Renfe Operadora

"Spanish Train" redirects here. For the Chris de Burgh song, see Spanish Train and Other Stories.
Renfe Operadora
State-owned company
Industry Rail transport
Founded 24 January 1941
Headquarters Madrid, Spain
Key people
Julio Gómez-Pomar Rodríguez (CEO),
Enrique Peña Pérez,
Manuel Fresno Castro,
José Luis Marroquín
Products Rail transport, Freight
Revenue Increase 2.014 billion (2013)[1]
Increase 21.2 million (2013)[2]
Owner Government of Spain (100%)
Number of employees
13,954 (2011)[3]
Subsidiaries Renfe Mercancías
Former RENFE logo (1972-1989).
A new Cercanías Civia unit near Puerto Real (Cádiz).
AVE Class 100 train at Córdoba station.
Trains at Santa Justa station Seville.

Renfe Operadora (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈreɱfe opeɾaˈðoɾa]) is the state-owned company which operates freight and passenger trains on the 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 2132 in) Iberian gauge, the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge and the 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge networks of the Spanish national railway infrastructure company ADIF (Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias—Railway Infrastructure Administration).


The name "Renfe" is derived from that of the former Spanish National Railway Network, RENFE (acronym of Red Nacional de los Ferrocarriles Españoles—National Network of Spanish Railways) created on 24 January 1941 with the nationalisation of Spain's railways. As per EU Directive 91/440, RENFE was divided into Renfe-Operadora (operations) and ADIF (infrastructure) on 1 January 2005. At the same time, the existing RENFE double-arrowed logo (nicknamed the "galleta", Spanish for biscuit), first introduced in 1971 and given a facelift in 1983, with a sans-serif font, and again in 2000, with a mixed-case italic font, has been replaced by a dark purple lower-case wordmark designed by Interbrand, and also replaces some of the separate logos used by the other sectors, although the old RENFE logo remains in use in some stations in Spain and on maps to indicate an ADIF station.

The Railway Sector Act, 2003 separated the management, maintenance and construction of rail infrastructure from train operation. The first activity is now the responsibility of Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias (ADIF), the legal successor of RENFE, while the newly created Renfe-Operadora (commercial name "Renfe Operadora" or simply "Renfe") owns the rolling stock and remains responsible for the planning, marketing and operation of passenger and freight services (though no longer with a legal monopoly).

Renfe Operadora inherited the management model of the business units of the old RENFE, which made Renfe Operadora responsible for the operation of the following passenger and freight services. In January 2006, Renfe Operadora restructured the main business units into four:

The Spanish State railways are currently engaged in a major transformation and modernisation project. Key to this effort is a major overhaul of their out-dated ICT (information and communication technology) systems through an ICT renewal project scheduled for completion at the end of 2010 under the responsibility of Corporate Director of Information Systems Óscar Gómez Barbero. So far, the company has introduced improvements to their internet ticket sales and adopted new ICT management practices within a "more industrial" organisational model, though Mr. Gomez has publicly acknowledged the difficulties in transforming what still remains a very hierarchical organisation.


In June 2013, Renfe's board agreed to restructure the organisation into four separate companies, responsible for:

These four would be underneath a single holding company.[4][5]


Map of the Spanish rail network as it was in 2005, with colour-coded track types. Renfe Operadora operates on broad and standard gauge lines.
A Renfe train ticket

The company operates some 12,000 km (7,500 mi) of railways, 7,000 km (4,300 mi) of them electrified. Most of the tracks are constructed to the broad "Iberian gauge" of 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 2132 in), the same as that used in Portugal but wider than the international gauge of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) which is standard in neighbouring France, most of western and central Europe, and most of the rest of the world. The newer high-speed (AVE) network has been built to the international standard gauge of 1,435 mm in anticipation of its eventual connection to the rest of the European railway system. For this reason, the 1,435 mm gauge is generally termed "European gauge" in Spain.

The Spanish high-speed system is called AVE (Alta Velocidad Española, meaning "Spanish High Speed"). The logo incorporates a feature which resembles a bird (ave in Spanish). The high-speed lines are built to the standard European gauge (1,435 mm or 4 ft 8 12 in).

Construction of the high-speed rail line between Madrid and Seville began in 1988 and operation commenced in 1991. Train speed on the Seville line is 300 km/h (190 mph). The second high-speed rail line (Madrid to Barcelona) was completed in 2007 with the inaugural service commencing at 06:00 on 20 February 2008. The operational speed on this route is 350 km/h (220 mph). The greater part of the line (Madrid to Lleida) was placed into service on 11 October 2003, with connection to Huesca from Zaragoza. The third high-speed line (Madrid to Toledo) was opened in November 2005, followed by the spur from Córdoba to Málaga as far as Antequera in 2007. Another high-speed route from Madrid to Valladolid was opened in 2007, the line from Madrid to Valencia was opened in 2010 and the first stage of the high-speed line in Galicia opened in 2011. A line to Lisbon is being designed.

Other lines operated by Renfe include Euromed, a moderate-speed line between Barcelona and Valencia.

In addition to intercity transport, Renfe operates commuter train systems, known as Cercanías (or Rodalies in Catalonia and Cercanías-Aldirikoak in the Basque Country), in eleven metropolitan areas, including Madrid and Barcelona. In some cities, Renfe shares the market with other commuter railway operators, such as FGC in Barcelona.

Passenger rolling stock

Renfe Operadora utilises the following rolling stock and commercial products inside of its two divisions:

Suburban and Medium Distance (DGSPCMD)

Renfe 446 EMU in Bilbao.


Rolling stock City Image
RENFE Class 442 Madrid LINEA C-9
RENFE Class 446 Bilbao
San Sebastián
RENFE Class 447 Barcelona
RENFE Class 450/451 Barcelona
Civia Asturias
RENFE Class 592 Valencia
Murcia Alicante

Medium Distance

Rolling stock Route(s) Image
RENFE Class 448 EMU Catalunya and Aragón
RENFE Class 592 DMU (to be phased out) Madrid – Cuenca – Valencia
Madrid – Talavera
Lleida – La Pobla
RENFE Class 594 DMU Valladolid – Zamora – Puebla de Sanabria
Coruña – Ferrol
Coruña – Lugo – Monforte de Lemos
Madrid – Soria
RENFE Class 440/470 EMU (to be phased out) Córdoba – Rabanales
León – Ponferrada – Vigo(With 449)
León – Gijón
Valladolid – Santander
Valladolid – Ávila
Valladolid – León
RENFE Class 596 DMU Lleida – La Pobla de Segur
Murcia – Cartagena
Orense – Monforte de Lemos
Zaragoza – Canfranc
RENFE Class 598 DMU Madrid – Badajoz
Huelva – Zafra
Sevilla – Mérida
RENFE Class 599 DMU A Coruña – Vigo
Salamanca – Ávila – Madrid
Zaragoza – Salamanca
Salamanca – Palencia
Valencia – Cartagena
Huesca – Valencia
Sevilla – Málaga
Sevilla – Almería
Granada – Algeciras
Málaga – Ronda
RENFE Class 449 EMU Madrid – Jaén
León – Ponferrada – Orense – Vigo
Sevilla – Cádiz
Barcelona – Girona – Figueres
Huelva – Sevilla
Jaén – Córdoba – Sevilla – Cadiz
Albacete – Alcazar de San juan – Madrid
Alicante – Albacete – Ciudad Real
Ciudad Real – Alcazar de San juan – Madrid
León – Madrid
Madrid – Vitoria
Vitoria – Irun
Cordoba – Bobadilla
RENFE Class 104 (High speed midway) Madrid – Toledo
Madrid – Ciudad Real
Sevilla – Córdoba
Barcelona – Camp De Tarragona
Zaragoza – Calatayud
RENFE Class 121 (High speed midway) Cádiz–Jaén
La Coruña–Santiago de Compostela
Madrid Vigo
RENFE Class 114 (High speed midway) Madrid – Valladolid Campo Grande
Barcelona - Lleida Pirineus

Long Distance (DGSLD)

Main Line and long-distance services
Service Rolling stock Route(s) Image
Conventional RENFE traditional services, with conventional rolling stock
Diurno Locomotive + Passenger cars (1980-2015) "Costa Brava" Madrid – Barcelona
Estrella Locomotive + sleeper cars (1980-2015) Atlántico
Costa Brava
Pío Baroja
With the disappearance of steam and the generalization of electric trains and diesel, some have improved their rolling stock whilst others retain the original rolling stock for the service.
Alaris RENFE Class 490 (1999-2013) Madrid – Valencia
Madrid – Castellón
Madrid – Gandía
Madrid – Oropesa de Mar
Barcelona – Valencia
Barcelona – Alicante
Altaria Locomotive + Talgo cars IV/VI/VII Madrid – Algeciras
Madrid – Granada
Madrid – Cartagena
Madrid – Murcia
Lorca - Barcelona
Alvia RENFE Class 120 Madrid – Pamplona
Madrid – Logroño
Madrid – Hendaya
Madrid – Irún
Barcelona - Irun
Barcelona - Bilbao
Barcelona - Pamplona
Barcelona - Valladolid
RENFE Class 130 Madrid – Gijon
Madrid – Santander
Alicante – Gijon
Alicante – Santander

Madrid – Alicante
Madrid – Cádiz
Madrid – Huelva
Madrid – Leon
Madrid - Valencia - Barcelona
Barcelona - A Coruña
Barcelona - Vigo
Barcelona - Gijón

RENFE Class 730 Madrid – Ferrol
Madrid – Galicia
Alicante - Pontevedra
Alicante - A Coruña
Madrid - Ferrol
Madrid Pontevedra
Madrid - Ponferrada
Arco Locomotive + conventional passenger cars refitted for 200 km/h operation Camino de Santiago" Basque Country– Galicia
AVE RENFE Class 100 Madrid-Puerta de Atocha – Sevilla-Santa Justa
Madrid-Puerta de Atocha - Alicante
Madrid-Puerta de Atocha - Marseille
Barcelona Sants - Tolouse
Barcelona Sants - Lyon
RENFE Class 102 Madrid-Puerta de Atocha – Huesca
Madrid-Puerta de Atocha – Zaragoza-Delicias
Estación de Madrid-Chamartín – Valladolid-Campo Grande
Madrid-Puerta de Atocha – Málaga-Mª Zambrano
Valencia – Sevilla-Santa Justa
RENFE Class 103 Madrid-Puerta de Atocha – Barcelona-Sants
Madrid-Puerta de Atocha – Málaga-Mª Zambrano
RENFE Class 112 Madrid-Puerta de Atocha – Cuenca – Valencia
Madrid-Puerta de Atocha – Cuenca – Albacete
Barcelona-Sants – Málaga-Mª Zambrano
Barcelona-Sants – Zaragoza-Delicias
Barcelona-Sants – Sevilla-Santa Justa
Euromed RENFE Class 130 Barcelona – Valencia – Alicante
Intercity RENFE Class 448 Madrid-Chamartín – Hendaya
Talgo Locomotive + Talgo cars IV/VI/VII Catalán Talgo Barcelona – Montpellier
Covadonga/Finisterre Barcelona – Galicia/Gijón
Mare Nostrum Cartagena – Montpellier
Miguel de Unamuno Barcelona – País Vasco/Salamanca
Barcelona – Lorca
Barcelona – Murcia
Barcelona - Granada
Madrid – Galicia
Alicante – Galicia
Madrid – Almería
Madrid – Badajoz
Madrid – Bilbao
Trenhotel Locomotive + Talgo cars and sleeper cars Antonio Machado
Francisco de Goya
Joan Miró
Pau Casals
Rías Gallegas
Salvador Dalí
Barcelona - Gijón
Barcelona - A coruña
Barcelona Vigo

Class numbers

All classes are designated by three numbers. The first digit has a special meaning:

See also


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