|Languages||Nāgarī script (written)|
|•||1238-1249||Saif al-Din al-Hasan Qarlugh|
|•||1249-1259||Nasir al-Din Muhammad Qarlugh|
|Today part of|
|History of Afghanistan|
History of the Turkic peoples
|Turkic Khaganate 552–744|
|Khazar Khaganate 618–1048|
|Great Bulgaria 632–668|
|Kangar union 659–750|
|Turgesh Khaganate 699–766|
|Uyghur Khaganate 744–840|
|Karluk Yabgu State 756–940|
|Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212|
|Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036|
|Kingdom of Qocho 856–1335|
| Pecheneg Khanates
| Kimek Khanate|
| Oghuz Yabgu State|
|Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186|
|Seljuk Empire 1037–1194|
|Seljuk Sultanate of Rum|
|Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century|
|Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231|
|Naiman Khanate –1204|
|Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266|
|Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526|
|Golden Horde | 1240s–1502|
|Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517|
|Ottoman Empire 1299-1923|
The Qarlughids, a tribe of Turkic origin, controlled Ghazni and the lands of the Bamyan and the Kurram Valley (Ghazna, Banban, and Kurraman), establishing a Muslim principality and dynasty lasting between 1224 and 1266. The Qarlughids arrived from the north to settle in the regions of Hazarajat together with the armies of Muhammad II of Khwarezm, the Shah of Khwarezm. Throughout most of its existence, the Qarlugh Kingdom functioned as a buffer state between its two powerful neighbors, the Delhi Sultanate to the east and south and the Mongol Empire to the north and west, with The Malik at the throne of Qarlugh would frequently switch allegiances between their two powerful neighbors, and through balanced diplomacy managed to become an important trade intermediary between the Mongols of Central Asia and the lands of the subcontinent. Testimet to Qarlughid prosperity is the significant coinage found from this dynasty.
The establishment of the Qarlugh Kingdom was a result of the turbulent power struggles of the 12th and 13th centuries in Greater Khurasan as the Ghurid Empire gave way to the Delhi Sultanate and the Mongols. The lands of Peshwar and the Kurram valley were ruled in rapid succession by Muhammad of Ghor, Taj al-Din Yildiz, Nasir ad-Din Qabacha, Iltutmish, Genghis Khan, Mingburnu, and again Iltutmish, who incorporated them into the Delhi Sultanate. The Sultana of Delhi, Razia al-Din, appointed Saif al-Din al-Hasan Qarlugh as governor of Ghazni, who in 1238 seceded from the Sultanate and asserted the independence of the Qarlugh Kingdom ruling Ghazni, Bamyan, and Kurraman.
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- Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280.
- Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162.
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- Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1908). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press for the Royal Asiatic Society. Archived from the original on 2010. Retrieved 2016-06-13.