|Richard Debaufre Guyon|
Walcot, Somerset, England
12 October 1856|
Scutari, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Battle of Pákozd|
Battle of Schwechat
Battle of Kapolna
Battle of Hegyes
Battle of Szőreg
Battle of Temesvár
|Other work||Governor of Damascus|
After receiving a military education in England, Guyon fought against Dom Miguel in the Liberal Wars in Portugal. In 1832 Guyon entered the Austrian service joining the Hungarian Hussars; and on being attached as aide-de-camp to Baron Splényi, married the daughter of that general in 1838.
From that time till the outbreak of the revolution, Guyon led the life of a country gentleman on his estates near Komárom, but was one among the first to offer his services to the national government as an officer of the Royal Hungarian Army, and played a prominent part in the struggle for independence during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.
During the retreat of Artúr Görgey's army, Guyon carried the mountain-pass of Branyiszko, and by that daring feat of his re-established the communication with the government at Debrecen, as also with the several other Hungarian army corps.
When, in April 1849, the garrison of the besieged Fortress of Komárom was to be apprised of the victorious approach of the national army, Guyon, with a detachment of hussars, cut his way through the enemy's lines, and announced the approaching relief.
In 14 July 1849, Guyon defeated the imperial army led by Josip Jelačić in the Battle of Hegyes, one of the last Hungarian victories of the freedom war, which assured Southern Hungary for the revolutionary army keeping the road open for the leaders of the revolution to escape in the Ottoman Empire.
The bloody Battle of Szőreg (5 August 1849) allowed General Henryk Dembiński, protected by the self-sacrificing ten battalions of Guyon, to retire to Temesvár, where the Battle of Temesvár, the last in the campaign, was fought and lost on 9 August. Guyon escaped to Turkey.
In 1852 Guyon entered the service of the Sultan without being required to change his faith.
Under the name of Kourshid Pasha, he, as a general of division, was Governor of Damascus, and at the beginning of the Crimean war, did much to organise the army of Kars. Guyon died of cholera at Scutari in 1856. According to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography he was "the first Christian to obtain the rank of pasha and a Turkish military command without being obliged to change his religion".
The 1863 Chambers Encyclopaedia states "Indomitable courage, and an incessant care for the comfort of the troops under his command, were the chief features in Guyon's character".
Notes and references
- Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
- Genealogy of the Guyon de Geis Family
- "GUYON, RICHARD DEBAUFRE", Chambers's Encyclopaedia, Appleton, 1863, pp. 167, 168
- William Henry Stiles, Austria in 1848-49: Being a History of the Late Political Movements in Vienna, Milan, Venice, and Prague with Details of the Campaigns of Lombardy and Novara a Full Account of the Revolution in Hungary and Historical Sketches of the Austrian Government, Adamant Media Corporation, pp. 179, 296, ISBN 0-543-94386-0
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Guyon, Richard Debaufre". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- This article incorporates text from the Chambers's Encyclopaedia 1863 edition.
- A. W. Kinglake, The Patriot and the Hero General Guyon (1856).