Radio Free Asia
|Type||private, non-profit Sec 501(c)3 corporation|
|Mandarin, Cantonese, Tibetan, Uyghur, Burmese, Vietnamese, Lao, Khmer, and Korean|
|Owner||Broadcasting Board of Governors (United States government)|
|Broadcasting Board of Governors|
|$38.3 million (2015)|
Radio Free Asia (RFA) is a private, nonprofit international broadcasting agency of the United States government that broadcasts and publishes online news, information, and commentary to listeners in East Asia while "advancing the goals of U.S. foreign policy." RFA is funded by the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG), an independent agency of the United States government responsible for all non-military, international broadcasting sponsored by the U.S government (such as Radio Free Europe), which appoints the board of RFA. RFA distributes content in nine Asian languages for audiences in six countries.
Radio Free Asia was originally founded and funded in the 1950s by an organization called "Committee for Free Asia" as an anti-communist propaganda operation, broadcasting from RCA facilities in Manila, Philippines, and Dacca and Karachi, Pakistan (there may be other sites) until 1961. Some offices were in Tokyo. The parent organization was given as the Asia Foundation. In 1971 CIA involvement ended and all responsibilities were transferred to a presidentially appointed Board for International Broadcasting (BIB).
With the passage of International Broadcasting Act in 1994, RFA was brought under auspices of the United States Information Agency where it remained until the agency's dissolvement of broadcasting duties and transitioned to U.S. Department of State operated BBG in 1999. In May 1994, President Bill Clinton announced the continuation of Radio Free Asia after 2009 was dependent on its increased international broadcasting and ability to reach its audience. In September 2009, the 111th Congress amended the International Broadcasting Act to allow a one-year extension of the operation of Radio Free Asia.
RFA broadcasts in nine languages, via shortwave, satellite transmissions, medium-wave (AM and FM radio), and through the Internet. The first transmission was in Mandarin Chinese and it is RFA's most broadcast language at twelve hours per day. RFA also broadcasts in Cantonese, Tibetan (Kham, Amdo, and Uke dialects), Uyghur, Burmese, Vietnamese, Lao, Khmer (to Cambodia) and Korean (to North Korea). The Korean service launched in 1997 with Jaehoon Ahn as its founding director.
After the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 American interest in starting a government broadcasting organization grew. The International Broadcasting Act was passed by the Congress of the United States in 1994. Radio Free Asia is formally a private, non-profit corporation. RFA is funded by an annual federal grant from and administered by the Broadcasting Board of Governors. The BBG serves as RFA’s corporate board of directors, making and supervising grants to RFA.
Radio jamming and Internet blocking
Three RFA reporters were denied access to China to cover U.S. President Bill Clinton’s visit in June 1998. The Chinese embassy in Washington had initially granted visas to three but revoked them shortly before President Clinton left Washington en route to Beijing. The White House and United States Department of State filed complaints with Chinese authorities over the matter but the reporters ultimately did not make the trip.
The Vietnamese-language broadcast signal was also jammed by the Vietnamese government since the beginning. Human rights legislation has been proposed in Congress that would allocate money to counter the jamming. Research by the OpenNet Initiative, a project that monitors Internet filtering by governments worldwide, showed that the Vietnamese-language portion of the Radio Free Asia website was blocked by both of the tested ISPs in Vietnam, while the English-language portion was blocked by one of the two ISPs.
To address radio jamming and Internet blocking by the governments of the countries that it broadcasts to, the RFA website contains instruction on how to create anti-jamming antennas and information on web proxies.
On March 30, 2010, China's Web filter, known as "the Great Firewall", temporarily blocked all Google searches in China, due to an unintentional association with the long-censored term "rfa." According to Google, the letters, associated with Radio Free Asia, were appearing in the URLs of all Google searches, thereby triggering China's filter to block search results.
Arrests of journalists' relatives
In 2014-2015 China arrested three brothers of RFA Uyghur Service journalist Shohret Hoshur. Their jailing was widely described by Western publishers as Chinese authorities' efforts to target Hoshur for his reports on otherwise unreported violent events of ethnic Han-Uighur tensions in China's Xinjiang region.
|Broadcasting Information (Channels 1, 2, 3, 4)|
|Language Service||Launch Date|| Daily|
|Burmese||February 1997|| 8 Hours, Daily
÷ over 3 channels
|Cantonese||May 1998|| 7 Hours, Daily
÷ over 2 channels
|Khmer||September 1997||5 Hours, Daily, 1 ch|
|Korean||March 1997||9 Hours, Daily, 1 ch|
|Lao||August 1997||5 Hours, Daily, 1 ch|
|Mandarin||September 1996|| 24 Hours, Daily
÷ over 3 channels
|Tibetan||December 1996||23 Hours, Daily, 1 ch|
|Uyghur||December 1998||6 Hours, Daily, 1 ch|
|Vietnamese||February 1997|| 8 Hours, Daily
÷ over 2 channels
RFA’s self-stated mission is directed by the 1994 International Broadcasting Act. RFA claim their intent is "Acting as a substitute for indigenous free media, RFA concentrates its coverage on events occurring in and/or affecting the countries to which it broadcasts."
the continuation of existing U.S. international broadcasting, and the creation of a new broadcasting service to people of the People's Republic of China and other countries of Asia, which lack adequate sources of free information and ideas, would enhance the promotion of information and ideas, while advancing the goals of U.S. foreign policy.
In 1999, Catharin Dalpino of the Brookings Institution, who served in the Clinton State Department as a deputy assistant secretary deputy for human rights, called Radio Free Asia "a waste of money." "Wherever we feel there is an ideological enemy, we're going to have a Radio Free Something," she says. Dalpino said she has reviewed scripts of Radio Free Asia's broadcasts and views the station's reporting as unbalanced. "They lean very heavily on reports by and about dissidents in exile. It doesn't sound like reporting about what's going on in a country. Often, it reads like a textbook on democracy, which is fine, but even to an American it's rather propagandistic."
According to a report by the Congressional Research Service of the U.S. government, official state-controlled newspapers in China have run editorials claiming Radio Free Asia is a CIA broadcast operation, as was the case with the first Radio Free Asia.
North Korea's state-run Korean Central News Agency has referred to Radio Free Asia as "reptile broadcasting services."
Kim Chol-min, third secretary of North Korea, in statement submitted at the United Nations, accusing the United States of engaging in "psychological warfare" with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea through RFA.
Following the Burmese Saffron Revolution in the fall of 2007, the Myanmar junta held rallies attended by thousands holding signs that condemned external interference and accused Radio Free Asia, the Voice of America, and the BBC of "airing a skyful of lies."
In October 2007, Burmese state-run newspaper The New Light of Myanmar singled out "big powers" and Radio Free Asia, among other international broadcasters, as inciting protesters during the Saffron Revolution.
- Annual Human Rights Press Award. 2012, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, and 2000. Amnesty International, Hong Kong Journalists Association, Foreign Correspondents' Club, Hong Kong.
- International Activist Award, 2005, Gleitsman Foundation.
- Edward R. Murrow Regional Award, 2005, 2003, 2002, and 2001. Radio-Television News Directors Association.
- New York Festivals radio awards named Radio Free Asia "Broadcaster of the Year" in 2009. RFA won two medals in 2013; one in 2012; one in 2011; two in 2010; seven in 2009; two in 2008; one in 2007; one in 2004; and one in 2000. New York Festivals.
- Gracie Allen Award, 2013, 2010, and 2008. American Women in Radio and Television.
- Consumer Rights award, 2008. Hong Kong Consumer Council, Hong Kong Journalists Association.
- Society of Environmental Journalists, 2012 and 2010. Society of Environmental Journalists
- Courage in Journalism Award, 2010. International Women's Media Foundation
- China Radio International
- Robert Goralski
- International broadcasting
- International Broadcasting Bureau
- Murder of Robert Eric Wone, former counsel for Radio Free Asia
- Open Technology Fund – a Radio Free Asia program that was created in 2012 to support global Internet freedom technologies
- Radio Taiwan International
- Radio Free Asia, Broadcasting Board of Governors]]
- Radio Free Asia, usa.gov
- Sosin, Gene (1999). Sparks of Liberty : an insider's memoir of Radio Liberty. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 257. ISBN 0271018690.
- Welch, David (2014). Propaganda, power and persuasion from World War I to Wikileaks. London New York: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 0857737376.
- "About". Broadcasting Board of Governors. n.d. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
- Central Intelligence Agency (1 April 1953). "Memorandum For: Special Assistant to the President; International Radio Broadcasting by Radio Free Asia" (PDF). foia.cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- Tom Engelhardt: "The End of Victory Culture". Cold War America and the Disillusioning of a Generation (University of Massachusetts Press 1998); p. 120. ISBN 1-55849-133-3.
- Helen Laville, Hugh Wilford: "The US Government, Citizen Groups And the Cold War". p. 215. The State-Private Network (Routledge 1996). ISBN 0-415-35608-3.
- Daya Kishan Thussu: "International Communication". Continuity and Change (Arnold 2000). p. 37. ISBN 0-340-74130-9.
- Executive Order 12, 850, 3 C.F.R. 606, 607 § 1(b).
- Bill Text Versions for the 111th Congress, 2009 - 2010. The Library of Congress.
- Mann, Jim (30 September 1996). "After 5 Years of Political Wrangling, Radio Free Asia Becomes a Reality". Los Angeles Times. Times Mirror Company. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- Brown, Emma (June 10, 2011). "Jaehoon Ahn, reporter and Post researcher, dies". Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-06-17.
- Susan B. Epstein: CRS Report for Congress (PDF)
- "Governance and Corporate Leadership". Radio Free Asia. n.d. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
- Mann, "China Bars 3 Journalists From Clinton's Trip", The Los Angeles Times, June 23, 1998
- Sieff/Scully "Radio Free Asia reporters stay home; Clinton kowtows to Beijing’s ban, critics contend", The Washington Times, June 24, 1998
- "Radio Free Asia says broadcasts to Vietnam are being jammed". CNN. February 7, 1997. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
- "H.R. 1587 Vietnam Human Rights Act of 2004". Congressional Budget Office. June 24, 2004. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
- "OpenNet Initiative: Vietnam". OpenNet Initiative. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
- "RFA: Anti-jamming antenna". Retrieved February 11, 2008.
- Censky, Annalyn (March 30, 2010). "Google blames China's 'great firewall' for outage". CNN. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- Forsythe, Michael (31 July 2015). "A Voice From China's Uighur Homeland, Reporting From the U.S.". New York Times. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- Casey, Michael (9 July 2015). "China's War Against One American Journalist". Slate. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- Denyur, Simon (8 January 2015). "China uses long-range intimidation of U.S. reporter to suppress Xinjiang coverage". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- Editorial Board (9 June 2015). "China exports repression beyond its borders". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- Radio Free Asia - History Retrieved 10 November 2015
- Dick Kirschten: Broadcast News May 1, 1999
- "KCNA raps U.S. despicable psychological warfare against DPRK," February 22, 2008 BBC Monitoring Service
- General Assembly GA/SPD/430 United Nations Department of Public Information, October 2009
- On Quiet Streets of Myanmar Fear Is a Constant Companion International Herald Tribune. October 21, 2007
- Myanmar guards accused of detainee abuse Associated Press. October 11, 2007
- Duggan, Paul; Clarence Williams (November 1, 2008). "Cover-Up Alleged in D.C. Killing Of Lawyer". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 31, 2008.
- Engelhardt, Tom (1998). The End of Victory Culture. Cold War America and the Disillusioning of a Generation. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 1-55849-133-3.
- Laville, Helen; Wilford, Hugh (1996). The US Government, Citizen Groups And the Cold War. The State-Private Network. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-35608-3.
- Thussu, Daya Kishan (2000). International Communication. Continuity and Change. Arnold. ISBN 0-340-74130-9.
- Defty, Andrew (2004). Britain, America and Anti-Communist Propaganda, 1945-53. The Information Research Department. Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-5443-4.
- Official website
- Broadcasting of Radio Free Asia and Voice of America is Pulled in Cambodia US Department of State Press Release
- ClandestineRadio.com Updated news
- Radio Free Asia, Legal Information Institute
- L.A. Times articles about Radio Free Asia
- Guide to the Radio Free Asia Vietnamese Broadcasts. Special Collections and Archives, The UC Irvine Libraries, Irvine, California.