Not to be confused with Pyonggang or Pyeongchang County.
"Heijo" redirects here. For other uses, see Heijo (disambiguation).
Directly governed city
Pyongyang Directly Governed City
  Hancha 直轄市
  McCune-Reischauer P'yŏngyang Chikhalsi
  Revised Romanization Pyeongyang Jikhalsi
  Official North Korean variant Phyŏngyang Chikhalsi

Clockwise from top left: Pyongyang skyline and the Taedong River; Juche Tower; Arch of Triumph; Tomb of King Dongmyeong; Puhŭng Station in the Pyongyang Metro; Arch of Reunification; and Kumsusan Palace of the Sun

Motto: (류경/柳京)  (Korean)
"Dynamic Labors "

Map of North Korea with Pyongyang highlighted
Coordinates: 39°1′10″N 125°44′17″E / 39.01944°N 125.73806°E / 39.01944; 125.73806Coordinates: 39°1′10″N 125°44′17″E / 39.01944°N 125.73806°E / 39.01944; 125.73806
Country  North Korea
Region P'yŏngan
Founded 1122 BC
  Chairman of Pyongyang People's Committee Cha Hui-rim[1]
  Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea Pyongyang City Committee Kim Su-gil[2][3][4]
  Total 3,194 km2 (1,233 sq mi)
Elevation 38 m (125 ft)
Population (2008)
  Total 2,581,076[5]
  Dialect P'yŏngan

Pyongyang (/ˈpjɒŋˈjæŋ/; (Chosŏn'gŭl: 평양; Hancha: 平壤), Korean pronunciation: [pʰjʌŋjaŋ], literally: "Flat Land" or "Peaceful Land") is the capital and largest city of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (commonly known as North Korea). Pyongyang is located on the Taedong River about 110 kilometres (68 mi) upstream from its mouth on the West Korea Sea and, according to preliminary results from the 2008 population census, has a population of 3,255,388.[6] The city was split from the South Pyongan province in 1946. It is administered as a directly governed city (chikhalsi, 직할시) on the same level as provincial governments, as opposed to a special city (teukbyeolsi, 특별시) as Seoul is in South Korea.


"Pyongyang" literally means "Flat Land" in Korean. One of Pyongyang's many historic names is Ryugyong (류경; 柳京), or "capital of willows", as willow trees have always been numerous throughout the city's history; this served as an inspiration for many poems. Even today, the city has numerous willow trees, with many buildings and places having "Ryugyŏng" in their names. The most notable of these is the Ryugyong Hotel, completed in 2011. The city's other historic names include Kisong, Hwangsong, Rakrang, Sŏgyong, Sodo, Hogyong, Changan, and Heijō[7] (during Japanese rule in Korea). There are several variants.[8] During the early 20th century, Pyongyang came to be known among missionaries as being the "Jerusalem of the East", due to its historical status as a stronghold of Christianity, namely Protestantism.[9][10]

After Kim Il-sung's death in 1994, some members of Kim Jong-il's faction proposed changing the name of Pyongyang to "Kim Il-sung City" (김일성시), but others suggested that North Korea should begin calling Seoul as "Kim Il-sung City" instead and grant Pyongyang the moniker "Kim Jong-il City", and in the end neither proposal was implemented.[11]


In 1955, archaeologists excavated evidence of prehistoric occupation in a large ancient village in the Pyongyang area, called Kŭmtan-ni, dating to the Chŭlmun and Mumun pottery periods.[12] North Koreans associate Pyongyang with "Asadal" (아사달), or Wanggomsŏng (왕검성; 王儉城), the first second millennium BC capital of the Gojoseon kingdom according to Korean history books, notably Samguk Yusa. Many South Korean historians deny this claim because other Korean history books such as the Guanzi, Sanhaijing, Shiji, and Sanguozhi place Asadal around the Liao River located in western Manchuria. The connection between the two therefore may have been asserted by North Korea for the use of propaganda. Nevertheless, Pyongyang became a major city under Gojoseon.


Pyongyang was founded in 1122 BC on the site of Tangun Dynasty's capital, according to legends.[13] It is likely that the area of Pyongyang belonged to Wiman Joseon, the shortest-lasting part of Gojoseon if both Dangun and Gija Joseon were real, which fell in the Gojoseon–Han War in 108 BC. Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty ordered four commanderies be set up, with Lelang Commandery in the center and its capital established as 平壤 (Old Chinese: *breŋ*naŋʔ,[14] modern Mandarin: píngrǎng, Korean: pyongyang). Several archaeological findings from the later, Eastern Han (25–220 AD) period in the Pyongyang area seems to suggest that Han forces later launched brief incursions around these parts.

The area around the city was called Nanglang during the early Three Kingdoms period. As the capital of Nanglang kingdom (낙랑국),[lower-alpha 1] Pyongyang remained an important commercial and cultural outpost after Lelang Commandery was destroyed by an expanding Goguryeo in 313.

Goguryeo moved its capital there in 427. According to Christopher Beckwith, Pyongyang is the Sino-Korean reading of the name they gave it in their language: Piarna, or "level land".[15]

In 668, Pyongyang became the capital of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East established by the Tang dynasty of China. However, by 676, it was taken by Silla, but left on the border between Silla and Balhae (Bohai). This lasted until the time of the Goryeo dynasty, when the city was revived as Sŏgyŏng (Hangul: 서경; Hanja: 西京; "Western Capital") although it was never actually a capital of the kingdom. It was the provincial capital of the Pyeongan Province during the Joseon dynasty.

Korean and Chinese offensive during the Siege of Pyongyang (1593)
Chinese generals in Pyongyang surrender to Imperial Japanese soldiers during the Sino-Japanese War, October 1894, as depicted in Japanese ukiyo-e.

During the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98), Pyongyang was captured by the Japanese until the Japanese were defeated in the Siege of Pyongyang.[13] Later in the 17th century, it became temporarily occupied during Second Manchu invasion of Korea until peace arrangements were made between Korea and the Manchus. While the invasions made Koreans suspicious of foreigners, the influence of Christianity began to grow after the country opened itself up to foreigners in the 16th century. Pyongyang became the base of Christian expansion in Korea, and by 1880 it had more than 100 churches and more Protestant missionaries than any other Asian city.[13]

In 1890, the city had 40,000 inhabitants.[16] It was the site of the Battle of Pyongyang during the First Sino-Japanese War, which led to the destruction and depopulation of much of the city. It was the provincial capital of South Pyeongan Province from 1896. Under colonial rule, the city became an industrial center, called Heijō in Japanese.

The aftermath of the Wanpaoshan Incident

In July 1931 the city experienced anti-Chinese riots as a result of the Wanpaoshan Incident and the sensationalized media reports of the incident which appeared in Imperial Japanese and Korean newspapers.[17]

By 1938, Pyongyang had a population of 235,000.[16]

After 1945

On 25 August 1945, the 25th army of the Soviet Army entered Pyongyang, and it became the temporary capital of the Provisional People's Committee for North Korea. A People's Committee was already established there, led by veteran Christian nationalist Cho Man-sik.[18] Pyongyang became the de facto capital of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea at its establishment in 1948. At that time, the Pyongyang government aimed to recapture Korea's official capital at that time, Seoul. Pyongyang was again severely damaged in the Korean War, during which it was briefly occupied by South Korean forces from 19 October to 6 December 1950. In 1952, it was the target of the largest aerial raid of the entire war, involving 1,400 UN aircraft.

After the war, the city was quickly rebuilt with Soviet aid, with many buildings built in the style of Socialist Classicism. The plans for the modern city of Pyongyang were first displayed for public viewing in a theatre building. On 27 July 1953 – the day the armistice between North Korea and South Korea was signed – The Pyongyang Review wrote: "While streets were in flames, an exhibition showing the general plan of restoration of Pyongyang was held at the Moranbong Underground Theater", the air raid shelter of the government under Moran hill. "On the way of victory... fireworks which streamed high into the night sky of the capital in a gun salute briefly illuminated the construction plan of the city which would rise soon with a new look".[19]

In 2001, the authorities began a long-term modernization program. The Ministry of Capital City Construction Development was included in the cabinet in that year. In 2006, Kim Jong-il’s brother-in-law Jang Song-thaek took charge of the ministry.

Geography and climate

Pyongyang (1971-2000)[20]
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: WMO

Pyongyang is in the west-central part of North Korea; the city lies on a flat plain about 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of the Korea Bay, an arm of the Yellow Sea. The Taedong River flows southwestward through the city toward the Korea Bay. The Pyongyang plain, where the city is situated, is one of the two large plains on the Western coast of the Korean peninsula, the other being the Chaeryong plain. Both have an area of approximately 500 square kilometers.[21]

Pyongyang has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwa). Cold, dry winds can blow from Siberia in winter, making conditions very cold; the low temperature is usually below freezing between November and early March, although the average daytime high is at least a few degrees above freezing in every month except January. The winter is generally much drier than summer, with snow falling for 37 days on average.

The transition from the cold, dry winter to the warm, wet summer occurs rather quickly between April and early May, and there is a similar abrupt return to winter conditions in late October and November. Summers are generally hot and humid, with the East Asian monsoon taking place from June until August; these are also the hottest months, with average temperatures of 21 to 25 °C (70 to 77 °F), and daytime highs often above 30 °C (86 °F).

Climate data for Pyongyang (1971–2000, extremes 1907–2016)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.0
Average high °C (°F) −0.8
Daily mean °C (°F) −5.8
Average low °C (°F) −10.7
Record low °C (°F) −28.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 12.2
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 5.2 4.2 5.1 6.7 8.1 8.7 14.4 11.0 7.2 6.1 7.3 5.9 89.9
Average relative humidity (%) 74 71 66 63 66 70 80 78 74 72 72 73 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 184 197 231 237 263 229 181 204 222 214 165 165 2,492
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization[22]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes, humidity 1908–1936, and sun 1961–1990)[23][24][lower-alpha 2]


Mansudae Assembly Hall, seat of the Supreme People's Assembly, the North Korean parliament

Major government and other public offices are located in Pyongyang, which is constitutionally designated as the country's capital.[25] The seat of the Workers' Party Central Committee is located in Haenbangsan-dong, Chung-guyok. Pyongyang People's Committee is located in Haebangsan-dong, Chung-guyok. The Cabinet of North Korea is located in Jongro-dong, Chung-guyok.

Pyongyang is also the seat of all major North Korean security institutions. The largest of them, the Ministry of People's Security, has 130,000 employees working in 12 bureaus. These oversee activities as diverse as police services, security of party officials, classified documents, census, civil registrations, large-scale public construction, traffic control, fire safety, civil defense, public health and customs.[26] Another major structure based in the city is the State Security Department, whose 30,000 personnel manage intelligence, political prison systems, military industrial security and entry and exit management.[27]

The politics and management of the city is dominated by the Workers' Party of Korea, as they are in the national level. The city is managed by the Pyongyang Party Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea. The supreme standing state organ is the Pyongyang People's Committee, responsible for everyday events in support of the city. This includes following local Party guidance as channeled through the Pyongyang Party Committee, the distribution of resources prioritized to Pyongyang, and providing support to KWP and internal security agency personnel and families.

Administrative status and divisions

P'yŏngyang is divided into 19 wards (ku- or guyŏk) (the city proper) and 2 counties (kun or gun).[28]

Foreign media reports in 2010 stated that Kangnam-gun, Chunghwa-gun, Sangwŏn-gun, and Sŭngho-guyŏk had been transferred to the administration of neighboring North Hwanghae province.[29]


A panoramic view of Pyongyang from atop the Juche tower
Panorama of Pyongyang, as seen from the Juche Tower in April 2012.
Ryugyong Hotel and part of the Monument to the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War
Apartment buildings with green areas

Pyongyang was destroyed during the Korean War and has been entirely rebuilt according to a design reflecting Kim Il-Sung's vision.[30] His dream was reportedly to create a capital that would boost morale in the post-war years.[31] The result was a city with wide, tree-lined boulevards and public buildings with terraced landscaping, mosaics and decorated ceilings.[30] Its Russian-style architecture makes it reminiscent of a Siberian city during winter snowfall, although edifices of traditional Korean design somewhat soften this perception. In summer, it is notable for its rivers, willow trees, flowers and parkland.[30]

The streets are laid out in a north-south, east-west grid, giving the city an orderly appearance.[30] North Korean designers applied the Swedish experience of self-sufficient urban neighbourhoods throughout the entire country, and Pyongyang is no exception. Its inhabitants are mostly divided into administrative units of 5,000 to 6,000 people (dong). These units all have similar sets of amenities including a food store, a barber shop, a tailor, a public bathhouse, a post office, a clinic, a library and others. Many residents occupy high-rise apartment buildings.[32] One of Kim Il-Sung's priorities while designing Pyongyang was to limit the population. Authorities maintain a restrictive regime of movement into the city, making it atypical of East Asia as it is silent, uncrowded and spacious.[33]

Structures in Pyongyang are divided into three major architectural categories: monuments, buildings with traditional Korean motifs and high-rises.[34] Some of North Korea's most recognisable landmarks are monuments, like the Juche Tower, the Arch of Triumph and the Mansu Hill Grand Monument. The first of them is a 170-meter granite spire symbolizing the Juche ideology. It was completed in 1982 and contains 25,550 granite blocks, one for each day of Kim Il-Sung's life up to that point.[34] The most prominent building on Pyongyang's skyline is Ryugyong Hotel,[34] the seventh highest building in the world terms of floor count, the tallest unoccupied building in the world,[35] and one of the tallest hotels in the world. It has yet to open.[36][37]

High-rise apartment buildings dominate the cityscape. The government launched a mass construction campaign aiming to build 100,000 new homes in 2011. The Changjon Street Apartment Complex was part of this effort. Construction of the complex began after late leader Kim Jong-il reportedly described the area as "pitiful".[38] Other housing complexes are being upgraded as well, but most are still poorly insulated while elevators and central heating remain rare.[39] These new buildings foresaw the start of an urban renewal program that continues under Kim Jong-un's leadership, with the old apartments of the 70s and 80s now replaced by new, taller high rise buildings and new leisure parks like the Kaesong Youth Park, as well as renovations of older buildings.[40]


Notable landmarks in the city include:

Pyongyang TV Tower is a minor landmark. Other visitor attractions include the Korea Central Zoo. The Arch of Reunification has a map of a united Korea supported by two concrete Korean women dressed in traditional dress straddling the Reunification Highway, which stretches from Pyongyang to the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ).



Pyongyang raengmyeon (평양랭면), cold buckwheat noodle soup originating in Pyongyang

Pyongyang served as the provincial capital of Pyeongan province until 1946,[41] and Pyongyang cuisine shares the general culinary tradition of the Pyeongan province. The most famous local food is Pyongyang naengmyeon, or also called mul naengmyeon or just simply naengmyeon. Naengmyeon literally means "cold noodles", while the affix mul refers to water because the dish is served in a cold broth. Naengmyeon consists of thin and chewy buckwheat noodles in a cold meat-broth with dongchimi (watery kimchi) and topped with a slice of sweet Korean pear. Pyongyang naengmyeon was originally eaten in homes built with ondol (traditional underfloor heating) during the cold winter, so it is also humorously called "Pyongyang deoldeori" (shivering in Pyongyang). Pyongyang locals sometimes enjoyed it as a haejangguk, which is any type of food eaten as a hangover-cure, usually a warm soup.[42]

Another representative Pyongyang dish, Taedonggang sungeoguk, translates as "trout soup from the Taedong River". The soup features trout (abundant in the Taedong River) along with black peppercorns and salt.[43] It is served as a courtesy to important guests visiting Pyongyang. Therefore, the question "How good was the trout soup?" is commonly used to greet people returning from Pyongyang. Another local specialty, Pyongyang onban (literally "warm rice of Pyongyang"), comprises freshly cooked rice topped with sliced mushrooms, chicken, and a couple of bindaetteok (pancakes made from ground mung beans and vegetables).[42]

Famous restaurants in the city include Okryugwan and Ch'ongryugwan.[44]


Pyongyang has a number of sports clubs, including the April 25 Sports Club and the Pyongyang City Sports Club. The most popular sport in Pyongyang is football.


Central Pyongyang with the newly built Changjon Apartment Complex. The Okryu Bridge and Ryugyong Hotel are in the background

Pyongyang is North Korea's industrial center.[13] Thanks to the abundance of natural resources like coal, iron and limestone, as well as good land and water transport systems, it was the first industrial city to emerge in North Korea after the Korean War. Light and heavy industries are both present and have developed in parallel. Heavy manufactures include cement, industrial ceramics, munitions and weapons, but mechanical engineering remains the core industry. Light industries in Pyongyang and its vicinity include textiles, footwear and food, among others. Special emphasis is put on the production and supply of fresh produce and subsidiary crops in farms on the city's outskirts. Other crops include rice, corn and soybeans. Pyongyang aims to achieve self-sufficiency in meat production. High-density facilities raise pigs, chicken and other livestock.[13]

The city still experiences a shortage of electricity.[45] To solve this problem, two power stations - Huichon Power Stations 1 and 2 - were built in Chagang Province and supply the city through direct transmission lines. A second phase of the power expansion project was launched in January 2013, consisting of a series of small dams along the Chongchon River. The first two power stations have a maximum generating capacity of 300 megawatts (MW), while the 10 dams to be built under second phase are expected to generate about 120 MW.[45] In addition, the city has several existing or planned thermal power stations. These include Pyongyang TPS with a capacity of 500 MW, East Pyongyang TPS with a capacity of 50 MW, and Kangdong TPS which is under construction.[46]


Pyongyang Department Store No. 1

Pyongyang is home to several large department stores including the Pothonggang Department Store, Pyongyang Department Store No. 1, Pyongyang Department Store No. 2, Kwangbok Department Store, Ragwon Department Store, Pyongyang Station Department Store, and the Pyongyang Children’s Department Store.[47]

The city also has Hwanggumbol Shop, a chain of state-owned convenience stores supplying goods at prices cheaper than those in jangmadang markets. Hwanggumbol Shops are specifically designed to control North Korea's expanding markets by attracting consumers and guaranteeing the circulation of money in government-operated stores.[48]


Tatra KT8D5K tram

Pyongyang is also the main transport hub of the country: it has a dense network of roads, railways and air routes which link it to both foreign and domestic destinations. It is the starting point of inter-regional highways reaching Nampo, Wonsan and Kaesong.[13] Pyongyang railway station serves the main railway lines, including the Pyongui Line and the Pyongbu Line. Regular international rail services to Beijing, Chinese border city of Dandong and Moscow are also available. A journey to Beijing takes about 25 hours and 25 minutes (K27 from Beijing/K28 from Pyongyang, on Mondays, Wednesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays); a journey to Dandong takes about 6 hours (daily); a journey to Moscow takes six days. The city also connects to the Eurasian Land Bridge via the Trans-Siberian Railway. A high-speed rail link to Wonsan is planned.[49]

The Metro, tram and trolleybus systems are used mainly by commuters as a primary means of urban transportation.[13] Cycle lanes were introduced on main thoroughfares in July 2015.[50] There are few cars in the city. Cars are a symbol of status in the country due to their scarcity as a result of restrictions on import because of international sanctions and domestic regulations.[51] Some roads are also reported to be in a poor condition.[52]

State-owned Air Koryo (고려항공, Koryo Hang-Gong) has scheduled flights from Pyongyang Sunan International Airport to Beijing (PEK), Shenyang (SHE), Vladivostok (VVO), Moscow (SVO), Bangkok (BKK), Khabarovsk (KHV), Kuala Lumpur (KUL), and Shanghai (PVG). The only domestic destinations are Hamhung, Wonsan, Chongjin, Hyesan and Samjiyon. In April 2008, Air China launched a regular service between Beijing and Pyongyang.

Education and science

Kim Il-Sung University, North Korea's oldest university, was established in 1946.[13] It has seven colleges, 14 faculties and 16 other institutes, graduate schools and university units.[53] These include the primary medical education and health personnel training unit, the medical college; a physics faculty which covers a range of studies including theoretical physics, optical science, geophysics and astrophysics;[54] an atomic energy institute and a human evolution research office which studies human evolution through a Juche point of view. Kim Il-Sung University also has its own publishing house, sports club (Ryongnamsan Sports Team),[55] revolutionary museum, nature museum, libraries, a gym, indoor swimming pool and educator apartment houses. Its two main buildings were completed in 1965 (Building 1) and 1972 (Building 2). A third building on campus is planned.[56]

The University of Music and Dance

Other higher education establishments include Kim Chaek University of Technology, Pyongyang University of Music and Dance and Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies. Pyongyang University of Science and Technology is the country's first private university where most of the lecturers are American and courses are carried out in English.[57][58] A science and technology hall is under construction on Ssuk Islet. Its stated purpose is to contribute to the "informatization of educational resources" by centralizing teaching materials, compulsory literature and experimental data for state-level use in a digital format.[59]

Sosong-guyok hosts a 20 MeV cyclotron called MGC-20. The initial project was approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1983 and funded by the IAEA, the United States and the North Korean government. The cyclotron was ordered from the Soviet Union in 1985 and constructed between 1987 and 1990. It is used for student training, production of medical isotopes for nuclear medicine as well as studies in biology, chemistry and physics.[60]


Medical centers include the Red Cross Hospital, the First People's Hospital which is located near Moran Hill and was the first hospital to be built in North Korea after the liberation of Korea in 1945,[61] the Second People's Hospital, Ponghwa Recuperative Center (also known as Ponghwa Clinic or Presidential Clinic) located in Sokam-dong, Potonggang-guyok, 1.5 km northwest of Kim Il-sung Square,[62] Pyongyang Medical School Hospital, Namsan Treatment Center which is adjacent[63] Pyongyang's Maternity Hospital, Taesongsan General Hospital,[64] Kim Man-yoo Hospital, Staff Treatment Center and Okryu Children's Hospital.

Twin towns – Sister cities

Pyongyang is twinned with:

See also


  1. Nanglang-state is different from Lelang Commandery.
  2. Station ID for Pyongyang is 47058 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration


  1. Pyongyang Republic, Robert Collins p. 54
  2. The Secretarial Pool, NK Leadership Watch, 6 May 2014
  3. NK Media Reports Pyongyang Apartment Collapse
  4. Pyongyang Republic, Robert Collins p. 54
  5. City population by sex, city and city type, UN, 2008, retrieved 27 October 2016.
  6. United Nations Statistics Division; Preliminary results of the 2008 Census of Population of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea conducted on 1–15 October 2008 (pdf-file) Retrieved on 2009-03-01.
  7. ("Heijō: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  8. For example: Heijō-fu ("Heijō-fu: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.), Heizyō ("Heizyō: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.), Heizyō Hu ("Heizyō Hu: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.), Hpyeng-yang ("Hpyeng-yang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.), P-hjöng-jang ("P-hjöng-jang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.), Phyeng-yang ("Phyeng-yang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.), Phyong-yang ("Phyong-yang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.), Pienyang ("Pienyang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.), Pingyang ("Pingyang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.), Pyengyang ("Pyengyang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.)
  9. Lankov, Andrei (16 March 2005). "North Korea's missionary position". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 25 January 2013. By the early 1940s Pyongyang was by far the most Protestant of all major cities of Korea, with some 2530% of its adult population being church-going Christians. In missionary circles this earned the city the nickname "Jerusalem of the East".
  10. Caryl, Christian (15 September 2007). "Prayer In Pyongyang". The Daily Beast. The Newsweek/Daily Beast Co. Retrieved 25 January 2013. It's hard to say how many covert Christians the North has; estimates range from the low tens of thousands to 100,000. Christianity came to the peninsula in the late 19th century. Pyongyang, in fact, was once known as the 'Jerusalem of the East.'
  11. "Pyongyang was to become 'Kim Il Sung City'; The followers of Kim Jong Il suggested the idea". Daily NK. 2005-02-21. Retrieved 2014-10-04.
  12. National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage. 2001. Geumtan-ri. Hanguk Gogohak Sajeon [Dictionary of Korean Archaeology], pp. 148–149. NRICH, Seoul. ISBN 89-5508-025-5
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Pyongyang". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  14. Baxter, William H.; Sagart, Laurent. "Baxter-Sagart Old Chinese reconstruction (Version 1.00)". Archived from the original on 2011-08-14. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
  15. Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton University Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2.
  16. 1 2 Lahmeyer, Jan, "North Korea – Urban Population", Populstat, University of Utrecht.
  17. Memorandum (Institute of Pacific Relations, American Council), Vol. 2, No. 5 (Mar. 16, 1933), pp. 1-3
  18. Buzo, Adrian (2002). The Making of Modern Korea. London: Routledge. pp. 54–57. ISBN 0-415-23749-1.
  19. Schinz, Alfred; Eckart, Dege (1990), "Pyongyang-Ancient and Modern – the Capital of North Korea", GeoJournal, 22 (1): 25.
  20. "World Weather Information Service - Pyongyang". WMO. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  21. Country Study 2009, p. 63.
  22. "World Weather Information Service - Pyongyang". WMO. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  23. "Klimatafel von Pyongyang (Pjöngjang) / Korea (Nordkorea)" (PDF). DWD. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  24. "Station 47058 Pyongyang". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  25. Country Study 2009, p. 196.
  26. Country Study 2009, p. 276-277.
  27. Country Study 2009, p. 277.
  28. "행정구역현황 (Haengjeong Guyeok Hyeonhwang)". NK Chosun. Retrieved 10 January 2006. Also Administrative divisions of North Korea (used as reference for hanja)
  29. "Pyongyang now more than one-third smaller; food shortage issues suspected", Asahi Shinbun, 17 July 2010, retrieved 19 July 2010
  30. 1 2 3 4 Country Study 2009, p. 91.
  31. Country Study 2009, p. 93-94.
  32. Country Study 2009, p. 97.
  33. Country Study 2009, p. 91-92.
  34. 1 2 3 "Architecture and City Planning". Library of Congress. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  35. Glenday, Craig. Guinness World Records 2014. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-908843-15-9.
  36. Staff (15 October 2009). "Will 'Hotel of Doom' ever be finished?". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  37. Yoon, Sangwon (1 November 2012). "Kempinski to Operate World's Tallest Hotel in North Korea". Bloomberg. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  38. Lee, Seok Young (25 August 2011). ""Pitiful" Changjeon Street the Top Priority". Daily NK. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
  39. "Pyongyang glitters but most of NKorea still dark". Yahoo News. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  40. Makinen, Julie (20 May 2016). "North Korea is building something other than nukes: architecture with some zing". Los Angeles Times.
  41. 평양시 平壤市 [Pyongyang] (in Korean). Nate/Encyclopedia of Korean Culture.
  42. 1 2 닮은 듯 색다른 매력을 간직한 북한의 음식 문화 (in Korean). Korea Knowledge Portal. 19 June 2009.
  43. Ju, Wan-jung (주완중) (12 June 2000). '오마니의 맛' 관심 [Attention to "Mother's taste"] (in Korean). The Chosun Ilbo.
  44. Lankov, Andrei (2007), North of the DMZ: Essays on daily life in North Korea, McFarland, pp. 90–91, ISBN 978-0-7864-2839-7
  45. 1 2 "Ten Power Plants on Chongchon River under Construction to Increase Power Supply to Pyongyang". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  46. "Pyongyang's Perpetual Power Problems". 25 November 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  47. "Pyongyang Metro maps". Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  48. "Effort to Prevent Outflow of Capital into Markets". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  49. "Outline for Development of Wonsan-Kumgangsan Tourist Region Revealed". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  51. Martin, Bradley K. (9 July 2007). "In Kim's North Korea, Cars Are Scarce Symbols of Power, Wealth". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
  52. Fisher, Max. "North Korean Press Bus Takes Wrong Turn, Opening Another Crack in the Hermit Kingdom". The Atlantic. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  53. "Structure of the University". Kim Il-Sung University. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  54. "Colleges and Faculties". Kim Il-Sung University. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  55. "Research Institutes and Units". Kim Il-Sung University. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  56. "Main Buildings". Kim Il-Sung University. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  57. "Inside North Korea's Western-funded university". BBC News. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  58. "In North Korea, a Western-backed university". The Washington Post. 8 October 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  59. "Science and Technology Hall to be Built in Pyongyang's Ssuk Islet". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  60. "MGC-20 Cyclotron". Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  61. KCNA, May 22, 2002
  62. Ponghwa Clinic Expanded During 2009-2010, NK Leadership Watch
  63. Where Did Kim Jong Il Receive His Surgery?
  64. I Had A Scary Encounter With North Korea’s Crumbling Healthcare System, Business Insider, June 1, 2014
  65. "Bilateral Relations (Nepal–North Korea)". Government of Nepal Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  66. First China-DPRK sister cities meeting held in Pyongyang .

Works cited

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pyongyang.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pyongyang.
Look up pyongyang in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Pyongyang at night

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/17/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.