This is the list of regencies and cities of Indonesia. Both regencies and cities are second-level administrative subdivision in Indonesia, immediately below the provinces, and above the districts.
In Indonesia, both regency and city are at the same administration level, each having their own local government and legislative body. The difference between a regency and a city lies in demography, size and economy. Generally, a regency comprises a rural, larger area than a city. A city usually has non-agricultural economic activities.
A regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) is headed by a regent, known as a bupati, while a city is headed by a mayor (walikota). All regents, mayors and members of representative bodies are directly elected for five year terms. However, in Jakarta Special Capital Region, mayors and regents are chosen by the region's governor. Each regency or city is divided further into districts also known as kecamatans.
Following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities became the key administrative units responsible for providing most governmental services.
The list below groups regencies and cities in Indonesia by provinces. Note that each regency has an administrative centre (the regency seat).
The Indonesian title of bupati is originally a loanword from Sanskrit originating in India, a shortening of the Sanskrit title bhumi-pati, (bhumi, भूमि, "(of the) land" + pati, पति, "lord", hence bhumi-pati, "lord of the land"). In Indonesia, bupati was originally used as a Javanese title for regional rulers in precolonial kingdoms, its first recorded usage being in a Telaga Batu inscription during the Sriwijaya period in which bhupati is mentioned among the titles of local rulers who paid allegiance to Sriwijaya's kings. Related titles which were also used in precolonial Indonesia are adipati ("duke") and senapati ("lord of the Army", or "general").
Origin of "regency"
Portrait of a Javanese regent in gala uniform (circa 1900).
A regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) is a political subdivision of a province in Indonesia. The Indonesian term kabupaten is also sometimes translated as "municipality". Regencies and cities are divided into Districts (Kecamatan).
The English name "regency" comes from the Dutch colonial period, when regencies were ruled by bupati (or regents) and were known as regentschap (kabupaten in Javanese and subsequently Indonesian). Bupati had been regional lords under the pre-colonial monarchies of Java. When the Dutch abolished or curtailed those monarchies, the bupati were left as the most senior indigenous authority. They were not strictly speaking "native rulers" because the Dutch claimed full sovereignty over their territory, but in practice they had many of the attributes of petty kings (including elaborate regalia and palaces, and a high degree of impunity).
Regencies in Java territorial units were grouped together into Residencies headed by exclusively European Residents. This term hinted that the Residents had a quasi-diplomatic status in relation to the bupati (and indeed they had such a relationship with the native rulers who continued to prevail in much of Indonesia outside Java), but in practice the bupati had to follow Dutch instructions on any matter of concern to the colonial authorities.
The relationship between those sides was ambivalent: while legal and military power rested with the Dutch government (or, for a long time, with the Dutch East India Company (commonly known as the VOC, an abbreviation of the Dutch Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) under a Governor General in Batavia on Java, the regents held higher protocollary rank than the white officials who supposedly advised them and held day-to-day sway over the population. After the independence of Indonesia in 1945, the terms bupati and kabupaten were applied throughout the archipelago to the administrative unit below the residency (karesidenan).
Since the start of Reformasi in 1998 a remarkable secession of district governments has arisen in Indonesia. This process has become known as pemekaran ("secession"). Following the surge of support for decentralisation across Indonesia which occurred following the end of the Soeharto era in 1998, key new decentralisation laws were passed in 1999. Subsequently, there was a jump in the number of regencies (and cities) from around 300 at the end of 1998 to over 490 in 2008 ten years later. This secession of new regencies, welcome at first, has become increasingly controversial within Indonesia because the administrative fragmentation has proved costly and has not brought the hoped-for benefits.
Senior levels of the administration have expressed a general feeling that the process of pemekaran now needs to be slowed down (or even stopped for the time being) but local politicians at various levels across government in Indonesia continue to express strong populist support for the continued creation of new regencies.
Since 1998, a large portion of governance have been delegated from central government in Jakarta to local regencies, with regencies now playing important role in providing services to Indonesian people.
On 22 October 2012, the House of Representatives’ Commission II on home affairs and regional autonomy approved the establishment of a new province (North Kalimantan) as well as four new regencies; Pangandaran Regency in West Java, South Manokwari Regency and Arfak Mountains Regency in West Papua, and West Pesisir Regency in Lampung.
List of regencies and cities by province
Special Region of Aceh
Special Capital Region of Jakarta
| Name || Capital || Area |
in Square km
| Population |
| Population |
| Population |
| Bandung City || 167.27 || 2,288,570 || 2,394,873 || 2,575,478|
| Banjar City || 113.49 || 162,383 || 175,157 || 188,365|
| Bekasi City || 206.61 || 1,993,478 || 2,334,871 || 2,510,951|
| Bogor City || 118.50 || 891,467 || 950,334 || 1,022,002|
| Cimahi City || 39.27 || 546,879 || 541,177 || 581,989|
| Cirebon City || 37.36 || 308,771 || 296,389 || 318,741|
| Depok City || 200.29 || 1,374,903 || 1,738,570 || 1,869,681|
| Sukabumi City || 48.25 || 291,277 || 298,681 || 321,205|
| Tasikmalaya City || 171.61 || 582,423 || 635,464 || 683,386|
| Bandung Regency || Soreang || 1,767.96 || 4,037,274 || 3,178,543 || 3,418,246|
| Bekasi Regency || Cikarang || 1,224.88 || 1,983,815 || 2,630,401 || 2,828,767|
| Bogor Regency || Cibinong || 2,710.62 || 3,829,053 || 4,771,932 || 5,131,798|
| Ciamis Regency || Ciamis || 2,424.71 || 1,511,942 || 1,532,504 || 1,648,075|
| Cianjur Regency || Cianjur || 3,840.16 || 2,079,770 || 2,171,281 || 2,335,024|
| Cirebon Regency || Sumber || 984.52 || 2,044,257 || 2,067,196 || 2,223,089|
| Garut Regency || Garut || 3,074.07 || 2,196,422 || 2,404,121 || 2,585,423|
| Indramayu Regency || Indramayu || 2,040.11 || 1,689,247 || 1,663,737 || 1,789,204|
| Karawang Regency || Karawang || 1,652.20 || 1,926,471 || 2,127,791 || 2,288,254|
| Kuningan Regency || Kuningan || 1,110.56 || 1,045,691 || 1,035,589 || 1,113,686|
| Majalengka Regency || Majalengka || 1,204.24 || 1,167,566 || 1,166,473 || 1,254,440|
| Pangandaran Regency || Parigi || ** || ** || ** || **|
| Purwakarta Regency || Purwakarta || 825.74 || 753,306 || 852,521 || 916,812|
| Subang Regency || Subang || 1,893.95 || 1,380,047 || 1,465,157 || 1,575,649|
| Sukabumi Regency || Sukabumi || 4,145.70 || 2,168,892 || 2,341,409 || 2,517,982|
| Sumedang Regency || Sumedang || 1,518.33 || 1,014,019 || 1,093,602 || 1,176,074|
| Tasikmalaya Regency || Singaparna || 2,552.19 || 1,619,052 || 1,675,675 || 1,802,043|
| West Bandung Regency|| Ngamprah || 1,305.77 || * || 1,510,284 || 1,624,179|
| Totals || || 35,377.76 || 38,886,975 || 43,053,732 || 46,300,543|
* - the 2005 population is included in the total for Bandung Regency, of which West Bandung Regency was formerly part.
** - the figures for Ciamis Regency include those for the new Pangandaran Regency, created in 2012.
Special Region of Papua
Proposed new regencies
On 25 October 2013 the Indonesian House of Representatives (DPR) began reviewing draft laws on the establishment of 57 prospective regencies/cities (and 8 new provinces), as set out below:
“With these new regions, it is hoped that we can shorten the line of governance, improve land and security aspects, and no less important, support historical and cultural [institutions],” House Speaker Marzuki Alie said.
The agreement will be forwarded on for government approval.
Marzuki said that the new regions, especially in areas bordering other nations, will be able to support more development so that border areas develop faster and become less vulnerable to the territorial claims of other countries.
“We hope everything will go smoothly,” he said.
Under the new package, eight new provinces will join Indonesia’s current 34; three of the new provinces are in Papua and West Papua. The new provinces are Pulau Sumbawa, South Papua, Central Papua, Southwest Papua, Tapanuli, Nias, Kapuas Raya and Bolang Mongondow Raya.
The newly created regencies in Papua Province comprise the regencies of Gili Menawa, Moyo, Balin Senter, Bogogha, Puncak Trikora, Muara Digul, Admi Korbay, Katengban, Okika, Northwest Yapen, East Yapen, Numfor Island, Yalimek, Mambera Hulu, Southwest Yahukimo, East Yahukimo and Gondumisisare and the municipalities of Merauke and Lembah Baliem (Baliem Valley). The newly created regencies in West Papua comprise the regencies of Malamoy, Maibratsau, North Raja Ampat, South Raja Ampat, Raja Maskona, Okas, Kota Manokwari, West Manokwari and Imeo.
The other new regencies will comprise: Simalungun Hataran (created from Simalungun Regency) and Pantai Barat Mandailing (from Mandailing Natal Regency) in North Sumatra, Kundur Island (from Karimun Regency) in Riau Kepulauan, Renah Indojati (from South Pesisir Regency) in West Sumatra, the Muaro Bungo municipality (from Bungo Regency) in Jambi, the Lembak Regency (from Rejang Lebong Regency) in Bengkulu and the regencies of Bigi Maria (from Lahat Regency) and Pantai Timur (from Ogan Ilir Regency) in South Sumatra.
Additionally, three new regencies will be created in West Java: South Garut, or Garut Selatan (created from Garut Regency), North Sukabumi, or Sukabumi Utara (from Sukabumi Regency) and West Bogor, or Bogor Barat (from Bogor Regency).
Kalimantan will see four new regencies: Sekayam Raya (created from Sanggau Regency) and Banua Banjak (from Kapuas Hulu Regency) in West Kalimantan, and South Berau Pesisir (from Berau Regency) and South Paser (from Paser Regency) in East Kalimantan.
Sulawesi will see four as well: South Talaud, or Talaud Selatan (created from Talaud Islands Regency) in North Sulawesi, South Bone, or Bone Selatan (from Bone Regency) in South Sulawesi, and Bolio Huto, Panipi (from Gorontalo Regency) and West Gorontalo (from Pohuwato Regency) in Gorontalo; and two new municipalities: Tahuna (from Sangihe Islands Regency) and Langoa (from Minahasa Regency), both located in North Sulawesi.
Other new regencies will include South Lombok (created from East Lombok Regency) on Lombok island, the regency of Adonara (from East Flores Regency) and the Municipality of Maumere (from Sikka Regency) on Flores island, and the regencies of Wasile (from East Halmahera Regency) and Obi Islands (from South Halmahera Regency) in North Maluku.
Later in the same week, the House, at its last plenary meeting of the year, approved the creation of a further seven new regencies - Mahakam Ulu (in East Kalimantan), Malaka (in East Nusa Tenggara), Central Mamuju (in West Sulawesi), Banggai Laut (in Central Sulawesi), Tailabu Island (in North Maluku), Penukal Abab Lematang Ilir (in South Sumatra) and East Kolaka Timur (in Southeast Sulawesi).
- ↑ Turner, Mark; Owen Podger; Maria S. Sumardjono; Wayan K. Tirthayasa (2003). Decentralisation in Indonesia: redesigning the state. Australian National University. Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government. ISBN 0-7315-3697-5.
- ↑ Indonesia - CIA WOrld Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2013
- ↑ "Profil Daerah". Indonesian Ministry of Interior.
- ↑ Yosua Sitomorang, 'Strategic Asia: When it comes to Regional Autonomy in Indonesia, Breaking Up Should be Harder to Do', The Jakarta Globe, 9 June 2010.
- ↑ Hill, Hal (September 18, 2013), Power shift in Indonesia, The Australian
- ↑ Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin Menurut Kabupaten/Kota Tahun 2014.
- ↑ Jakarta Post, 14 November 2013
- ↑ Jakarta Post, 14 November 2013.