|Founded||27 BC – 68 AD|
The Pula Arena is the name of the amphitheatre located in Pula, Croatia. The Arena is the only remaining Roman amphitheatre to have four side towers and with all three Roman architectural orders entirely preserved. It was constructed in 27 BC – 68 AD and is among the six largest surviving Roman arenas in the World. A rare example among the 200 Roman surviving amphitheatres, it is also the best preserved ancient monument in Croatia.
The exterior wall is constructed in limestone. The part facing the sea consists of three stories, while the other part has only two stories since the amphitheatre was built on a slope. The maximum height of the exterior wall is 29.40 m (96.5 ft). The first two floors have each 72 arches, while the top floor consists of 64 rectangular openings.
The axes of the elliptical amphitheatre are 132.45 and 105.10 m (434.5 and 344.8 ft) long, and the walls stand 32.45 m (106.5 ft) high. It could accommodate 23,000 spectators in the cavea, which had forty steps divided into two meniani. The seats rest directly on the sloping ground; The field for the games, the proper arena, measured 67.95 by 41.65 m (222.9 by 136.6 ft). The field was separated from the public by iron gates.
The arena had a total of 15 gates. A series of underground passageways were built underneath the arena along the main axis from which animals, ludi scenes and fighters could be released; stores and shops were located under the raked seating. The amphitheatre was part of the circuit of the gladiators.
Each of the four towers had two cisterns filled with perfumed water that fed a fountain or could be sprinkled on the spectators. The amphitheatre could be covered with velaria (large sails), protecting the spectators from sun or rain (as attested by rare construction elements).
This amphitheatre, through its remarkable conservation, has served as an excellent example for the study of ancient building techniques.
The Arena was built between 27 BC – 68 AD, as the city of Pula became a regional centre of Roman rule, called Pietas Julia. The name was derived from the sand that, since antiquity, covered the inner space. It was built outside the town walls along the Via Flavia, the road from Pula to Aquileia and Rome.
The amphitheatre was first built in timber during the reign of Augustus (2–14 AD). It was replaced by a small stone amphitheatre during the reign of emperor Claudius. In 79 AD it was enlarged to accommodate gladiator fights by Vespasian and to be completed in 81 AD under emperor Titus. This was confirmed by the discovery of a Vespasian coin in the malting.
A Christian called Germanus was martyred in the arena in the 4th century.
The amphitheatre remained in use until the 5th century, when emperor Honorius prohibited gladiatorial combats. It was not until 681 that combat between convicts, particularly those sentenced to death, and wild animals was forbidden.
In the 5th century the amphitheatre began to see its stone plundered by the local populace. By the 13th century, the patriarch of Aquileia forbade further removal from the Arena.
In the Middle Ages the interior of the Arena was used for grazing, occasional tournaments by the Knights of Malta and medieval fairs. In 1583 the Venetian Senate proposed dismantling the arena and rebuilding it within Venice. The proposals were rejected. Today, a headstone celebrating the Venetian senator Gabriele Emo's opposition to the plan is currently visible on the second tower.
General Auguste de Marmont, as French governor of the Illyrian Provinces, started the restoration of the arena. This was continued in 1816 by the Ticinese architect Pietro Nobile, commissioned by the emperor Francis I of Austria.
In 1932, it was adapted for theatre productions, military ceremonies and public meetings. In its present state seating capacity is circa 7000 seats and circa 12500 for all standing events.
The arena is used as a venue for many concerts. Performances have included Luciano Pavarotti, Đorđe Balašević, Andrea Bocelli, Jose Carreras, Dino Merlin, Jamiroquai, Anastacia, Eros Ramazzoti, Maksim Mrvica, Norah Jones, Zucchero, Zdravko Čolić, Alanis Morissette, Sinéad O'Connor, Elton John, 2Cellos, Sting, Michael Bolton, Seal, Il Divo, Tom Jones, Gibonni, Manu Chao, Oliver Dragojević, Leonard Cohen and David Gilmour. Plácido Domingo
- Turner, J., Grove Dictionary of Art, Oxford University Press, USA. New Ed edition, January 2, 1996. ISBN 0-19-517068-7.
- Mlakar, Stefan, The Amphitheatre in Pula, The Archaeological Museum of Istra, 1957.
- Džin, Kristina. Mirko Žužić, ed. Arena Pula. Zagreb: Viza MG d.o.o. Remetinečka cesta 81, Zagreb. ISBN 978-953-7422-15-8.
- Kristina Džin: 2009, Page 7
- Croatian National Bank. Features of Kuna Banknotes: 10 kuna (1993 issue), 10 kuna (1995 issue), 10 kuna (2001 issue) & 10 kuna (2004 issue). – Retrieved on 30 March 2009.
- PATHS OF ANCIENT GODS IN ROMAN ISTRIA
- Leahy, Sean. "Here's what hockey in a Roman amphitheatre looked like (Spoiler: It was awesome)". Yahoo Sports. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Amphitheatre (Pula).|
- A lot of photos of Pula Arena
- PulaArena in Croatia – Amazing pps presentation about history of Pula Arena
- Arena (Colliseum) of Pula
- Archaeological Museum of Istria
- A Cravat around an Arena
- Histria Festival
- Site Romanheritage.com with thousands of photos of Roman Amphitheater at Pula, Croatia, and the rest of the Roman Empire