Qo Xiong language

"Xong language" redirects here. For the Western Pearic language of Cambodia and Thailand, see Chong language.
Not to be confused with the Limbu people of Nepal, who are also called Xong..
Qo Xiong
Xong, Xiangxi Miao
Red Miao, Meo
Pronunciation [qo˧˥ɕõ˧˥]
Native to China
Region mostly Hunan
Ethnicity incl. Gejia
Native speakers
900,000 (1995)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Either:
mmr  Western Xiangxi Miao
muq  Eastern Xiangxi Miao
Glottolog nort2748[2]

The Xong language (dut Xongb, spoken by Qo Xiong people), also known as Xiangxi Miao (湘西 Western Hunan Miao), Eastern Miao, Meo, Red Miao, and North Hmongic, is a dialect cluster of Hmongic languages of China. Xong was given as a branch of Hmongic in Strecker (1987). Matisoff (2001) split it into two languages, reflected in Ethnologue, but Matisoff (2006) lists only one.

The best studied dialect is that of Layiping 腊乙坪, Jiwei Township 吉卫镇, Huayuan County, Hunan Province, China (see Xiang 1999).


Yang (2004)

Yang Zaibiao (2004)[3] divides Qo Xiong into six varieties, with representative data points listed respectively. The speaker populations and locations are from Li Jinping & Li Tianyi (2012).[4]

He Fuling (2009) describes a western Qo Xiong dialect of Gouliang Ethnic Miao Village, Ala Township, Fenghuang County (凤凰县阿拉镇勾良苗寨).

Xiang (1999)

Xiang (1999) divides Qo Xiong into Western and Eastern dialects, and lists the following counties with Qo Xiong speakers.

Phonology and script

A written standard based on the Western dialect[6] was established in 1956.

p b p mp nb mpʰ np f f m m m̥ʰ hm
bl pɹʰ pl mpɹʰ npl ml
t d t nt nd ntʰ nt l̥ʰ hl n n n̥ʰ hn
ts z tsʰ c nts nz ntsʰ nc s s
tɕʰ q ntɕ nj ntɕʰ nq ɕ x ʑ j
ʈ zh ʈʰ ch ɳʈ nzh ɳʈʰ nch ʂ sh ʐ r s nh
k g k ŋk ngg ŋkʰ nk
q gh kh ɴq ngh ɴqʰ nkh
w w h h j y

i i
iu iu
ɑ a ia ua
o o io io
e e ie ie ue ue
a ea ia iea ua uea
ei ei uei ui
ɔ ao iao
ɤ eu ieu ueu
o ou io iou uou
ɛ̃ an iɛ̃ ian uɛ̃ uan
en en ien in uen un
ɑŋ ang iɑŋ iang uɑŋ uang
ong ioŋ iong
Tone IPA Letter
high rising, 45 ˦˥ b
low falling, 21 ˨˩ x
high, 4 ˦ d
low, 2 ˨ l
high falling, 53 ˥˧ t
falling, 42 ˦˨ s


  1. Western Xiangxi Miao at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Eastern Xiangxi Miao at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "North Hmongic". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. 杨再彪,《苗语东部方言土语比较》,民族出版社,2004年。
  4. Li Jinping, Li Tianyi [李锦平, 李天翼]. 2012. A comparative study of Miao dialects [苗语方言比较研究]. Chengdu: Southwest Jiaotong University Press.
  5. Guangxi Minority Languages Orthography Committee. 2008. Vocabularies of Guangxi ethnic languages [广西民族语言方音词汇]. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House [民族出版社].
  6. Làyǐpíng village (腊乙坪村) in Jíwèi town (吉卫乡) in Huāyuán county (花垣县) of the Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture
Standard Xong test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 6/13/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.