacchanalia coniurationes the whole year|
|186||Q. Marcius Philippus||consul||raided the territory of the Apuani and suffered heavy losses|
|185||Ap. Claudius Pulcher||consul||achieved a victory over the Ingauni of Liguria|
|185||M. Sempronius Tuditanus||consul||ravaged the territory of the Apuani in Liguria|
|184||P. Claudius Pulcher||consul||both consuls assigned Ligurian provincia|
|184–183||L. Porcius Licinus||consul||see preceding: as proconsul ordered by Marcellus (see following) to bring his legion to the new Gallic town in Venetia|
|183–181||M. Claudius Marcellus||consul||both consuls assigned to Liguria, but Marcellus went to Aquileia (Venetia) to oppose the settlement of Transalpine Gauls there; wanted to start an Istrian war; command prorogued with additions to his army; consulted senate when the Ligurians wanted to surrender to him instead of the consuls of 182 (see following); in 181, was supposed to yield to a successor but went to the aid of Paullus (below) in Liguria|
|183–182||Q. Fabius Labeo||consul||see preceding: command prorogued|
|183||L. Julius Caesar||praetor||given the task of preventing Transalpine Gauls from settling at Aquileia without resorting to war; further diplomatic efforts recorded by Livy, who says C. Valerius Flaccus as praetor peregrinus introduced Gallic envoys to the senate.|
|182–181||Cn. Baebius Tamphilus||consul||fought successfully in Liguria; returned to hold elections; went back to Liguria as proconsul (see also 199 above) but sent his troops to the praetor in Sardinia|
|182–181||L. Aemilius Paullus||consul||Liguria; continued as proconsul; was besieged but won a "signal victory"; the submission of the Inguani earned him a triumph|
|181–180||P. Cornelius Cethegus||consul||assigned to Liguria; with Baebius (following) forcibly resettled the Apuani and celebrated a triumph|
|181–180||M. Baebius Tamphilus||consul||assigned with Cornelius Cethegus to Liguria; returned to Rome to hold elections; imperium prorogued in Liguria; resettled the Apuani in Samnium and celebrated a triumph|
|181||Q. Petilius Spurinus||praetor urbanus||ordered to levy emergency troops against the Ligurians, and then to dismiss them|
|181||Q. Fabius Maximus||praetor peregrinus||assigned same task as Spurinus (see preceding); delivered the senate's response when Ligurians envoys asked for peace|
|181–180||Q. Fabius Buteo||praetor||assigned to Gallia Cisalpina; campaigned in Istria near Aquileia, prorogued as propraetor|
|180||A. Postumius Albinus Luscus||consul||assigned with his colleague (see following) to Liguria|
|180||C. Calpurnius Piso||consul||assigned to Liguria, but died from plague early in his term, with resulting repercussions for the Ligurian Apuani|
|180||Q. Fulvius Flaccus||suffect consul||assigned Ligurian province in place of Piso; deported 7,000 more Apuani to Samnium|
|179||Q. Fulvius Flaccus||consul||both consuls assigned to Liguria; Fulvius deported a number of Ligurians from the mountains to central Italy, and blocked the settlement of immigrants from Transalpine Gaul in Italy; celebrated a triumph|
|179||L. Manlius Acidinus Fulvianus||consul||brother by birth of Fulvius Flaccus, also assigned to Liguria (see preceding)|
|178–177||A. Manlius Vulso||consul||assigned the province of Gaul, which he used as a platform to launch an invasion of Istria; ousted from his camp by the Istri, then recovered it and defeated them; command prorogued and received submission of most of Istri|
|178–177||M. Junius Brutus||consul||assigned to Liguria, but after the defeat of the Istri joined his colleague at Aquileia; shared in accepting the submission of the Istri, but after a quarrel they were relieved of command by the consul Claudius (see 177 below)|
|178–177||Ti. Claudius Nero||praetor peregrinus||sent from Rome to assemble an army and succeed Brutus (preceding) at Pisa in Liguria; continued the following year as proconsul with one legion|
|177–176||C. Claudius Pulcher||consul||sent to Istria; after a dispute with his proconsular predecessors, he ended the Istrian War and forced king Aepulo to submit; put down a rebellion in Liguria and celebrated a triumph over Istri and Ligurians; after holding elections, went to Gaul to drive Ligurian raiders from Mutina; imperium as proconsul prorogued, succeeded in recapturing Mutina and turned toward suppressing Liguria|
|177||Cn. Cornelius Scipio (?)||praetor||assigned to Gaul; the identity of this praetor is uncertain|
|176||Q. Petillius Spurinus||consul||assigned to Liguria; died in battle there|
|176||C. Valerius Laevinus||suffect consul||made war in Liguria|
|175||P. Mucius Scaevola||consul||with consular colleague campaigned in Liguria and celebrated triumph|
|175||M. Aemilius Lepidus||consul||see preceding|
|173||L. Postumius Albinus||consul||assigned to Liguria, but sent to Campania to recover public land from private use|
|173–172||M. Popillius Laenas||consul||also assigned to Liguria, where he sold the Statelliates into slavery; he ignored attempts by the senate to reverse his action; continued as proconsul warring against Statelliates and refused to return until forced by two tribunes of the plebs; censured by the senate and prosecuted by the tribunes but escaped condemnation through the "connivance" of the presiding praetor|
|172||C. Popillius Laenas||consul||assigned to Liguria, where he upheld the injustices committed by his brother Marcus (see preceding), despite decrees by the senate and criticism|
|171||C. Cassius Longinus||consul||assigned to Italy but was active in Gaul; restrained by decree of the senate when he attempted to attack Macedonia through Illyria; served as a military tribune in 171 under the consul A. Hostilius Mancinus in Macedonia and Greece to avoid facing formal complaints from Gauls and others about his consular misdeeds|
|170||A. Atilius Serranus||consul||a quiet year in Liguria and Gaul|
|169–168||Cn. Servilius Caepio||consul||assigned Italy as his province and served in Gaul through the following year|
|168–167||C. Licinius Crassus||consul||assigned Italy as province and after Pydna went to Gaul, probably to relieve Servilius Caepio; imperium prorogued until sent as legate to Macedonia, at which time he was succeeded in Gaul by Aelius (following)|
|167||Q. Aelius Paetus||consul||held command in Gaul|
|167||M. Iunius Pennus||consul||held command in Liguria|
|166||M. Claudius Marcellus||consul||served against the Alpine Gauls and celebrated a triumph|
|166||C. Sulpicius Galus||consul||served against the Ligurians and celebrated a triumph|
|162||C. Marcius Figulus||consul||assigned to Gaul as his province|
|159–158||M. Fulvius Nobilior||consul||held command in Liguria, and as proconsul celebrated a triumph over the Eleate Ligurians|
|155||M. Claudius Marcellus||consul||(see 166 above); put down an uprising among the Apuan Ligurians and celebrated a triumph|
|154||Q. Opimius||consul||came to the aid of longstanding Roman ally Massilia (present-day Marseilles) against the Transalpine Ligurian Oxybii and Deciatae; won a quick victory|
|146||Oppius (?)||praetor||a victory over the Gauls|
|135||Sex. Atilius Serranus||proconsul||assigned to Gaul, where he fixed the boundaries of Vicetia and Ateste|
Gallia Transalpina at first could refer broadly to "Gaul on the other side of the Alps," but after the conquest of Mediterranean Gaul in the 120s BC came to specify the Roman province in the south (Provincia nostra, "our Province," hence Provence). Because the term Transalpina had a history of usage in the more general sense, the province was often called the Narbonensis, after the colonial headquarters in Narbonne. The establishment of the Transalpine province is usually dated to the military victories of Domitius Ahenobarbus and Fabius Maximus over the Arverni and Allobroges in the 120s, and the refounding of Narbo as a Roman colony in 118 BC. Evidence is scant, however, that Transalpina was assigned as a province over the next 15 years, until the Cimbrian invasions compelled the Romans to take action. There may have been no regular administration until after the victories of Gaius Marius in 101 BC. The historical record of Transalpine promagistracies continues to be sketchy until the 60s, with a few exceptions such as Valerius Flaccus's tenure ca. 85–81 BC, one of the longest known Gallic governorships.
During the Republic, the provinces of Cisalpina and Transalpina were governed sometimes jointly, sometimes separately; Caesar was allotted both provinces, and in his first five-year term divided his time between military campaigns in Transalpina and administrative duties in Cisalpina during the winter months. One factor in the Roman drive to control southern Gaul had been the desire for a secure land route to the Iberian peninsula (Hispania), where the Celtiberians (Celtiberi) also spoke a form of Celtic or a language closely related to it, with at least some cultural similarities to the other Celts. Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior had been administered as provinces since 197 BC as a result of the Second Punic War, which also had ignited the first direct if postponed Roman interest in southern Gaul; the first Roman colonies had also been established in Cisalpine Gaul during this time.
In the table following, when a governor is listed for Cisalpina only, he may also have governed Transalpina in the absence of another known official, and vice versa; at times, however, Hispania Citerior and Transalpina were governed jointly instead. Political and military factors determined whether and how these provincial assignments were combined, including shifting alliances among those governed, strategic considerations during the Social Wars and Roman civil wars, the availability of experienced administrators and commanders, and jockeying to maintain a balance of power among Roman oligarchs. Following the civil wars of the 40s, Narbonensis seems to refer specifically to the established province in southern Gaul, while Transalpina may include new territories claimed through Caesar's military campaigns in formerly independent Celtica and formally organized later by Augustus.
Table of Gallic governors 125–42 BC
|125–123||Transalpina||M. Fulvius Flaccus||as consul sent to the aid of Massilia against the Ligures, Salluvii, and Vocontii; continued as proconsul for 124; triumphed 123|
|123–122||Transalpina||C. Sextius Calvinus||proconsul; after driving Gauls back from the coast east of Massilia, returned that territory to the Massiliots; founded Aquae Sextiae (Aix-en-Provence); triumphed over the Ligurians, Salluvi, and Vocontii|
|122–120||Transalpina||Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus||as consul concluded the war against the Saluvii; engaged with the Arverni and Allobroges and continued war as proconsul; celebrated triumph over the Arverni in 120; began construction of Via Domitia|
|121–120||Transalpina||Q. Fabius Maximus||as consul joined Domitius in the Gallic war; defeated Allobroges, earning the cognomen Allobrogicus and building a monument at the site; defeated the Ruteni and Arverni, capturing their leader; as proconsul celebrated a triumph in 120 over Allobroges and the Arvernian king Bituitus|
|116||Cisalpina||L. Caecilius Metellus (?)||possibly the proconsul in Gaul who marked boundaries between Patavium and Ateste|
|115||"Gaul"||M. Aemilius Scaurus||celebrated a triumph over Gauls and Ligurians|
|109–108||"Gaul"||M. Junius Silanus||in 104 was tried and acquitted for incompetence for his defeat (as consul) by the Cimbri in Gaul|
|107||Transalpina||L. Cassius Longinus||as consul gained ground against the Volcae near Tolosa then was defeated and killed by the Tigurini|
|106–105||Transalpina||Q. Servilius Caepio||as consul attacked the Volcae Tectosages; at Tolosa seized their sacred treasury, "which disappeared under suspicious circumstances while being transported to Massilia for dispatch to Rome"; as proconsul refused to cooperate with Mallius (see following) and led his army into a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Arausio by the Cimbri and their allies; prosecuted by the tribune Norbanus (probably in 103) for losing his army, convicted, imprisoned, then freed by the tribune L. Reginus and went into exile at Smyrna|
|105||Transalpina||Cn. Mallius Maximus||poor cooperation with Caepio against the Cimbri and Teutoni led to a disastrous defeat for which he was tried and condemned to exile in 103|
|104||Transalpina||C. Flavius Fimbria||took over command in Gaul against the Cimbri and their allies; elected consul in absentia; actions not known, but was later prosecuted, supported by Scaurus, and acquitted|
|102–101||Transalpina||Gaius Marius||as consul (both years) defeated Teutoni and Ambrones in two battles near Aix in 102; elected consul in absentia; refused the triumph voted him in order to join Catulus (see following); defeated the Cimbri in 101 at the Battle of Vercellae; celebrated one triumph for both victories|
|102–101||Cisalpina||Q. Lutatius Catulus||held command in Italy against the Cimbri; retreated beyond the Po from fortified positions along the Adige in 102; joined forces with Marius in 101 as proconsul to defeat the Cimbri at Vercellae; triumphed with Marius; built Porticus Catuli with booty|
|95||Cisalpina||Q. Mucius Scaevola||triumph for repressing raiders vetoed (unusually) by his consular colleague L. Licinius Crassus; resigned his province|
|94||"Gaul," probably Cisalpina||L. Licinius Crassus||proconsul|
|91||Narbonensis||M. Porcius Cato||died in his province|
|85?–81||Cisalpina (?), Transalpina||C. Valerius Flaccus||Governed Hispania Citerior and possibly Ulterior from 92; was "firmly installed" in Transalpina by 85 if not earlier, without necessarily surrendering Hispania; possibly also governor of Cisalpina; see his Life and career|
|78||Transalpina||L. Manlius||defeated in battles against the forces of Quintus Sertorius within his province and in Spain|
|77||Transalpina||M. Aemilius Lepidus||assigned as proconsul, but may not have entered the province before he died in Sardinia|
|74–73||Cisalpina||C. Aurelius Cotta||died at the end of 74 or early in 73 as he prepared to celebrate a triumph|
|77?/74?–74?/72?||Transalpina||M. Fonteius||governor for three years, probably pro praetore, with arguable dating; accused by the Gauls of extortion but defended successfully by Cicero|
|72||Cisalpina||C. Cassius Longinus||proconsul defeated by Spartacus at Mutina|
|67–65||Cisalpina, Transalpina||C. Calpurnius Piso||assigned proconsular command of both Gauls to quash an uprising among the Allobroges; accused in 63 for extortion among the Transpadanes|
|64– early 63||Transalpina||L. Licinius Murena||returned to Rome early to run for consul and left his brother in command, with Clodius Pulcher on staff|
|62||Cisalpina||Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer||proconsul|
|62–60||Transalpina||C. Pomptinus||quashed another uprising among the Allobroges; in 59 Vatinius as tribune blocked attempts to have these victories in Gaul honored with a triumph, which he was not to celebrate till 54|
|60||Transalpina||Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer||died in Rome before assuming his proconsular assignment|
|59||Cisalpina||L. Afranius||assigned proconsular province, but may not have assumed post|
|58–47||Transalpina, Cisalpina||C. Julius Caesar||five-year assignment in a Lex Vatinia (see Pomptinus above), renewed in 55 by the Lex Pompeia Licinia; exact end date established by the lex of 55 is debated, but at some point in 49 his refusal to give up his province was unquestionably beyond the law|
|49||Cisalpina||M. Considius Nonianus||assigned as propraetor to succeed Caesar|
|49||Transalpina||L. Domitius Ahenobarbus||assigned to succeed Caesar as proconsul, but captured by Caesar during civil war|
|48–46||Transalpina||D. Junius Brutus Albinus||put in command by Caesar, probably as legatus pro praetore; in 46 stopped a Bellovac "uprising" in Belgic Gaul, which was not formally organized as a province at the time; D. Brutus had served with distinction under Caesar during the Gallic Wars|
|46– spring 45||Cisalpina||M. Junius Brutus||put in command by Caesar, probably as legatus pro praetore|
|45||Transalpina||A. Hirtius||specifically including Narbonensis|
|45–early 44||Cisalpina||C. Vibius Pansa Caetronianus|
|44–43||Narbonensis, Hispania Citerior||M. Aemilius Lepidus||proconsul appointed by Caesar|
|44–43||Transalpina||L. Munatius Plancus||appointed by Caesar as proconsul, excluding the Narbonensis|
|44–43||Cisalpina||D. Junius Brutus Albinus||(see 48–46 above): appointed proconsul by Caesar prior to assassination (in which D. Brutus took part), assumed post in early April and defended it with troops; acclaimed imperator for victories against Alpine peoples; defended his province against Marcus Antonius; besieged that winter in Mutina; arrested on behalf of Antonius and executed by a Celtic leader|
|44–42||Cisalpina, Transalpina||Marcus Antonius||proconsul as legislated 1 June 44, probably for a five-year term|
In the tumultuous period following Caesar's death, during the ascendancy of the Second Triumvirate, Gaul was acted upon by various commanders, until M. Vipsanius Agrippa arrived as proconsul in 39 to quell unrest. Scholars have paid relatively scant attention to the question of why Gaul failed to take advantage of Rome's disarray during the civil wars of the 40s and 30s to revolt in toto; it is sometimes assumed that the population was too decimated to take a stand, but the numbers in so far as they are known make this unlikely. In 57, for instance, Caesar had reported that the Nervii had 50,000 men of fighting age; he supposed that only 500 survived the Battle of the Sabis, but five years later they were able to provide a force of 5,000 men. Although the figures may be unreliable in the absolute, they indicate the resilience of the population. In 52, after the surrender of the pan-Gallic army at Alesia, Caesar had granted amnesty to the armies of both the Arverni and Aedui, each of which he estimated at 30,000 men, and sent them home. After the failure of Vercingetorix's strategy of massing allied forces, the surviving Gallic leaders had continued to wage a guerrilla war with some success and hope of attrition, until Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony) came to an arrangement with the last Celtic king known to retain his independence, Commius of the Atrebates, who had led the relief forces at Alesia. Over the course of the following two decades, Gallic losses in the 50s would have been replaced by the maturation of the male population, while available Roman forces were largely occupied by fighting each other. The Gauls may have imagined that the Romans would weaken themselves in civil war to such an extent that a rebellion was moot or not worth the trouble; Caesar reports that the Gauls kept themselves informed about political events in Rome that might affect them.
In 44 BC, Antony was the proconsul assigned to both Cisalpina and Transalpina; his ability to come to an understanding with the Gauls, as demonstrated by his arrangements with Commius, is further indicated by the willingness of a Sequanian leader to execute Decimus Brutus at his behest. This Brutus had served in Gaul under Caesar from 56 (or earlier). Although his experience in Gallic relations exceeded that of his peer Antony, whose earliest appearance in Caesar's account of the war is around the time of the Battle of Alesia, Celtic antipathy may have been spurred by Brutus's betrayal of Caesar, given the high value Celts placed on loyalty to their sworn leaders.
Broughton lists no Gallic governors after Agrippa through 31, the year with which The Magistrates of the Roman Republic concludes. Augustus began to reorganize Transalpine Gaul with its newly conquered territories into administrative regions in 27 BC.
- A.L.F. Rivet, Gallia Narbonensis: Southern France in Roman Times (London, 1988)
- Charles Ebel, Transalpine Gaul: The Emergence of a Roman Province (Brill, 1976)
- T. Corey Brennan, The Praetorship in the Roman Republic (Oxford University Press, 2000)
- Andrew Lintott, The Constitution of the Roman Republic (Oxford University Press, 1999)
- Unless otherwise noted, the sources for promagistracies in Gaul and their dates is T.R.S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic (New York: American Philological Association, 1951, 1986), vols. 1–3, abbreviated MRR1, MRR2 and MRR3.
- The English word "governor" is used here to encompass Latin-derived terminology including consul, praetor, dictator, proconsul, propraetor and “promagistrate” to refer generally to an individual in charge of an administrative area; the Latin word gubernator meant "helmsman, pilot."
- The overview presented here relies primarily on A.L.F. Rivet, Gallia Narbonensis: Southern France in Roman Times (London, 1988), pp. 39–53, and Charles Ebel, Transalpine Gaul: The Emergence of a Roman Province (Brill, 1976); other sources include E. Badian, “Notes on Provincia Gallia in the Late Republic,” in Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire offerts à André Piganiol (Paris, 1966), vol. 2; J.F. Drinkwater, Roman Gaul: The Three Provinces, 58 B.C.–A.D. 260 (Cornell University Press, 1983), pp. 1–34; and Christian Goudineau, César et la Gaule (Paris: Errance, 1990). Information not otherwise cited in the non-tabular portions of this article represents a consensus among these sources.
- Gallia Comata is usually translated as the pejorative-sounding "Hairy Gaul," referring to the preference among Celts for longer hair and facial hair in contrast to the close-shorn Romans. Comatus, crinitus and similar Latin adjectives meaning "long-haired, having an abundance of hair" were regularly applied to deities such as Apollo and Dionysus, and the disparaging quality of the epithet can perhaps be exaggerated in translation.
- During the Late Republic, for instance, two provinciae assigned at different times to Pompeius Magnus were operations against the pirates and oversight of the grain supply (cura annonae); these were not confined to a geographic region.
- John Richardson, "The Administration of the Empire," in The Cambridge Ancient History (Cambridge University Press, 1994), vol. 9, pp. 564–565 online et passim, especially p. 580.
- Le Gaule indépendante is the subtitle of volume 2 (1908) of Camille Jullian's monumental Histoire de la Gaule, referring to Gaul outside Roman rule at the time of Caesar's conquest.
- On the manipulation of the story, see J.H.C. Williams, "Myth and History II: The Sack of Rome," in Beyond the Rubicon: Romans and Gauls in Republican Italy (Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 140–184, limited preview online: "much of the material is clearly legendary, if not exactly fictional" (p. 141).
- For the passage from Livy (both Latin and English), see Emmanuele Curti, "From Concordia to the Quirinal: Notes on Religion and Politics in Mid-Republican/Hellenistic Rome," in Religion in Archaic and Republican Rome and Italy: Evidence and Experience (Routledge, 2000), p. 85 online.
- Livy 5.36.4–11; Plutarch, Camillus 17; Appian, Celtic Wars frgs. 2–3; Dionysius Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 13.12.1; these sources identify the Fabii with the generals who lost the Battle of the Allia (see Williams, Beyond the Rubicon, p. 151, especially note 42). Summary of the incident by David Rankin, Celts and the Classical World (Routledge, 1987, reprinted 1999), pp. 104–105 online.
- Williams explores the relation of myth and history throughout Beyond the Rubicon; see also Rankin, Celts and the Classical World; Jonathan Barlow, “Noble Gauls and Their Other in Caesar’s Propaganda,” in Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter: The War Commentaries as Political Instruments (Classical Press of Wales, 1998). The following account of Roman attitudes toward the Celts derives from Williams and Rankin.
- On the late-3rd century in particular, see Briggs L. Twyman, “Metus gallicus: The Celts and Roman Human Sacrifice,” Ancient History Bulletin 11 (1997) 1–11.
- Cicero, In Catilinam 3.4 and 9; Williams, Beyond the Rubicon, pp. 92 and 177–179; E.G. Hardy, "The Catilinarian Conspiracy in Its Context: A Re-Study of the Evidence," Journal of Roman Studies 7 (1917), pp. 199–221: "He describes a plot for installing Gauls on the ashes of Rome. Cicero employed these 'terminological inexactitudes' so often that he perhaps came to believe that they were true" (p. 220).
- Understood loosely as an unstated, customary approach to international affairs. Erich S. Gruen maintains that a true "foreign policy" depends on the existence of a professional diplomatic corps, which the Roman Republic lacked; see The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome (University of California Press, 1984), p. 203 online.
- In addition to Williams, Beyond the Rubicon, see P.C.N. Stewart, “Inventing Britain: The Roman Creation and Adaptation of an Image,” Britannia 26 (1995) 1–10; Ralf Urban, Gallia rebellis: Erhebungen in Gallien im Spiegel antiker Zeugnisse (Franz Steiner Verlag, 1999), Historia 129.
- "The tradition about the invention of the dictatorship is confused," notes Andrew Lintott, The Constitution of the Roman Republic (Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 109–113 online, in part because the office was situational. This discussion of the dictatorship also relies on T. Corey Brennan, The Praetorship in the Roman Republic (Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 38–43, who describes the office as having "primitive, anomalous status."
- Fred K. Drogula, "Imperium, potestas, and the pomerium in the Roman Republic," Historia 56 (2007) 419–452. "How absolute the power of the dictator was, seems to have been an issue which was determined not by statute or by any clear rule, but by casuistry": Lintott, Constitution p. 112.
- For this reason, Sulla during his dictatorship in the late 80s BC took steps to restrict tribunicial powers, and one of the ways Caesar provoked outrage was by expelling two tribunes from office.
- A law was passed to allow the interrex Lucius Flaccus to nominate Sulla in 82 BC; in 49 BC, a similar law permitted M. Lepidus to nominate Caesar; on rare (or doubtful) occasions, a dictator might be elected; see Lintott, Constitution, p. 110.
- Mommsen thought that the dictator had to step aside when the nominating magistrate's own term ended.
- All dates are BC.
- See MRR1 p. 95 for the vast and complicated ancient sources on this semi-legendary figure.
- MRR1 p. 113.
- Perhaps Magister equitum in 367, and certainly in 360; consul 354 and 351; appointed to three-man commission in 334 (triumviri coloniae deducendae) for establishing a colony in Cales.
- The date of the Torquatus episode varies; Livy inconsistently places it in both 361 and 357; see MRR1 pp. 119–120, note 3.
- MRR1 p. 119; MRR2 p. 611.
- This Servilius Ahala was the consul of 365, 362, and 342.
- Livy 7.11.5–7, 9; MRR1 p. 120.
- This Poetelius Libo was consul in 360, 346, and 326, and a tribune of the plebs in 358; MRR2 p. 602.
- Livy 7.11.4, 7–9; Acta Triumphalia, Degrassi 68f., 540; MRR1 p. 120. Brennan discusses the Gallic campaigns of 360 in Praetorship, pp. 39–40 online. Brennan points out that although both consul and dictator separately fought the same Gallic forces, only the consul received a triumph.
- This Sulpicius Peticus was consul in 364, 361, 355, 353, and 351; military tribune 380.
- Livy 7.12.9–15.8; Acta Triumphalia Degrassi 68f., 540; Frontinus, Stratagems 2.4.5; Appian, Celtic Wars 1; Eutropius 2.5.2; Auctor, De viris illustribus 28; Orosius 3.6.2; MRR1 p. 121.
- This M. Furius Camillus was the son of the famous Camillus; on table, see 390 and 367.
- MRR1 p. 129–130.
- Livy 8.17.6–7; MRR1 p. 141.
- Livy 10.24–30, with many additional sources in MRR1 p. 177.
- Livy 10.26–30 and many additional sources in MRR1 p. 177.
- Dionysius Halicarnassus 19.12.2; Florus 1.8.21; Appian, Samnite Wars 6 and Celtic Wars 11; Cassius Dio frg. 38; Eutropius 2.10; Orosius 3.22.12–13; MRR1 p. 188.
- Appian, Celtic Wars 11; MRR1 p. 188. Polybius says the Boii were the Gauls in Etruria.
- Polybius 2.19.8; Livy, Periocha 12; Orosius 3.22.13–14; MRR1 p. 188.
- A "suffect" is one who fills out the term of an elected official if he should die.
- Polybius 2.19.9–12; MRR1 p. 188.
- Polybius 2.20; Frontinus, Stratagems 1.2.7, who identifies the site as near Populonia; MRR1 p. 189.
- Fergus Millar, "The Political Character of the Classical Roman Republic, 200–151 B.C.," as reprinted in Rome, the Greek World, and the East (University of North Carolina Press, 2002), p. 110, originally published in Journal of Roman Studies 74 (1984) 1–19. Millar distinguishes among these four -isms: "Roman imperialism is too crude a term for what we can observe between 200 and 151 B.C. Roman dominance was felt everywhere, from Spain to Carthage, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Ankara; Roman militarism was demonstrated consistently in northern Italy and Spain, at various periods in Greece and Macedonia (200–194, 191–187–171–168), and for one period of three years in Asia Minor (190–188). Roman colonialism was still confined, with one very marginal exception, to the Italian peninsula" (pp. 109–110).
- Livy's work, essential for the history of the Early Republic, survives only in fragments and digest form for much of this period.
- E.S. Staveley, "Rome and Italy in the Early Third Century," in The Cambridge Ancient History (Cambridge University Press, 1989, 2002 reprint), vol. 7, p. 431 online.
- Daniel J. Gargola, Lands, Laws & Gods: Magistrates & Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (University of North Carolina Press, 1995), pp. 104–105 online and Rachel Feig Vishnia, State, Society, and Popular Leaders in Mid-Republican Rome, 241-167 B.C. (Routledge, 1996), pp. 29ff. online.
- Andrew Lintott, Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (Routledge, 1993), pp. 6 and 12.
- E.S. Staveley, "Rome and Italy in the Early Third Century," in The Cambridge Ancient History (Cambridge University Press, 1970), vol. 7, part 2, p. 431 online.
- Andrew Lintott, The Constitution of the Roman Republic (Oxford University Press, 1999.), p. 113 ff.; T. Corey Brennan, The Praetorship in the Roman Republic (Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 625–626.
- The case brought against Marcus Fonteius and defended by Cicero is an example from Transalpine Gaul; it may be difficult not to see the legitimacy of the charges made on behalf of the Gauls, but Cicero was nevertheless able to obtain an acquittal.
- There have been attempts to show that Catullus, from present-day Verona in Cisalpina, was of Celtic ethnicity; the Calpurnius Piso who was a consul in 58 BC, an Epicurean, and the last father-in-law of Julius Caesar, was accused by Cicero of having an Insubrian Celt as a grandfather — on the debunking of which see Ronald Syme, "Who Was Decidius Saxa?" p. 130. Regardless of factual basis, indicates the degree to which Cisalpina represented a mix of the two cultures.
- Lily Ross Taylor, Party Politics in the Age of Caesar (University of California Press, 1949), p. 58 online.
- Transpadanus means "across the Po" (Padus).
- Andrew Lintott, Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (Routledge, 1993), pp. 67 online, 112, 162.
- Werner Eck, "Provincial Administration and Finance," in The Cambridge Ancient History (Cambridge University Press, 2000), vol. 11, p. 345 online.
- T. Corey Brennan, The Praetorship in the Roman Republic (Oxford University Press, 2000), vol. 1, p. 200.
- All dates are BC.
- Orosius 4.12.1; Zonaras 8.18; cf. Livy, Periocha 20; MRR1 p. 221.
- None of the other offices held by this Publius Valerius Falto are recorded; he should not be confused with the Quintus Valerius Falto who was consul in 239.
- Orosius 4.12.1; Zonaras 8.18; cf. Livy, Periocha 20; MRR1 p. 221; MRR2 p. 628.
- No other offices are recorded for this Publius Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus; he should probably not be identified with the man who was curule aedile in 209 and governor of Sardinia 203–202.
- Zonaras 8.18; cf. Polybius 2.21.5–5 and Livy, Periocha 20; Acta Triumphalia Degrassi 76f., 549; Eutropius 3.2 (with praenomen Lucius); MRR1 p. 222.
- Zonaras 8.18; cf. Polybius 2.21.5–5 and Livy, Periocha 20; MRR1 p. 222.
- Cicero, In Pisonem 58, De natura deorum 2.61; Acta Triumphalia Degrassi 76f., 549; Plutarch, Fabius 2.1; Auctor, De viris illustribus 43; Zonaras 8.18) MRR1 p. 224.
- Marcus Junius Pera was also censor in 225 and dictator in 216 with the tasks of levying and arming troops against Hannibal and holding elections; MRR1 p. 248; MRR2 p. 577.
- MRR1 p. 226, with sources.
- MRR1 p. 230.
- Polybius 2.23.5 and 25–31; Pliny, Natural History 3.138; Appian, Celtic Wars 2; Cassius Dio frg. 50.4; Orosius 4.13.5–10.
- Acta Triumphalia Degrassi 78f., 550; Florus 1.20.3: Eutropius 3.5.
- The sequence of these events is confused. Diodorus (25.13) says that Aemilius ravaged Boian territory while proconsul (ἀνθύπατος); Polybius (2.31.4–6) and Zonaras (8.20) indicate that he celebrated his triumph while still consul; MRR1 p. 231.
- Polybius 2.23.6 and 27–28; Pliny, Natural History 3.138; Orosius 4.13.5–10; Zonaras 8.20; MRR1 p. 230.
- The second consulship of this Manlius Torquatus.
- Polybius 2.31.8–10; Orosius 4.3.11; cf. Livy, Periocha 20 and Zonaras 8.20; MRR1 p. 231.
- Polybius 2.32–33)
- Acta Triumphalia Degrassi 78f., 550; Livy 21.63.2 and 23.14.4; Silius Italicus 6.653–635; Zonaras 8.20. Flaminius is considered the "proto-popularist."
- Silius Italicus 4.704–706, 5.107–113 and 649–655; Plutarch, Fabius 2.4; Florus 1.20.4; Orosius 4.13.4; MRR1 p. 232.
- Praetor 216.
- Acta Triumphalia Degrassi 78f., 550; Zonaras 8.20.
- Extensive sources in MRR1 p. 233.
- The cognomen Vulso is not certain.
- Polybius 3.40.11–14 and 56.6; Livy 21.17.7, 25.8–26.2, 39.3; MRR1 pp. 238 and 240 (note 4).
- It was unusual for the urbanus to leave the city; MRR1 pp. 238 and 240 (note 3).
- Livy 21.26.2 and 39.2.
- See MRR1 p. 242 for abundant ancient sources.
- Polybius 3.86.3–5; Nepos, Hannibal 4.3; Livy 22.8.1; Appian, Hannibalic Wars 9.10–11, 17; Zonaras 8.25; MRR1 p. 245, and pp. 246–247 (note 9) on the difficulties of determining his title.
- A praetor in 216, and possibly the year before; the cognomen Matho is not certain; see Manius Pomponius Matho, most likely his brother.
- Livy 24.10.3; MRR1 pp. 256, 260.
- Livy 24.47.14)
- Livy 25.3.6, 26.1.5; MRR1 p. 269.
- Livy 27.7.11; may not have gone into Gaul until 211; MRR1 pp. 279 and 284 (note 1).
- This Lucius Veturius Philo is not the dictator of 217 BC. CH
- Livy 27.22.6; MRR1 p. 292.
- Livy 27.35.10 and 38.7.
- Polybius 11.1–3; Livy 27.43–51; Cicero, Brutus 73; Horace, Carmen 4.4.36–71; Valerius Maximus 3.7.4 and 7.4.4; Frontinus, Stratagems 1.1.9 and 2.9, 2.3.8 and 9.2, 4.7.15; Silius Italicus 15.544–823; Suetonius, Tiberius 2.1; Florus 1.22.50–54; and other sources MRR1 p. 294.
- A legate in 211 and plebeian aedile in 210.
- Livy 27.39.9, 46.5, 47.4, 48.1; MRR1 p. 295.
- Livy 28.11.11; MRR1 p. 298.
- Livy 28.46.12, 29.5.1–9, 29.13.4, 30.1.9–10; Appian, Hannibalic War 54; Zonaras 9.11; MRR1 pp. 302, 308, 312, 315 (note 4).
- MRR1 p. 306.
- Livy 30.1.7 and 30.18–19; Zonaras 9.12
- Publius Quinctilius Varus was Flamen Martialis when he died in 169; it is not known when he entered the office. See MRR2 p. 610.
- Livy 30.18.1–15; MRR1 pp. 311 and 315 (note 3), noting that "the details of the battle have been questioned."
- Marcus Sextius Sabinus was plebeian aedile in 203 BC.
- MRR1 p. 316.
- Also Purpureo. Furius Purpurio was military tribune in 210, a legate or envoy in 199, consul in 196, and a legate or ambassador 190–189, 183.
- Livy 31.10–11.3, 31.21–22.3, 31.47–49; Cassius Dio frg. 58.6; Zonaras 9.15; Orosius 4.20.4; MRR1 pp. 323, 326 (note 1). There may be some confusion between the achievements of Purpurio and those of Cethegus in 203.
- Son of Quintus Baebius Tamphilus. Tribune of the plebs in 204 or 203; plebeian aedile in 200; triumviri coloniae deducendae); consul in 182.
- Livy 32.7.5–7; Zonaras 9.15; MRR1 p. 327.
- Livy 32.1–2 and 7.6–8; MRR1 p. 326.
- Military tribune in 203; plebeian aedile 199; served under Cn. Manlius Vulso in Asia in 189: MRR1 p. 364 MRR2 p. 572.
- Livy 32.9.5 and 26.2–3; MRR1 p. 330.
- Polybius 18.11.2 and 12.1; Livy 32.28.8.
- Livy 33.23.1; MRR1 pp. 332–333; see also ancient sources for Q. Minucius Rufus.
- Livy 32.28–31, 33.22–23; Acta Triumphalia Degrassi 78f., 552; MRR1 pp. 332–333.
- See praetorship in 200 BC.
- Livy 33.25.4–11.
- Livy 33.37.1–9; MRR1 p. 335.
- Livy 33.36.4–15, 33.37.9–12; Acta Triumphalia Degrassi 78f., 552; MRR1 p. 335.
- Livy 33.43.5, 34.22.1–3 and 42.2–4: Plutarch, Cato Maior 10.1; MRR1 p. 339.
- Livy 34.46.1; MRR1 p. 344.
- Livy 33.43.5 and 9; MRR1 p. 340.
- Livy 34.43.3–5 and 9, 34.46–48.2 and 54.1; Orosius 4.20.15; MRR1 pp. 342–343.
- Livy 34.55.6 and 56.12–13, 35.4–5 and 6.5–9, 35.8; MRR1 p. 346.
- Livy 34.55.6 and 56.3–7, 35.3.1–6 and 6.1–4 and 11.1–13, 35.20.6, 35.21.7–11, 36.38.1–4 and 40.2; MRR1 pp. 346, 351, 354.
- Livy 35.20.1–7 and 20.4–6; MRR1 p. 350.
- Livy 35.20.2 and 7, 35.22.3–4 and 40.2–4; MRR1 p. 350.
- Livy 36.1.8–9, 36.2.1, 37.2.5; 38.5–7, 38.35.4, 39–40; Acta Triumphalia Degrassi 78f., 553; Orosius 4.20.21; MRR1 p. 352.
- Livy 37.1.10, 37.50.13, 38.36.1, 46.10, 47.1; MRR1 p. 356.
- Livy 37.57.1–2; Orosius 4.20.24; MRR1 p. 361.
- Livy 38.35.7–10 and 42.1; MRR1 p. 365.
- Livy 38.35.7–10 and 42.1; MRR1 p. 365.
- Livy 39.3.1–3, Diodorus Siculus 29.14, who mistakes the name as Fulvius; MRR1 p. 368.
- Livy 39.2.10; Strabo 5.1.11; CIL 12.2.617–610.
- Broughton, MRR1 pp. 367–368; Livy 38.42.8–12, 39.1.1–2 and 2.1–11.
- Broughton says that Strabo (5.1.11) wrongly attributes to this man the road built by his father; Livy 39.1.1–2 and 2.1–6; MRR1 pp. 367–368, 370 (note 1).
- Livy 39.20.2.
- A coniuratio was a "swearing together" or "oath"; it could also mean "conspiracy," because participants would take a secret oath together; in suppression of the Bacchanalia, there was a perceived connection between the secrecy of initiatory rites and subversive politics.
- MRR1 pp. 370–371. See Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus.
- Livy 39.20; Orosius 4.20.26; MRR1 pp. 370–371.
- Livy 39.32; MRR1 p. 372.
- Livy 39.32; MRR1 p. 372.
- Livy 39.38.1, 7; MRR1 p. 374.
- Livy 39.54.2.
- Livy 39.45.3, 40.1.6 and 16.5–6, 25.9, 26.2, 54.1–4, 55.4–5, 56.3–5; MRR1 pp. 378 and 382.
- Livy 40.1.3, 8.
- Cognomen conjectured; no other offices are identified for this man; MRR2 p. 574.
- Livy 39.45.6–7; MRR1 p. 378.
- Livy 39.54.5.
- Also Flamen Dialis (from 209 to sometime before 174) and thus restricted to the city; see F. Münzer, De Gente Valeria (Oppoliae, 1891; Berlin dissertation) 40, no. 19. This Gaius Valerius Flaccus was also curule aedile in 199.
- MRR1 p. 379.
- Livy 40.1.1 and 5, 16.4, 17.6–7, 19.8, 25.7; MRR1 p. 381.
- Plutarch, Aemilius 6.1–3; Livy 40.1.1 and 5, 16.4, 17.6–7, 25.2–10, 27.1–28.9, 34.7–8; Frontinus, Stratagems 3.17.2; Elogia, CIL 12.1, pp. 194, 198—Inscript. Ital. 12.3.81, 71b; Velleius Paterculus 1.9.3; Auctor, De viris illustribus 56.1; MRR1 pp. 381, 384.
- Livy 40.18.3, 26.5–6, and 35.1; MRR1 pp. 383–384.
- Not to be confused with Gnaeus Baebius Tamphilus (consul 182).
- Livy 40.36.7, 37.8–38.9; MRR1 pp. 383–384, 388.
- Quintus Petilius Spurinus was a quaestor, probably by 188 BC; he was a tribune of the plebs in 187, and consul in 176.
- Livy 40.26.7, 28.9; MRR1 p. 384.
- This Quintus Fabius Maximus was possibly quaestor in Hispania Ulterior 188–186, or the man in question could be Quintus Fabius Buteo.
- Livy 40.34.10–11; MRR1 p. 384.
- Possibly a quaestor in Spain 188–186 (or this man could be the Fabius Maximus who was praetor peregrinus in 181); along with two Popillii Laenates, Buteo was one of the triumviri coloniae deducendae in 180 who were appointed to consider a promise by Pisa to provide land for a Latin colony (Livy 40.43.1); in 168, one of the quinqueviri finibus cognoscendis statuendisque, a five-man commission for investigating and deciding boundary disputes between Pisa and the colony of Luna (Livy 45.13.10–11).
- Livy 40.26.2–3, 36.13; MRR1 pp. 384, 388, MRR2 p. 562.
- Livy 40.35.8, 36.6, 41.1–2, 5–9; MRR1 p. 387.
- Livy 40.35.8, 36.6; MRR1 p. 387.
- Not to be confused with the Q. Fulvius Flaccus who was consul in 179 BC.
- Livy 40.41.3–4; MRR1 p. 387.
- Livy 40.44.3.
- Livy 40.53.1–6; Florus 1.19.5.
- Livy 40.59.1–3; MRR1 pp. 391–392.
- One of the triumviri coloniis deducendis granted a three-year imperium (194–192 BC) to colonize the Ager Thurinus; possibly praetor suffectus in 189; MRR1 p. 345; MRR2 pp. 587, 645–646.
- Livy 41.1–5, 41.6.1–3, 41.7.4–10, 41.10.1–5, 41.11.1; MRR1 p. 395.
- Livy 41.5.5, 9–12; MRR1 p. 395.
- Livy 41.5.6, 8 and 41.12.1, 7; MRR1 pp. 395, 397 (notes 2 and 3), 398.
- Polybius 25.4.1; Livy 41.8.5, 9.3 and 8, 10.5–11.9; Florus 1.26 (who gives the praenomen as Appius).
- Livy 41.12.3 and 7–10.
- Livy 41.13.6–8; Acta Triumphalia Degrassi 80f. 555.
- Livy 41.14.1–3, 6; 41.17.7–18.6; MRR1 pp. 397–398, 401.
- Livy 41.9.10; MRR1 pp. 398 and 399 (note 1).
- Livy 41.14.8–10 and 15.5, 17.6–18.16;MRR1 p. 400.
- Livy 41.18.6–7, 15; MRR1 p. 400.
- MRR1 p. 402.
- Livy 42.1.6 and 9.7–9; MRR1 p. 408.
- Livy 42.7.3–9.6, 42.21.2–5 and 8, 4.22.1–8; MRR1 pp. 408, 412.
- Livy 42.10.10–12, 21.1–5, 22.1 and 5; MRR1 p. 410.
- Livy 42.31.1 and 32.1–5; 43.1.4–12 and 5.1–9; MRR1 p. 416. Cassius's misdeeds were such that Rome sent "an embassy of exceptional dignity" — C. Laelius (consul 190 BC) and M. Aemilius Lepidus (consul 187 and 175) — across the Alps to address the complaints of the Gallic king Cincibilis (Livy 43.5.7 and 10.)
- Livy 43.9.1–3 and 11.3; MRR1 p. 420.
- Livy 43.12.1 and 15.3–5; 44.17.2–4 and 18.5; 45.12.4–9; MRR1 pp. 423, 429.
- Livy 45.12.9–12 and 16.4; MRR1 p. 427.
- Livy 45.16.3, 17.6, 44.3; MRR1 p. 432.
- Livy 45.16.3, 17.6, 44.3; MRR1 p. 432.
- Livy, Periocha 46; MRR1 p. 437.
- Livy, Periocha 46; MRR1 p. 437.
- The consuls of 162 were recalled because of improper auspices and compelled to abdicate. Valerius Maximus 1.1.3; Cicero, Ad Quintum fratrem 2.2.1; De divinatione 1.33, 1.36, 2.74; De natura deorum 2.10–11; Plutarch, Marcellus 5.1–3; Granius Licinianus 11 (Bonn); Auctor, De viris illustribus 44.2; MRR1 pp. 441–442.
- MRR1 pp. 445, 446.
- Acta Triumphalia Degrassi 82f., 557; CIL 12.2.623; MRR1 p. 448.
- Polybius 33.8–11.1; Livy, Periocha 47; MRR1 p. 449.
- Jerome, Chronicon p. 143 Helm; cf. cognomen Gallus in Valerius Maximus 7.8.9; MRR1 p. 466.
- CIL 12.2.636; MRR1 p. 489.
- Transalpina in its most inclusive sense of "Gaul on the other side of the Alps"; with very few exceptions (some skirmishing with the Helvetii in 58 possibly in Allobrogian territory, incursions by troops sent by Vercingetorix into Helvian territory in 52 BC), all fighting during the Gallic Wars took place outside the borders of the Narbonensis.
- Caesar was also proconsul of Illyricum, and Cisalpina was thus a central location.
- Dáithí Ó hÓgáin, "Celtiberia and Cisalpine Gaul," in The Celts: A History (Boydell Press, 2003), pp. 72ff.
- For more on cultural connections in the region, see Occitania.
- Andrew Lintott, Imperium Romanum, p. 6.
- All dates are BC.
- Livy, Periocha 60; Appian, Bellum civile 1.34; Plutarch, C. Gracchus 15.1, 18.1; Acta Trimphalia; Obsequens 30; Velleius Paterculus 2.6.4; MRR1 pp. 510, 512, 514–515.
- Livy, Periocha 61; Strabo 4.1.5; Velleius Paterculus 1.15.4; MRR1 pp. 515, 518.
- That three commanders successively "triumphed" over the Saluvii perhaps raises questions. Cicero, Pro Fonteio 18; Florus 1.37.4–6; Eutropius 4.22; Livy, Periocha 61; Velleius 2.10.2 and 39.1; Strabo 4.2.3; Valerius Maximus 9.6.3; Appian, Celtic Wars 12; Suetonius, Nero 1.2 and 2; Acta Triumphalia for 120; Orosius 5.13.2; Jerome, Chronicon ad annum 127; MRR1 pp. 516, 522, 524.
- Cicero, Pro Fonteio 36; Caesar, Bellum Gallicum 1.45.2; Florus 1.37.4–6; Eutropius 4.22; Livy, Periocha 61; Strabo 4.1.11; Appian, Celtic Wars 12; Velleius 2.10.2–3 and 39.1; Valerius Maximus 3.5.2, 6.9.3–4 and 9.6.3; Suetonius, Nero 2; Pliny, Historia naturalis 7.166 and 33.141; Ammianus Marcellinus 15.12.5; Pseudo-Asconius 211 Stangl; Acta Triumphalia Degrasi 82f., 560; MRR1 pp. 520–521, 524.
- CIL 12.2.633, 634, 2501; this inscription, however, may refer instead to the L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus who was consul in 142; see year 141 above. MRR1 p. 530.
- Acta Triumphalia Degrassi 84f., 561; Frontinus, Strategms 4.3.13; MRR1 p. 531.
- Cicero, Corn. in Asconius 68 and 80C, Div. in Caec. 67, In Verrem 2.2.118; Livy, Periocha 65; Velleius 2.12.2; Florus 1.38.4; MRR1 pp. 545, 549.
- Caesar, Bellum Gallicum 1.7.4, 12.5–7, 13.2, 14.3; Livy, Periocha 65; Tacitus, Germania 37; Appian, Celtic Wars 1.3; Orosius 5.15.23–24; MRR1 p. 550.
- Broughton, MRR1 p. 553.
- MRR1 pp. 557, 563–564, 566 (note 8 on commission established to investigate the loss of the treasury of Tolosa), with abundant sources.
- Mallius lost two sons, a legatus, and most of his army.
- Livy, Periocha 67; Cicero, De Oratore 2.125; Florus 1.38.4; Granius Licinianus 17B and 21B; Cassius Dio 27, frg. 91.1–4; Eutropius 5.1.1; Orosius 5.16.1–7, quoting Valerius Antias frg. 63 (Peter); more sources MRR1 p. 555.
- Cicero, Leg. Man. 60, Prov. Cons. 19 and 32; Sallust, Jugurthine War 114.3; Livy, Periocha 67; Velleius 2.12.1–2; other sources in MRR1 p. 558.
- MRR1 pp. 567, 570–571, with multiple sources.
- MRR1 pp. 567, 570–571, 572, with multiple sources.
- Cicero, Inv. 2.111, In Pisonem 62 and Asconius 15C; Valerius Maximus 3.7.6; MRR2 p. 11; J.P.V.D. Balsdon in Classical Review 51 (1937) 8–10.
- Valerius Maximus 3.7.6; MRR2 p. 13
- This is a Marcus Porcius Cato who was curule aedile in 94 and praetor around 92.
- Aulus Gellius 13.20.12; MRR2 p. 22.
- This is a Lucius Manlius who was probably praetor in 79.
- Julius Caesar, Bellum Gallicum 3.20.1; Livy, Periocha 90; Plutarch, Life of Sertorius 12.4; Orosius 5.23.4; MRR2 p. 87.
- Sallust, Historia 1.77.7M; Appian, Bellum civile 1.107; MRR2 p. 89.
- Cicero, Brutus 318 and In Pisonem 62; Sallust, Historia 2.98M; Asconius 14 C; MRR2 pp. 103 and 111.
- This Fonteius was praetor in 75.
- Cicero, Pro Fonteio; MRR2 pp. 104, 109 (note 6).
- Livy, Periocha 96; Plutarch, Life of Crassus 9.7; Florus 2.8.10 as P. Cassi; Orosius 5.24.4; MRR2 p. 117.
- Cicero, Ad Atticum 1.13.2 and 1.1.2, Pro Flacco 98; Sallust, Catilina 49.2; Cassius Dio 36.37.2; MRR2 pp. 142–143, 154, 159.
- Cicero, Pro Murena, and Har. Resp. 42; MRR2 pp. 163, 169.
- Metellus Celer had been a praetor in 63 and raised troops against Catiline around Picenum and in the ager Gallicus; C. Antonius Hibrida had been the consular colleague of Cicero, who declined to accept a province and manipulated the process of sortition so that Macedonia went to Antonius and Cisalpina went to Celer; E.G. Hardy, "The Catilinarian Conspiracy in Its Context," Journal of Roman Studies 7 (1917), pp. 199–200.
- Cicero, Ad familiares 5.1, 5.2; Cornelius Nepos frg. 7 (Peter) in Pliny, Historia naturalis 2.170; Pomponius Mela 3.45; MRR2 p. 176.
- Cicero, Pro cons. 32; Cassius Dio 37.47–48, 39.65.1–2; Livy, Periocha 163; Bobbio Scholiast 149–150 (Stangl); MRR2 pp. 176, 181; discussion in T. Corey Brennan, The Praetorship in the Roman Republic (Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 579 online.
- MRR2 pp. 182–183.
- MRR2, p. 182–183.
- Along with Illyricum.
- Endlessly; see, for instance: F.E. Adcock, “The Legal Term of Caesar’s Governship in Gaul,” Classical Quarterly 26 (1932) 14–26; C.E. Stevens, “The Terminal Date of Caesar’s Command,” American Journal of Philology 59 (1938) 169–208, and “Britain and the Lex Pompeia Licinia,” Latomus 12 (1953) 14–21; J.P.V.D. Balsdon, “Consular Provinces under the Late Republic: Caesar’s Gallic Command,” Journal of Roman Studies 29 (1939) 167–183; G.R. Elton, “The Terminal Date of Caesar’s Gallic Proconsulate,” Journal of Roman Studies 36 (1946) 18–42; P.J. Cuff, "The Terminal Date of Caesar's Gallic Command," Historia 7 (1958) 445–471; E. Badian, “The Attempt to Try Caesar,” in Polis and Imperium: Studies in Honour of Edward Togo Salmon (Toronto, 1974).
- Cicero, Ad Atticum 8.11B.2 and Ad familiares 16.12.3; MRR2 p. 261.
- For a list of extensive sources, MRR2 pp. 261–262.
- Livy, Periocha 114; Appian, Bellum civile 2.48 and 111.
- Cicero, Ad familiares 6.6.10 and 13.10–14, Brutus 171, Ad Atticum 12.27.3; Plutarch, Life of Brutus 61.6–7; Appian, Bellum civile 2.111; named incorrectly as proconsul Auct. Vir. Ill. 82.5; MRR2 p. 301.
- Cicero, Ad Atticum 14.9.3 (dated 17 April 44); MRR2 p. 309.
- Cicero, Ad Atticum 12.27.3, Ad familiares 15.17.3; MRR2 p. 310.
- Velleius Paterculus 2.63.1; Appian, Bellum civile 2.107; additional sources MRR2 pp. 326, 341.
- Cicero, Philippics 3.38, Ad Atticum 15.29.1, and Ad familiares 10.1–5; additional sources MRR2 p. 329.
- Extensive ancient sources cited by MRR2 pp. 328 and 347.
- Extensive sources cited by MRR2 pp. 342–343, 360.
- Caesar, Bellum Gallicum 2.4, 7.75.
- Caesar, Bellum Gallicum 7.75, 88.
- Aulus Hirtius, Bellum Gallicum 8.48 et passim.
- Caesar, Bellum Gallicum 7.1. In general on the Romanization of Gaul, see Greg Woolf, Becoming Roman: The Origins of Provincial Civilization in Gaul (Cambridge University Press, 1998), particularly chapter 1, "On Romanization."
- Decimus Brutus should not be confused with his more famous cousin Marcus, who never served under Caesar during the Gallic Wars, but who was a governor in Cisalpina during Caesar's dictatorship.
- Raimund Karl, “*butacos, *uossos, *geistlos, *ambaχtos: Celtic Socio-economic Organisation in the European Iron Age,” Studia Celtica 40 (2006).
- Woolf, Becoming Roman, p. 39.