Religion in France

France is a country where freedom of religion and freedom of thought are guaranteed by virtue of the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The Republic is based on the principle of laïcité (or "freedom of conscience") enforced by the 1880s Jules Ferry laws and the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State. Roman Catholicism, the religion of a majority of French people, is no longer the state religion that it was before the French Revolution and throughout the various, non-republican regimes of the 19th century (the Restoration, the July Monarchy and the Second French Empire).

Major religions practised in France include Catholic Christianity, Islam, Judaism, various branches of Protestantism, Hinduism, Russian Orthodoxy, Armenian Christianity, and Sikhism amongst others, making it a multi confessional country. While millions in France continue to attend religious services regularly, the overall level of observance is considerably lower than in the past.[1][2] According to the Eurobarometer Poll conducted in 2010,[3] 27% of French citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", 33% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force", and 40% answered that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force". This makes France one of the more secular countries in the world.

France guarantees freedom of religion as a constitutional right and the government generally respects this right in practice. A long history of violent conflict between groups led the state to break its ties to the Catholic Church early in the 1800s and adopt a strong commitment to maintaining a totally secular public sector.[4]

Catholicism as a state religion

Catholicism is the primary religion in France. During the Ancien Régime, France had traditionally been considered the Church's eldest daughter, and the King of France always maintained close links to the Pope. This led to various conflicts, in particular during the Reformation between Catholics and Huguenots (French Calvinists).

French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)

Religion in France, 1560[5]

  Reformed (10%)

A strong Protestant population resided in France, primarily of Reformed confession. It was persecuted by the state for most of the time, with temporary periods of relative toleration. These wars continued throughout the 16th century, with the 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day massacre as its apex, until the 1598 Edict of Nantes issued by Henry IV.

For the first time, Huguenots were considered by the state as more than mere schismatics and heretics. The Edict of Nantes thus opened a path for secularism and tolerance. In offering general freedom of conscience to individuals, the edict offered many specific concessions to the Protestants: amnesty, the reinstatement of their civil rights, including the right to work in any field or for the State and to bring grievances directly to the king.

Post–Edict of Nantes (1598–1789)

The 1598 Edict also granted the Protestants fifty places of safety (places de sûreté), which were military strongholds such as La Rochelle for which the king paid 180,000 écus a year, along with a further 150 emergency forts (places de refuge), to be maintained at the Huguenots' own expense. Such an innovative act of toleration stood virtually alone in a Europe (except for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) where standard practice forced the subjects of a ruler to follow whatever religion that the ruler formally adopted— the application of the principle of cuius regio, eius religio.

Religious conflicts resumed in the end of the 17th century, when Louis XIV, the "Sun King", initiated the persecution of Huguenots by introducing the dragonnades in 1681. These wave of violence intimidated the Protestants into converting to Catholicism. He made this policy official with the 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes. As a result, a large number of Protestants – estimates range from 200,000 to 500,000 – left France during the following two decades, seeking asylum in England, the United Provinces, Denmark, in the Protestant states of the Holy Roman Empire (Hesse, Brandenburg-Prussia, etc.) and European colonies in North America and South Africa.[6]

On 17 January 1686, Louis XIV himself claimed that out of a Huguenot population of 800,000 to 900,000, only 1,000 to 1,500 had remained in France. A Camisard rebellion broke out in 1702 in the Cevennes mountains.

The 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes created a state of affairs in France similar to that of virtually every other European country of the period, where only the majority state religion was tolerated. The experiment of religious toleration in Europe was effectively ended for the time being. In practice, the revocation caused France to suffer a brain drain, as it lost a large number of skilled craftsmen, including key designers such as Daniel Marot.

Upon leaving France, Huguenots took with them knowledge of important techniques and production – which had a significant effect on the quality of the silk, plate glass, silversmithing for which the Huguenots were renowned, and cabinet making industries of those regions to which they relocated. Some rulers, such as Frederick Wilhelm of Brandenburg, who issued the Edict of Potsdam, encouraged the Protestants to flee and settle in their countries.

French Revolution (1789)

During the French Revolution, the Catholic Church lost its power and influence. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy, passed in 1790, put the Catholic Church under state control. While the clergy was persecuted by the commune of Paris and some of the representatives on mission, new religions and philosophies were allowed to compete with Catholicism.

Following the Thermidorian Reaction the persecutions ceased but the schism between the French government and the Catholic Church wouldn't end until the Concordat of 1801 by Napoleon.

Bourbon Restoration (1814-1830)

After the Bourbon Restoration and the coming to power of the Ultra-royalists in the Chambre introuvable, Roman Catholicism again became the state religion of France. Under Villèle's ultra-royalist government, the Chamber voted in the extreme 1830 Anti-Sacrilege Act.

Third Republic (1870–1940)

Further information: French Third Republic

1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State

Alfred Dreyfus, a French-Jewish soldier, and his false conviction of treason in 1894 revealed the intrinsic anti-Semitism of the French government to the public.

A 1905 law instituted the separation of Church and State and prohibited the government from recognising, salarying or subsidising any religion. However the Briand-Ceretti Agreement subsequently restored for a while a formal role for the state in the appointment of Catholic bishops (evidence for its exercise is not easily obtained, though) . In the preceding situation, established 1801–1808 by the Concordat, the State supported the Roman Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church, the Calvinist Church and the Jewish religion, and provided for public religious educations in those established religions.

For historical reasons, this situation is still current in Alsace-Moselle, which was a German region in 1905 and maintains a local law, known as the Concordat: the national government salaries clergy of the Roman Catholic diocese of Metz and of Strasbourg, of the Lutheran Protestant Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine, of the Protestant Reformed Church of Alsace and Lorraine and of the three regional Israelite consistories as state civil servants, and provides for non-compulsory religious education in those religions in public schools and universities. For similar historical reasons, Catholic priests in French Guiana are civil servants of the local government.

Religious buildings built prior to 1905 at taxpayers' expense are retained by the local or national government, and may be used at no expense by religious organizations. As a consequence, most Catholic churches, Protestant temples, and Jewish synagogues are owned by the government. The government, since 1905, has been prohibited from funding any post-1905 religious edifice, and thus religions must build and support all newer religious buildings at their own expense. Some local governments de facto subsidize prayer rooms as part of greater "cultural associations".

An ongoing topic of controversy is whether the separation of Church and State should be weakened so that the government should be able to subsidize Muslim prayer rooms and the formation of imams. Advocates of such measures, such as Nicolas Sarkozy at times, declare that they would encourage the Muslim population to better integrate into the fabric of French society. Opponents contend that the state should not fund religions. Furthermore, the state ban on wearing conspicuous religious symbols, such as the Islamic female headscarf, in public schools has alienated some French Muslims, provoked minor street protests and drawn some international criticism.

Religious organizations are not required to register, but may if they wish to apply for tax-exempt status or to gain official recognition. The 1901 and 1905 laws define two categories under which religious groups may register: "associations cultuelles" (associations of worship, which are exempt from certain taxes) and "associations culturelles" (cultural associations, which are not exempt from these taxes).

Associations in these two categories are subject to certain management and financial disclosure requirements. An association of worship may organize only religious activities, loosely defined as liturgical services and practices, but no social or diaconal ones. A cultural association may engage in social as well as in profit-making activity. Although a cultural association is not exempt from taxes, it may receive government subsidies for its cultural and educational operations, such as schools. Religious groups normally register entities under both of these categories; churches run strictly religious activities through associations of worship and operate schools and social activities under cultural associations.

In accordance with the provisions of Title IV, Art. 19 of the Law of 9 December 1905, these associations of worship must be exclusively for the purpose of religious ministries, i.e.: the performance of religious ceremonies and services, the acquisition and maintenance of buildings of worship, the wages and the theological education of their ministers of religion.

Under the 1905 statute, religious groups must apply with the local prefecture to be recognized as an association of worship and receive tax-exempt status. The prefecture reviews the submitted documentation regarding the association's purpose for existence. To qualify, the group's purpose must be solely the practice of some form of religious ministries.

According to the Ministry of the Interior, 109 of 1,138 Protestant associations, 15 of 147 Jewish associations, and approximately 30 of 1,050 Muslim associations have tax-free status. Approximately 100 Catholic associations are tax-exempt; a representative of the Ministry of Interior reports that the number of nontax-exempt Catholic associations is too numerous to estimate accurately. More than 50 associations of the Jehovah's Witnesses have tax-free status.

According to the 1905 law, associations of worship are not taxed on the donations that they receive. However, the prefecture may decide to review a group's status if the association receives a large donation or legacy that comes to the attention of the tax authorities. If the prefecture determines that the association is not in fact in conformity with the 1905 law, its status may be changed, and it may be required to pay taxes at a rate of 70 percent on the present and past donations that fall within a legal category close to that of inheritance.

Religion and society

French public policy

Further information: Laïcité

The policy of French government traditionally consider religion as a private matter: depending on the context, they may consider it inquisitive to enter religious discussions. Communautarisme, meaning the forming of ethnic or religious communities separate from mainstream life, occurs frequently but often meets with suspicion. The separation of religion from government power, legally referred to as laïcité, has held sway since the Jules Ferry laws passed at the end of the 19th century and since the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State.[7]

Left-wing politicians generally do not discuss their religious beliefs, or lack thereof, and seldom use religious arguments in political debates, with the notable exception of Jacques Delors. Some centrist politicians such as François Bayrou or conservative politicians such as Union for a Popular Movement member Christine Boutin (see PACS civil union) are much more vocal about their faith.

Religious expressions and Biblical references are coming back in public rhetoric and during the 2007 presidential campaign two of the candidates, Nicolas Sarkozy and Ségolène Royal, both raised as Roman Catholics, made a number of references to their faiths.[8][9] For the first time ever, the French media asked all candidates to declare their religious affiliations.

One of the more significant signs of change is on the left: the anti-globalisation activist José Bové feels close to Christianity, Marie-George Buffet, head of the French Communist Party strongly opposes any anti-religious interpretations of French secularism.[10] However, both of them stop short of self-identifying as believers.

Nicolas Sarkozy sees France's main religions as positive contributions to French society. He was elected on a platform proposing changes to the Republic's century-old principle of secularism.[11] He visited Vatican and met the pope Benedict XVI in December 2007 and publicly acknowledged France's Christian roots, while highlighting the importance of freedom of thought,[12] hinting that faith should come back into the public sphere.

Islamic fundamentalism is considered to be a threat to the cohesion of the French society. Many, including the Canard Enchaîné, Libération and other left-wing newspapers, claim that the Minister of Interior overplays the threat in order to justify certain policies. Reasons for tensions include the desire of a very few imams and other Muslims not to abide by French laws, regulations and customs.

Following conflicts about Muslim girls breaching school dress-regulations or refusing to attend certain classes, the French government adopted in 2004 the then controversial French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools. In 2003 as Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy set up the French Council of the Muslim Faith (CFCM), which secular-minded politicians (mainly supporters of Jacques Chirac) have widely criticized by as a sign of Sarkozy's alleged multiculturalism. These tensions echo earlier quarrels with respect to the influence of the Roman Catholic Church in French society and the influence of the Pope in French public affairs (see gallicanism vs ultramontanism.)

The French public and government pay attention to certain minority religious groups, considered as cults. In 1995 the French National Assembly, the lower house of the Parliament of France, set up a Parliamentary Commission about Cults in France, which issues a yearly report. Concerns mounted particularly following a much-publicized series of mass murders and suicides inside the Order of the Solar Temple in 1995. Public concerns include the well-being and education of children in cults that isolate themselves from the community, the advocacy of medical practices generally considered hazardous, the defrauding of members by greedy leaders and sexual abuse. Such concerns have resulted in the foundation of commissions charged with the monitoring of possibly dangerous cults as well as the enactment of legislation facilitating the prosecution of criminal organizations.

Religious membership statistics

Source (year) Christianity No religion Islam Judaism Other
CSA (2012)[13] 56% 32% 6% 1% 3%
Ifop (2011)[14] 65% 25% 7% 1% 2%
INED (2008-2009)[15] ages 18-50 45.5% 45% 8% 0.5% 1%
CIA World Factbook (2015 est.)[16] 63-66% 23-28% 7-9% 1% 0.5-1%
United States Department of State (2014)[17] 45% 45% 8% ? 2%
Pew Research Center (2010)[18] 63% 28% 7.5% 0.5% 1%
Eurobarometer (2012)[19] 58% 37% 3% 0.5% 2% [20]

Due to a law dating from 1872, the French Republic prohibits performing census by making distinction between its citizens regarding their race or their beliefs. However, that law does not concern surveys and polls, which are free to ask those questions if they wish.

Immigrant population

Religious distribution of the immigrant population in France in 2010:[36]

Religion Population % of immigrant
Islam 3,040,000 46 46
Christianity 2,750,000 41 41
No religion 400,000 6.0 6
Buddhism 190,000 3 3
Hinduism 60,000 0.9 0.9
Judaism 10,000 0.1 0.1
Other 240,000 4 4
Total number of migrants 6,680,000 101 101

Church attendance

According to the French Institute of Public Opinion (IFOP) 2009 study, based on self declaration:[37]

IFOP Roman Catholics Regularly and occasionally churchgoers Go to church at least every week
In percentage of total French population 64.4% 15.2% 4.5%
In million people 41.6 9.78 2.9

In 1952, 27% of the French population were weekly Catholic churchgoers; in 2006 less than 5%.[37]

43% of practicing Catholics are 65 years or older, compared to 21% of the French population and 21% of non-practicing Catholics.[37]

In 2008, 3% of French people placed "Belief" among maximum 4 answers to the question "Among the following values, which one is most important in relation to your idea of happiness?". Same as in Belgium, it is the second lowest number, just above Portugal with 2%. The mean in "Europe 27" was 9%.[38]

In the diocese of Auch more than 200 Catholic Churches are "never used". In Bayeux-Lisieux, 505 out of 804 Catholic edifices are "never used". In the same diocese, the number of churches that hold mass every Sunday has decreased from 164 in 2001 to 144 in 2006.[39] This is explained in part by rural exodus and the concentration of population in towns during the last 60 years, but also by the church's manpower shortage and lower attendance. A smaller number of new churches have been built in urban areas over the same period,[40][41] notably a new Catholic cathedral in Créteil near Paris.

There are very rare cases of churches converted to mosques, such as the ancient Chapel Saint-Christophe of Nantes[39]

Protestants have increased as a percentage of total population from 1% in 1987 to 3% in 2009, mainly through the spread of various Evangelical Protestant denominations.[37]

Islamic statistics

Central Mosque in Fréjus. Sunni Islam is the second largest religion in France.[42]

As of 2011, 75% (4.5 million) of the approximately six million French residents and citizens with a North African or Muslim sub-Saharan African heritage were identified as "believers", and 41% (about 2.5 million) claimed to be "practitioners", according to a report posted on Islam in France by the IFOP on 1 August of last year. Research says that more than 70% of French Muslims claimed to have observed Ramadan in 2011.[43] French converts to Islam are believed to number approximately 100,000 (Muslim associations claim the number is as high as 200,000), with thousands converting to the faith annually.[44][45]

Public discussions about Islam

In Paris and the surrounding Île-de-France region where French Muslims tend to be more educated and religious, the vast majority rejects violence and say they are loyal to France according to studies by Euro-Islam, a comparative research network on Islam and Muslims in the West sponsored by GSRL Paris/CNRS France and Harvard University.[46][47]

150 new mosques were under construction in France in 2011. There are 2500 mosques in France(as of 2015; in 2011 there were 2000). Dalil Boubakeur said the number should be doubled.[48]

The finance of mosque construction was a problematic subject for a long time; French authorities were concerned that foreign capital could be used to acquire influence in France, so in late 80s decided to simulate the emergence of an “Islam of France”. The 1905 law forbids funding of religious groups by the state. According to Salah Bariki, Advisor to the Mayor of Marseille in 2001 "At the Koran training institute in Nièvre 3% of the books are written in French and everything has been paid for from abroad." She supported the public participation in financing an Islamic Cultural Center in Marseille to encourage Muslims to develop and use French learning materials as it would be an obstacle to foreign indoctrination. Also “secular Muslims” and “actors of civil society” should be represented, not just religious officials.[49]

Local authorities have financed mosques construction, sometimes without minarets and calling them Islamic "cultural centres" or municipal halls rented to "civil associations". In one case, due to FN, NRM and MPF protests and tribunal decision, the rent for a 8,000 m2 (86,111 sq ft) terrain to be used for Mosque Marseilles construction was increased from €300/year to €24,000/year and the period reduced from 99 to 50 years.[49]

A 2015 study estimated some 12,000 believers in Christ from a Muslim background in France, most of whom belong to evangelical or Pentecostal communities.[50]

After Charlie Hebdo shooting

After Charlie Hebdo shooting, 2 million people in Paris including President Hollande and more than 40 world leaders led a rally of national unity.

One teacher in Clichy-sous-Bois, a suburb with many immigrants, reported that three quarters of the students had refused to observe the minute of silence in memory of the victims of Charlie Hebdo shooting.[51]

There have been about 200 incidents in schools after the attack, some of them "glorifying terrorism".[51] In Bobigny (Paris suburb) a couple of students grunted "Allahu Akbar" during the minute of silence (the same words that were shouted by the terrorists during the attack).[52]

More than 700 French nationals and residents have traveled to fight in Syria.

Other religions in France

France created in 1995 the first French parliamentary commission on cult activities which led to a report registering a number of religious groups considered as socially disruptive and/or dangerous.

According to French sociologist Régis Dericquebourg, in 2003, the main small religious minorities are the Jehovah's Witnesses (130,000) (The European Court on Human Rights reckoned the number as 249,918 "regular and occasional" Jehovah's Witnesses[53]), Adventists, Evangelicals (Assemblies of God, Christian Open Door...), Mormons (31,000) Scientologists (4,000) and Soka Gakkai. According to the 2005 Association of Religion Data Archives data there are close to some 4,400 Bahá'ís in France[54] and the French government is among those who have been alarmed at the treatment of Bahá'ís in modern Iran.[55]

Many groups have around 1,000 members (including Antoinism, Christian Science, Invitation to Life, Raelians, Mandarom, Hare Krishna), Unification Church (400). There are no longer members of the Family (formerly Children of God).[56] According to the 2007 edition of the Quid, other notable religious minorities include New Apostolic Church (20,000), Universal White Brotherhood (20,000), Sukyo Mahikari (15,000—20,000), New Acropolis (10,000), Universal Alliance (1,000), Grail Movement (950).[57]

See also



  1. Knox, Noelle (11 August 2005). "Religion takes a back seat in Western Europe". USA Today. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  2. "France – church attendance". Church attendance stats. Via Integra. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  3. 1 2 "Eurobarometer on Biotechnology" (PDF). p. 381. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
  4. Baubérot, Jean (15 March 2001). "The Secular Principle". Embassy of France in the US. Archived from the original on 22 February 2008.
  5. Memory and Identity: The Huguenots in France and the Atlantic Diaspora by Bertrand Van Ruymbeke, Randy J. Sparks, p. 3
  6. Spielvogel, Western Civilization – Volume II: Since 1500 (5th Edition, 2003) p.410
  7. One Hundred Years of French Secularism by Mélina Gazsi
  8. Jaigu, Charles (16 January 2007). "Première étape de Sarkozy dans la 'France éternelle'" [Premiere Sarkozy's first step towards 'France eternal']. Le Figaro (in French). Archived from the original on 13 October 2012.
  9. Raffy, Serge (12 April 2006). "Jeanne d'Arc, son modèle" [Joan of Arc, her model] (in French).
  10. Religion : Les candidats font leur profession de foi – France
  11. Religions, République, intégration, Sarkozy s'explique
  12. Sarkozy breaks French taboo on church and politics
  13. CSA (2013). "CSA décrypte… Le catholicisme en France" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  14. Ifop (2011). "Les Français et la croyance religieuse" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  15. INED (2009). "Enquête sur la diversité des populations en France" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  16. CIA (2015). "The World Factbook: France". Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  17. United States Department of State (2014). "International Religious Freedom Report for 2014". Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  18. Pew Research Center (2010). "Religious Composition by Country". Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  19. "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF), Special Eurobarometer, 383, European Union: European Commission, p. 233, 2012, retrieved 14 August 2013 The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?" With a card showing: Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Other Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, and Non-believer/Agnostic. Space was given for Other (SPONTANEOUS) and DK. Jewish, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu did not reach the 1% threshold.
  20. 7% didn't answer.
  21. "Views on globalisation and faith" (PDF). Ipsos MORI. 5 July 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 January 2013.
  22. collapse of catholic church in France
  23. (French) La France reste catholique mais moins pratiquante – 4%
  24. Jean-Paul Gourévitch, La croisade islamiste, Pascal Galodé , 2011, p.136
  25. Jean-Paul Gourévitch,Les migrations en Europe p.362, Acropole, 2007, ISBN 978-2-7357-0267-1; see also Front National's estimate of 6 to 8 millions Muslims quoted in Jonathan Laurence and Justin Vaïsse, Intégrer l'Islam, p.35, Odile Jacob, 2007, ISBN 978-2-7381-1900-1
  26.", "Les Français sont de moins en moins catholiques"
  27. (Romanian) Franţa nu mai e o ţară catolică (France is no longer a Catholic country), Cotidianul, 2007-01-11; "France 'no longer a Catholic country'", Daily Telegraph, 10 January 2007
  28. "International Religious Freedom Report 2007". Retrieved 2011-02-08.
  29. Fr. John Zuhlsdorf (2009-06-26). "Interview with SSPX Fr. Schmidberger, Superior in Germany". Fr. Z's Blog. Retrieved 2016-07-29.
  30. Portrait des catholiques, sondage exclusif CSA/Le Monde des religions, 18–25 October 2006
  31. Religion Important for Americans, Italians, Angus Reid Global Monitor, 30 December 2006
  32. (French) Catholicisme et protestantisme en France: Analyses sociologiques et données de l'Institut CSA pour La Croix – Groupe CSA TMO for La Croix, 2001
  33. International Religious Freedom Report 2007 by US Department of State
  34. "Les français et leurs croyances - Sondage exclusif CSA" [The French and their beliefs - CSA exclusive survey] (PDF) (in French). Le Monde. March 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2007.
  35. "WIN-Gallup International: Global Index of Religiosity and Atheism - 2012" (PDF). WIN-Gallup International (Press release). 27 July 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2012.
  36. Faith on the Move: The Religious Affiliation of International Migrants – France
  37. 1 2 3 4 IFOP press document retrieved 4 March 2013
  38. EUROBAROMETER 69, 2008 survey page 31 retrieved 7 March 2013
  39. 1 2 La nouvelle carte des lieux de culte, La Croix 2006 retrieved 4 March 2013
  40. Barrientos, Miguel. "France Religions". IndexMundi. IndexMudi. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  41. The Muslim "Overtaking" of France: as Mosques and as Faithful, La Stampa, Vatican Insider retrieved 4 March 2013
  42. More in France Are Turning to Islam, Challenging a Nation’s Idea of Itself
  43. The Islamification of Britain: record numbers embrace Muslim faith
  44. 1 2
  46. French Muslim leader Dalil Boubaker calls for empty Catholic churches to be turned into mosques Retrieved 30 August 2015
  47. 1 2 Constructing Mosques - The governance of Islam in France and the Netherlands, Amsterdam School for Social Sciences Research 2009 (retrieved 4 March 2013) pages 155, 186, 172
  48. Miller, Duane; Johnstone, Patrick (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: a global census". IJRR. 11 (10). Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  49. 1 2 New York Times : Charlie Hebdo attack leads to change in French schools Retrieved 30 Aug 2015
  50. France 24 "teachers face difficult test in wake of Charlie Hebdo tragedy"
  52. "Most Bahá'í Nations (2005)". QuickLists > Compare Nations > Religions >. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2005. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
  53. UN Commission expresses concern over human rights violations in Iran
  54. ""De la MILS à La MIVILUDES, La politique envers les sectes en France après la chute du governement socialiste", by Régis Dericquebourg – Communication au colloque CESNUR 2003 à Vilnius (Lithuanie)" (in French). CESNUR. Retrieved 2009-07-13.
  55. "Les sectes en France: Nombre d'adeptes ou sympathisants" [Sects in France: Number of followers or sympathizers] (in French). Archived from the original on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2009.

Further reading

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